Portal:China

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:China

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China ( Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōngguó; lit. 'Central State; Middle Kingdom'), officially the People's Republic of China ( Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó; PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of more than 1.4 billion. It borders 14 countries, the most of any country in the world, tied with Russia. Covering an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi2), it is the world's third or fourth-largest country. The country is officially divided into 23 provinces, five autonomous regions, and four direct-controlled municipalities of Beijing (the capital city), Tianjin, Shanghai (the largest city), and Chongqing, as well as two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the world's first civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. China was one of the world's foremost economic powers for most of the two millennia from the 1st until the 19th century. For millennia, China's political system was based on absolute hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin reunited core China and established the first Chinese empire. The succeeding Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127) completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa. The Qing Empire, China's last dynasty, which formed the territorial basis for modern China suffered heavy losses to foreign imperialism. The Chinese monarchy collapsed in 1912 with the 1911 Revolution, when the Republic of China (ROC) replaced the Qing dynasty. China was invaded by the Empire of Japan during World War II. The Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949 when the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) led by Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China on mainland China while the Kuomintang-led ROC government retreated to the island of Taiwan. Both the PRC and the ROC currently claim to be the sole legitimate government of China, resulting in an ongoing dispute even after the United Nations recognized the PRC as the government to represent China at all UN conferences in 1971.

China is nominally a unitary one-party socialist republic. The country is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and a founding member of several multilateral and regional cooperation organizations such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Silk Road Fund, the New Development Bank, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, and is a member of the BRICS, the G8+5, the G20, the APEC, and the East Asia Summit. It ranks among the lowest in international measurements of civil liberties, government transparency, freedom of the press, freedom of religion and ethnic minorities. Chinese authorities have been criticized by political dissidents and human rights activists for widespread human rights abuses, including political repression, mass censorship, mass surveillance of their citizens and violent suppression of protests.

After economic reforms in 1978, and its entry into the World Trade Organization in 2001, China's economy became the second-largest country by nominal GDP in 2010 and grew to the largest in the world by PPP in 2014. China is the world's fastest-growing major economy, the second-wealthiest nation in the world, and the world's largest manufacturer and exporter. The nation has the world's largest standing army — the People's Liberation Army — the second-largest defense budget and is a recognized nuclear-weapons state. China has been characterized as a potential superpower due to its large economy and powerful military. ( Full article...)

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2008 Olympic cycling road race men.JPG

The 2008 Men's Olympics road race took place on August 9 at the Urban Road Cycling Course. It started at 11:00  China Standard Time ( UTC+8), and was scheduled to last until 17:30 later that day. The 245.4- kilometre (152.5  mi) course ran north across the heart of the Beijing metropolitan area, passing such landmarks as the Temple of Heaven, the Great Hall of the People, Tiananmen Square and the Beijing National Stadium. After rolling over relatively flat terrain for 78.8 km (49.0 mi) north of the Beijing city center, the route entered a decisive circuit encompassing seven loops on a 23.8 km (14.8 mi) section up and down the Badaling Pass, including ramps as steep as a 10 percent gradient. The race was won by Spanish rider Samuel Sánchez in 6 hours, 23 minutes, 49 seconds, after a six-man breakaway group contested a sprint finish. The hot and humid conditions were in sharp contrast to the heavy rain weathered in the women's road race the following day. The event was one of the earliest to be concluded at the 2008 Summer Olympics, taking place on the first day of competition. Concerns were raised before the Olympics about the threat of pollution in endurance sports, but no major problems were apparent in the race.

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Selected cuisine

Chinese fried rice.jpg

Chinese fried rice ( simplified Chinese: 炒饭; traditional Chinese: 炒飯; pinyin: chǎofàn; Jyutping: caau2 faan6; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: chhá-pn̄g) is a family of fried rice dishes popular in Greater China and around the world. It is sometimes served as the penultimate dish in Chinese banquets, just before dessert. ( Full article...)

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Bönpa monastery of Narshi Gonpa
Credit: Jialiang Gao

The Tibetan Bönpa monastery of Narshi Gonpa, in Sichuan Province.

Selected biography

Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997) was a Chinese politician and reformist leader of the People's Republic of China who, after Mao Zedong's death, led his country towards a market economy. While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary of the Communist Party of China ( de jure leader of the Communist Party of China), he nonetheless was the " paramount leader" of the People's Republic of China from 1978 to 1992. Born into a peasant background in Guang'an, Sichuan, Deng studied and worked in France in the 1920s, where he was influenced by Marxism-Leninism. Deng was instrumental in China's economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward in the early 1960s. His economic policies, however, were at odds with the political ideologies of chairman Mao Zedong. He is considered "the architect" of a new brand of socialist thinking, having developed " socialism with Chinese characteristics" and led Chinese economic reform through a synthesis of theories that became known as the " socialist market economy".

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June 20:

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19 June 2021 – Australia–China relations
Australia begins lodging a formal complaint against China with the World Trade Organization over anti-dumping duties on imported Australian wine. (The Guardian)
18 June 2021 – 2019–2021 Persian Gulf crisis
The Biden administration removes eight Patriot anti-missile batteries from Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, and Iraq, removes the THAAD anti-missile defense system from Saudi Arabia, and announces that most jet squadrons and hundreds of American troops will be withdrawn from the region. The changes come in light of both de-escalating tensions with Iran and the administration changing its focus on countering China. (Wall Street Journal)
17 June 2021 –
China launches the Shenzhou 12 spacecraft carrying three astronauts on the first flight to the Tianhe core module. (El País)
15 June 2021 – Cross-Strait relations
The Taiwanese Defense Ministry reports that 28 Chinese air force planes, including four H-6 bombers capable of carrying nuclear weapons, entered Taiwan's air defense identification zone and flew close to the southern tip of the main island and around the Pratas Islands. This is China's largest incursion since Taiwan began monitoring such activities last year. (Reuters)
14 June 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
Kyrgyzstan announces that it will receive 150,000 doses of China's Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine by June 20. (24.kg)
14 June 2021 –
The United States is investigating a leak at the Taishan Power Plant, in Taishan, Guangdong, China, which is partially owned by EDF. The French firm ruled out the possibility of an accident, saying the radiation levels were within the limit. (CNN) (NHK)

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China's Politics

Emblem of the Communist Party of China
Xi Jinping

The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, officially General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest- ranking official within China, a standing member of the Politburo and head of the Secretariat. The officeholder is usually considered the paramount leader of China.

According to the Constitution, the General Secretary serves as an ex officio member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body. Since the early 1990s, the holder of the post has been, except for transitional periods, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making the holder the Commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army.

The current General Secretary is Xi Jinping (picture), who took the office at the 18th National Congress on 15 November 2012.

National Emblem of the Republic of China
Tsai Ing-wen

The President of the Republic of China is the head of state of the Republic of China (ROC).

The Constitution names the president as head of state and commander-in-chief of the Republic of China Armed Forces (formerly known as the National Revolutionary Army). The president is responsible for conducting foreign relations, such as concluding treaties, declaring war, and making peace. The president must promulgate all laws and has no right to veto. Other powers of the president include granting amnesty, pardon or clemency, declaring martial law, and conferring honors and decorations.

The current President is Tsai Ing-wen (picture), since May 20, 2016. The first woman to be elected to the office, Tsai is the seventh president of the Republic of China under the 1947 Constitution and the second president from the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP).

Wikipedias in languages found in China

粵語 / 广东话 ( Cantonese)           古文 / 文言文 ( Classical Chinese)           赣语 ( Gan)           Hak-kâ-fa ( Hakka)           قازاق تىلى ( Kazakh)           中文 / 普通话 ( Mandarin) (Now unable to access in China Mainland because of the GFW)           闽东语 ( Min Dong)           闽南语 ( Min-nan)           བོད་ཡིག ( Tibetan)           ئۇيغۇرچە ( Uyghur)           吴语 ( Wu)           Sawcuengh ( Zhuang)

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