Clothing in history, showing (from top) Egyptians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Franks, and 13th through 15th century Europeans
Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or
textiles but over time has included garments made from
animal skin or other thin sheets of materials put together. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to
human beings and is a feature of all human
societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on gender, body type, social, and geographic considerations.
Clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the
elements, rough surfaces, rash-causing plants,
thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions, and they can provide a
hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing also provides protection from
Bobbin lace is a
lacetextile made by weaving lengths of thread, which are wound on
bobbins to manage them. As the work progresses, the weaving is held in place with pins set in a lace pillow, the placement of the pins usually determined by a pattern or pricking pinned on the pillow.
Whitney's invention made upland short cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of
slavery in the United States. Despite the social and economic impact of his invention, Whitney lost many profits in legal battles over patent infringement for the cotton gin. Thereafter, he turned his attention into securing contracts with the government in the manufacture of muskets for the newly formed United States Army. He continued making arms and inventing until his death in 1825. (Full article...)
Denim (which gets its name from the French city of
Nîmes (de Nîmes)) is a rugged
cottontwilltextile, in which the
weft passes under two (twi- "double") or more
warp threads. This produces the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the reverse of the fabric, which distinguishes denim from
cotton duck. Denim has been in American usage since the late 18th century. The word comes from the name of a sturdy fabric called
serge, originally made in
Nîmes, France, by the André family. Originally called Serge de Nîmes, the name was soon shortened to denim. Denim was traditionally colored blue with
indigo dye to make blue "
jeans", though "jean" then denoted a different, lighter cotton textile; the contemporary use of jean comes from the French word for
Italy (Gênes), where the first denim trousers were made.
He entered large halls where the carpets were of silk, the lounges and sofas covered with tapestry from Mecca, and the hangings of the most beautiful Indian stuffs of gold and silver. Then he found himself in a splendid room, with a fountain supported by golden lions. The water out of the lions' mouths turned into diamonds and pearls, and the leaping water almost touched a most beautifully-painted dome. The palace was surrounded on three sides by magnificent gardens, little lakes, and woods. Birds sang in the trees, which were netted over to keep them always there.