Outline of humanâcomputer interaction
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to humanâcomputer interaction:
HumanâComputer Interaction (HCI) â the intersection of computer science and behavioral sciences â this field involves the study, planning, and design of the interaction between people (users) and computers. Attention to human-machine interaction is important, because poorly designed human-machine interfaces can lead to many unexpected problems. A classic example of this is the Three Mile Island accident where investigations concluded that the design of the human-machine interface was at least partially responsible for the disaster.
HumanâComputer Interaction can be described as all of the following:
- A field of science â systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
applied science â field that applies human knowledge to build or design useful things.
- A field of computer science â scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications.
- An application of engineering â science, skill, and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge, to design and also build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes.
- An application of software engineering â application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software.
- A subfield of computer programming â process of designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in one or more programming languages (such as Java, C++, C#, Python, PHP etc.). The purpose of programming is to create a set of instructions that computers use to perform specific operations or to exhibit desired behaviors.
- An application of software engineering â application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software.   
social science â academic discipline concerned with society and human behavior.
- A behavioral science â discipline that explores the activities of and interactions among organisms. It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behavior through controlled and naturalistic observation, and disciplined scientific experimentation. Examples of behavioral sciences include psychology, psychobiology, and cognitive science.
- An applied science â field that applies human knowledge to build or design useful things.
- A type of
system â set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole or a set of elements (often called 'components' ) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets.
- A system that includes software â software is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
- A type of technology â making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments.
- A form of computer technology â computers and their application.
- Command line interface
- Graphical user interface (GUI)
- WIMP (computing)
- Point and click
- Drag and drop
- Window managers
- WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get)
- Zooming user interface (ZUI)
- Brushing and linking
- Crossing-based interface
- Conversational user interface
- Voice computing
Humanâcomputer interaction draws from the following fields:
- sociology and social psychology
- cognitive science
- human factors / cognitive ergonomics / physical ergonomics
- computer science
- Interactive Art and HCI
- library and information science, information science
- information security
- speech-language pathology
- personal information management
- Ivan Sutherland's Sketchpad
- History of automated adaptive instruction in computer applications
- History of the GUI
- Time-sharing (1959)
- hypertext (Ted Nelson 1963), hypermedia and hyperlinks
- Direct manipulation (ex. lightpen 1963, mice 1968)
- Desktop metaphor (197x XEROX PARC)
- Personal Computer (1981)
- CSCW: Computer Supported Collaborative (or Cooperative) Work, collaborative software
- Ubiquitous computing ("ubicomp") coined 1988
- World Wide Web (Tim Berners Lee 1989)
- Mobile interaction
- "sensor-based / context-aware interaction"-paradigm
- Office of the future (1940s)
- Sketchpad (1963)
- NLS and The Mother of All Demos (1968)
- Dynabook (circa 1970)
- Xerox Alto (1973)
- Xerox Star (1981)
- Apple Macintosh (1984)
- Knowledge Navigator (1987)
- Project Looking Glass (circa 2003 or 2004)
- The Humane Environment (alpha release, 2004)
- accessibility and computer accessibility
- adaptive autonomy
- banner blindness
- computer user satisfaction
- contextual design and contextual inquiry
- Feminist HCI
- gender HCI
- gulf of evaluation
- gulf of execution
- human action cycle
- human interface device
- humanâmachine interface
- interaction technique
- look and feel
- mode (user interface)
- physiological interaction
- principle of least astonishment
- progressive disclosure
- sonic interaction design
- usability and usability testing
- user, luser
- user experience and user experience design
- user interface and user interface design
- user interface engineering and usability engineering
- handheld devices
- Humanâcomputer information retrieval
- Information retrieval
- Internet and the World Wide Web
- Software agents
- Universal usability
- User experience design
- Visual programming languages.
- List of input devices
- List of output devices
- activity-centered design
- Affordance analysis
- Contextual design
- focus group
- iterative design
- participatory design
- pictive user interface workshop method
- rapid prototyping
- Scenario-based design (SBD)
- task analysis/ task modeling
- user-centered design
- usage-centered design
- User scenario
- Value sensitive design
- Wizard of Oz experiment
- Hick's law
- Fitts' law
- Steering law
- GOMS â goals, operators, methods, and selection rules
- Keystroke-level model (KLM)
Motion pictures featuring interesting user interfaces:
- 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
- Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977)
- Alien (1979)
- Blade Runner (1982)
- Tron (1982)
- The Last Starfighter (1984)
- Ghost in the Shell (1991/1995)
- The Lawnmower Man (1992)
- Johnny Mnemonic (1995)
- The Matrix (1999)
- Serial Experiments Lain
- Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within (2001)
- Minority Report (2002)
- Simone (2002)
- I, Robot (2004)
- Iron Man (2008)
- Avatar (2009)
- Her (2013)
Industrial labs and companies known for innovation and research in HCI:
- Alias Wavefront
- Apple Computer
- AT&T Labs
- Bell Labs
- HP Labs
- Microsoft Research
- SRI International (formerly Stanford Research Institute)
- Xerox PARC
- Tim Berners-Lee
- Bill Buxton
- John M. Carroll (information scientist)
- Douglas Engelbart
- Paul Fitts
- Alan Kay
- Steve Mann
- Ted Nelson
- Jakob Nielsen (usability consultant)
- Donald Norman
- Bernhard Preim
- Jef Raskin
- George G. Robertson
- Ben Shneiderman
- Herbert A. Simon
- Ivan Sutherland
- Terry Winograd
- "... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions." âp.vii,
J. L. Heilbron, (2003, editor-in-chief) The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science New York: Oxford University Press
"science". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
3 a: knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method b: such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena
- "science". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- SWEBOK Pierre Bourque; Robert Dupuis, eds. (2004). Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge â 2004 Version. executive editors, Alain Abran, James W. Moore ; editors, Pierre Bourque, Robert Dupuis. IEEE Computer Society. p. 1. ISBN 0-7695-2330-7.
- ACM (2006). "Computing Degrees & Careers". ACM. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
- Laplante, Phillip (2007). What Every Engineer Should Know about Software Engineering. Boca Raton: CRC. ISBN 978-0-8493-7228-5. Retrieved 21 January 2011.