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The Kashmir Portal
Parent portals : Geography / Asia / Kashmir


Kashmir page banner 1.jpg
The Himalayas as seen from Leh, Ladakh, Kashmir
Political map of Kashmir

Kashmir (IPA:  [kaʃmiːr]) is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. Today, the term encompasses a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

In the first half of the first millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose. In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Shah Mir dynasty. The region was part of the Mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751, and thereafter, until 1820, of the Afghan Durrani Empire. That year, the Sikh Empire, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until the Partition of India in 1947, when the former princely state of the British Indian Empire became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and China. ( Full article...)

In the news

8 June 2021 – India-Pakistan relations, Kashmir conflict
Pakistan asked India to reverse its “unlawful and destabilizing actions” in Kashmir as a result of large scale movement of Indian army forces into the disputed region. Tension between the states have been high since Narendra Modi stripped Jammu and Kashmir of its autonomy in August 2019. There is concern that the territory would be further partitioned into the state of Jammu and union territory of Kashmir. (Deccan Herald)
15 May 2021 – Protests over the 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis
The Jammu and Kashmir Police arrest 21 people in Kashmir, India, for organizing protests in support of Palestine. (ThePrint)
27 April 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
Pakistan's National Command and Operation Centre announces a ban on all tourism between May 8 and May 16 following a third wave of COVID-19. The country also bans all intercity and interprovincial travel during the Eid al-Fitr holidays, with the exception of travel within Gilgit-Baltistan. (The News)
23 April 2021 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict
More than 120 people are injured in clashes in Jerusalem between ultra-nationalist Jewish demonstrators (including Lehava extremists), Palestinian protestors, and Israel Police in response to a TikTok video showing Palestinians assaulting members of the Jerusalem ultra-Orthodox community. (BBC)

More current events...


Administrative territories

Aksai Chin, Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Siachen Glacier, Trans-Karakoram Tract

Kashyapa, Rajatarangini, Kambojas, Lalitaditya Muktapida, Didda, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Zain-ul-Abidin, Shah Mir dynasty, Sayyid Dynasty, Mughal Empire, Durrani Empire, Sikh Empire, British East India Company, Princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, British Raj, Kashmir Committee, 1931 agitation, Partition of India, 1947 Poonch Rebellion, Instrument of Accession, First Kashmir War, Indo-Pakistani wars, Simla Agreement, Hizbul Mujahideen, Kashmir Solidarity Day, 2005 earthquake, Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019

Ongoing events

2019–2021 Jammu and Kashmir lockdown, COVID-19 pandemic ( Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh), Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus, Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, Kashmir conflict ( timeline)


De facto borders ( Actual Ground Position Line, Line of Actual Control, Line of Control), Political parties ( All Parties Hurriyat Conference, Bharatiya Janata Party, Jammu & Kashmir National Conference, Jammu and Kashmir People's Conference, Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party, Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front)


Anthem of Azad Kashmir, Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, District Development Council, Flags ( Azad Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir), Heads of government ( Chief Minister of Gilgit-Baltistan, Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, Prime Minister of Azad Kashmir), Jammu and Kashmir High Court, LAHDC Kargil, LAHDC Leh, Law enforcement ( Azad Kashmir Police, China Police, Gilgit-Baltistan Police, Jammu and Kashmir Police, Ladakh Police)


Chenab Valley, Kashmir Valley, Neelum Valley; Himalayas, Karakoram, Ladakh Range, Pir Panjal, Zanskar Range; Chenab River, Gilgit River, Indus River, Jhelum River, Shyok River, Zanskar River; Aksai Chin Lake, Dal Lake, Pangong Tso, Wular Lake; Districts ( Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh), Regions ( Baltistan, Dardistan, Jammu Division, Kashmir Valley)

Human rights

Human rights abuses in Kashmir ( Azad Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir), Women's rights in Jammu and Kashmir


Sports ( Azad Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh), Tourism ( Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh)


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Learning resources

Travel guides




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