animation (below) consists of these six frames.
Animation is a method in which
figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In
traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent
celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on
film. Today, most animations are made with
computer-generated imagery (CGI).
Computer animation can be very detailed
3D animation, while
2D computer animation (which may have the look of traditional animation) can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth, or faster
real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a
stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like
Commonly, the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the
phi phenomenon and
beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain.
Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the
praxinoscope, and film.
video are popular electronic animation media that originally were analog and now operate
digitally. For display on the computer, techniques like
animated GIF and
Flash animation were developed.
Animation is more pervasive than many people know. Apart from
television series, animated GIFs, and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is also prevalent in
user interfaces, and
visual effects. (
Eric Cartman is a
fictional character on the
South Park. One of four main characters, along with
Kyle Broflovski, and
Kenny McCormick, he is often portrayed as the series' main
anti-hero and in opposition to his friends, who commonly refer to him by his last name. He debuted on television when South Park first aired on August 13, 1997; he had earlier appeared in
The Spirit of Christmas shorts created by
Trey Parker and
Matt Stone in 1992 (Jesus vs. Frosty) and 1995 (Jesus vs. Santa). Voiced by
Trey Parker, Cartman is an overweight, immature, spoiled, lazy, foul-mouthed, mean-spirited,
narcissistic, and ill-tempered third- then fourth-grader living with his mother in the fictional town of South Park,
Colorado, where he routinely has extraordinary experiences not typical of conventional
small-town life. Cartman is one of the most popular characters on the show, and has remained one of the most recognizable television characters ever since South Park became a hit during its first season. Parker and Stone describe the character as "a little
Archie Bunker", and state that he is their favorite character, and the one with whom they most identify. During its fifteen seasons, South Park has received both praise and criticism for Cartman's tendency to be
politically incorrect and shockingly profane. Prominent publications and television channels have included Cartman on their lists of the most iconic television and cartoon characters of all time.
is a technique in
in which a character is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin
) and a hierarchical set of interconnected bones (called the skeleton
) used to animate (pose
) the mesh.
Joseph Roland "Joe" Barbera (March 24, 1911 – December 18, 2006) was an influential American
storyboard artist, and
cartoon artist. Born in New York City, after working odd jobs and as a banker, Barbera joined
Van Beuren Studios in 1932 and subsequently
Terrytoons in 1936. He met his lifelong collaborator
William Hanna while working for
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1937 and soon began producing animated shorts such as the
Tom and Jerry series. In 1957, after MGM dissolved their animation department, they co-founded
Hanna-Barbera, which became the most successful television animation studio in the business, producing programs such as
The Huckleberry Hound Show,
The Quick Draw McGraw Show,
Wacky Races and
Yogi Bear. Hanna and Barbera won seven
Academy Awards and eight
Emmy Awards. Their shows, which have translations in more than 20 languages, had a global audience in the 1960s of over 300 million people.
The Simpsons' eighth season originally aired between October 1996 and May 1997, beginning on October 27, 1996 with "
Treehouse of Horror VII". The
showrunners for the eighth production season were
Bill Oakley and
Josh Weinstein. The aired season contained two episodes which were hold-over episodes from season seven, which Oakley and Weinstein also ran. It also contained two episodes for which
Al Jean and
Mike Reiss were the show runners. Season eight won multiple awards, including two
Emmy Awards: "
Homer's Phobia" won for
Outstanding Animated Program (For Programming One Hour or Less) in 1997, and
Alf Clausen and
Ken Keeler won for "Outstanding Individual Achievement in Music and Lyrics" with the song "We Put The Spring In Springfield" from the episode "
Bart After Dark". Clausen also received an Emmy nomination for "Outstanding Music Direction" for "
Simpsoncalifragilisticexpiala(Annoyed Grunt)cious". "
Brother from Another Series" was nominated for the Emmy for "Sound Mixing For a Comedy Series or a Special". The DVD box set was released in
Region 1 on August 15, 2006,
Region 2 on October 2, 2006, and
Region 4 on September 27, 2006. The set was released in two different forms: a Maggie-shaped head to match the Homer and Marge shaped heads of the previous two sets and also a standard rectangular shaped box. Like the seventh season box set, both versions are separately available for sale.
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Anniversaries for June 18