Jazz is a
music genre that originated in the
African-American communities of
United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in
ragtime. Since the 1920s
Jazz Age, it has been recognized as a major form of musical expression in
popular music, linked by the common bonds of African-American and
European-American musical parentage. Jazz is characterized by
blue notes, complex
call and response vocals,
improvisation. Jazz has roots in
West African cultural and musical expression, and in
African-American music traditions.
As jazz spread around the world, it drew on national, regional, and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles.
New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French
biguine, ragtime and
blues with collective
improvisation. In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented
Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, bluesy, improvisational style and
gypsy jazz (a style that emphasized
musette waltzes) were the prominent styles.
Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music" which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation.
Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines.
The mid-1950s saw the emergence of
hard bop, which introduced influences from
rhythm and blues,
gospel, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing.
Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the
mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation, as did
free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter, beat and formal structures.
Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with
rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, and highly amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called
smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as
Afro-Cuban jazz. (
tone cluster is a
musical chord comprising at least three adjacent tones in a
scale. Prototypical tone clusters are based on the
chromatic scale and are separated by
semitones. For instance, three
piano keys (such as C, C♯, and D) struck simultaneously produce a tone cluster. Variants of the tone cluster include chords comprising adjacent tones separated
microtonally. On the piano, such clusters often involve the simultaneous striking of neighboring white or black keys.
The early years of the twentieth century saw tone clusters elevated to central roles in pioneering works by
Jelly Roll Morton and
Scott Joplin. In the 1910s, two classical avant-gardists, composer-pianists
Leo Ornstein and
Henry Cowell, were recognized as making the first extensive explorations of the tone cluster. During the same period,
Charles Ives employed them in several compositions that were not publicly performed until the late 1920s or 1930s. Composers such as
Béla Bartók and, later,
Lou Harrison and
Karlheinz Stockhausen became proponents of the tone cluster, which feature in the work of many twentieth- and twenty-first-century classical composers. Tone clusters play a significant role, as well, in the work of
free jazz musicians such as
Cecil Taylor and
In most Western music, tone clusters tend to be heard as
dissonant. Clusters may be performed with almost any individual instrument on which three or more notes can be played simultaneously, as well as by most groups of instruments or voices.
Keyboard instruments are particularly suited to the performance of tone clusters because it is relatively easy to play multiple notes in unison on them.
Arthur Stewart "Art" Farmer (August 21, 1928 – October 4, 1999) was an American
jazz trumpeter and
flugelhorn player. He also played
flumpet, a trumpet–flugelhorn combination specially designed for him. He and his identical twin brother,
Addison Farmer, started playing professionally while in high school. Art gained greater attention after the release of a recording of his composition "Farmer's Market" in 1952. He subsequently moved from Los Angeles to New York, where he performed and recorded with musicians such as
Sonny Rollins, and
Gigi Gryce and became known principally as a
As Farmer's reputation grew, he expanded from bebop into more experimental forms through working with composers such as
George Russell and
Teddy Charles. He went on to join
Gerry Mulligan's quartet and, with
Benny Golson, to co-found
the Jazztet. Continuing to develop his own sound, Farmer switched from trumpet to the warmer flugelhorn in the early 1960s, and he helped to establish the flugelhorn as a soloist's instrument in jazz. He settled in Europe in 1968 and continued to tour internationally until his death. Farmer recorded more than 50 albums under his own name, a dozen with the Jazztet, and dozens more with other leaders. His playing is known for its individuality – most noticeably, its lyricism, warmth of tone and sensitivity.
Jazz Band Marinho, Brazil, 1951