Outline of Apple Inc.

From Wikipedia

The following outline of Apple Inc. (previously Apple Computer, Inc.) is a topical guide to the consumer electronics, software, retail stores, corporate acquisitions, timeline, and personnel under the purview of the American multinational corporation Apple Inc. The company's best-known hardware products are the Macintosh, the iPod, the iPhone, and the iPad. Its best-known software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, and the iTunes media browser. As of March 2014, Apple has 425 retail stores in 16 countries (consisting of 254 in the US and 171 elsewhere), [1] and an online store (available in 39 countries). [2]

Hardware and products

Apple TV (2nd generation)
  • Macintosh (shortened to "Mac" after 1998) – a family of personal computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple.
    • iMac – this line of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers has been Apple's primary consumer desktop offering since its introduction in 1998.
    • iMac Pro – Similar in design to the iMac, but with a workstation-class Intel Xeon W processor and significantly higher memory, disk and graphics options.
    • MacBook family – Macintosh notebook computers that merged the PowerBook and iBook lines during the Mac's transition to Intel processors.
      • MacBook – line of ultraportable Macintosh notebook computer introduced in March 2015.
      • MacBook Air – a line of ultraportable Macintosh notebook computers introduced in January 2008.
      • MacBook Pro – a line of Macintosh portable computers introduced in January 2006. It replaced the PowerBook G4.
    • Mac Mini – small form factor desktop computer.
    • Mac Pro – Workstation-class hardware specifications based on Intel Xeon microprocessors; the first models were similar to the Power Mac G5 they replaced in terms of outward appearance and expansion capabilities.
    • Commercially successful families of Apple computers from the 20th century include the Apple II series, Compact Macintosh, Macintosh II, Macintosh LC, Macintosh Performa, Macintosh Quadra, Power Macintosh, and PowerBook.
  • iOS – mobile operating system originally for the iPhone and iPod Touch, which has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPad, Apple TV, and Apple Watch. Previously called "iPhone OS".
    • Apple TV – A digital media receiver. It is a small form factor network appliance designed to play digital content originating from the iTunes Store, Netflix, YouTube, Flickr, MobileMe, MLB.tv, NBA League Pass, NHL GameCenter, or any macOS or Windows computer running iTunes onto an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television.
    • Apple Watch; smart watch that gives users notifications on their wrists, as well as the ability to purchase merchandise using Apple Pay via NFC
    • iPad – line of tablet computers specialized for audio-visual media including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, apps and web content. Currently marketed as an entry-level product.
      • iPad (1st generation) – the first iPad released with a 9.7-inch display, a lithium-ion polymer battery that lasts up to 10 hours, a dual core Apple A4 processor, no cameras. Started the whole tablet marketplace of portable computing devices.
      • iPad 2 – second generation iPad, with a lithium-ion polymer battery that lasts up to 10 hours, a dual core Apple A5 processor and VGA front-facing and 720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling.
      • iPad (3rd generation) – third generation iPad. It adds a Retina Display, the new Apple A5X chip with integrated quad-core graphics processor, a 5-megapixel camera, full HD 1080p video recording, voice dictation, and 4G LTE. [3]
      • iPad (4th generation) – fourth generation iPad. Keeping the Retina Display, with a new Apple A6X chip with integrated a quad-core graphics processor, a 5 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p HD video front camera, with improved 4G LTE connectivity.
      • iPad (5th generation) - reprises design from the 1st generation iPad Air, with A9 processor and Touch ID sensor
      • iPad (6th generation) - with A10 processor and support for Apple Pencil (1st generation), otherwise identical to the 5th generation iPad.
      • iPad (7th generation) - with 10.2-inch screen and Smart Connector for use with the Smart Keyboard
      • iPad (8th generation) - with A12 processor, otherwise identical to the 7th generation iPad.
    • iPad Air - higher-end version of the iPad, featuring thinner design and higher technical specifications. Temporarily replaced the original iPad line from 2014 to 2017.
      • iPad Air – Lighter and smaller dimensions, following the design of the iPad Mini, using a new 64-bit Apple A7 chip also featured in the iPhone 5S and 2nd generation iPad Mini, with integrated a quad-core graphics processor, retaining a 5 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p HD video front camera, improved 4G LTE connectivity.
      • iPad Air 2 – Thinner than the iPad Air, same design as the iPad Air, using the Apple A8X chip with integrated octa-core graphics processor, an 8 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p HD video front camera. Compatible with Apple Pay.
      • iPad Air (3rd generation) - 10.5-inch screen, A12 processor, second generation Touch ID sensor, and Apple Pencil (1st generation) support.
      • iPad Air (4th generation) - design similar to that of 3rd and 4th-generation iPad Pro, A14 processor, support for Smart Keyboard Folio, Magic Keyboard, and Apple Pencil (2nd generation), Touch ID sensor on power button.
    • iPad Mini – smaller screen version of the larger iPad, introduced in 2012.
      • iPad Mini (1st generation) – first smaller generation iPad with standard 7.9-inch display. Uses older Apple A5 chip with integrated a dual-core graphics processor, a 5 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p video front camera, with improved 4G LTE connectivity.
      • iPad Mini 2 – second generation with higher-resolution Retina Display keeping 7.9-inch display. Uses same Apple A7 chip with integrated a dual-core graphics processor as iPhone 5S and the larger iPad Air, retains same 5 MP camera, with further improved 4G LTE connectivity.
      • iPad Mini 3 – third generation with Retina Display keeping 7.9-inch display. Uses same Apple A7 chip with integrated a dual-core graphics processor as previous iPad Mini 2, while including the Touch ID sensor and support for Apple Pay.
      • iPad Mini 4 – fourth generation with Retina Display keeping 7.9-inch display, with anti-glare coating. Uses the 64-bit Apple A8 chip and Apple M8 motion co-processor.
      • iPad Mini (5th generation) - fifth generation model with A12 processor, second generation Touch ID sensor, and Apple Pencil (1st generation) support.
    • iPad Pro - larger screen version of the smaller iPad, same line of tablet computers specialized for audio-visual media including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, apps and web content. The first iPad to support an attachable keyboard and a stylus, Apple Pencil. [4] In size and weight, it falls between contemporary smartphones and laptop computers.
      • iPad Pro (1st generation) - first larger generation iPad released with a 12.9-inch Retina Display, a new Apple A9X chip, higher RAM (4 GiB), an 8 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p HD video front camera. [5] New additions include the four stereo speakers, an attachable keyboard with the stylus, Apple Pencil. [6] 9.7 inch model released in 2016, with 2 GiB RAM, 12MP rear camera and 4K video recording
      • iPad Pro (2nd generation) - released with 12.9-inch and 10.5-inch display sizes, A10X chip, higher refresh rate (120 Hz, marketed as ProMotion), 12 MP rear-facing camera with quad-LED True-Tone flash and 7 MP front-facing camera on both models
      • iPad Pro (3rd generation) - released with 12.9-inch and 11-inch display sizes, all-screen design, Face ID technology, USB-C connectivity, A12X chip, up to 1 TB of storage, higher RAM on the 1 TB storage model (6 GiB compared to 4 on lower storage models), and Apple Pencil (2nd generation) support.
      • iPad Pro (4th generation) - released with dual camera setup, lidar sensor for augmented reality, A12Z processor, 6 GiB RAM on all models.
      • iPad Pro (5th generation) - released with the M1 processor, 8 GiB - 16 GiB RAM with the 11-inch model using a Liquid Retina Display, while the 12.9-inch model provides an HDR display with mini-LEDs, nicknamed "Liquid Retina XDR". It is the first iPad Pro to include an M-series processor in its hardware, instead of an A-series one. It supports Thunderbolt 3/ USB 4.
    • iPhone – line of smartphones. [7] It functions as a video camera, camera phone, portable media player, and Internet client including email and web browsing.
      • iPhone (1st generation) – first generation iPhone, with 2G connectivity and 2 MP camera.
      • iPhone 3G – second generation iPhone. It supported Assisted GPS, 3G data and tri-band UMTS/HSDPA.
      • iPhone 3GS – third generation iPhone. Faster, with a higher resolution camera with video recording, and voice control. [8]
      • iPhone 4 – fourth generation iPhone. New design, in which the uninsulated stainless steel frame that acts as the device's antenna. It has an Apple A4 processor and 512 MB of eDRAM. Its 3.5-inch (89 mm) LED backlit screen with a 960×640 pixel resolution is marketed as the " Retina display".
      • iPhone 4S – fifth generation iPhone, with same design as the iPhone 4, Apple A5 dual-core processor, 8 MP camera, support for the Siri digital assistant. [9]
      • iPhone 5 – sixth generation iPhone, with thinner, aluminium-based design, 4" screen with 16:9 aspect ratio, Apple A6 processor, new Lightning connector, nano-SIM support, 4G LTE capabilities, 8 MP camera, with functionality allowing still shots during video recording, along with a 1.2 MP 720p front camera.
      • iPhone 5C – a variant of the iPhone 5, using a polycarbonate casing (in colors blue, green, pink, yellow, and white) instead of the metal used by the 5 and 5S, released with iOS 7 operating system.
      • iPhone 5S – seventh generation model, a more advanced revision of its predecessor, the iPhone 5, incorporating a similar exterior design, but with a 64-bit Apple A7 processor, a built-in fingerprint sensor called Touch ID on its updated home button, released with iOS 7 operating system.
      • iPhone 6 – eighth generation model, with larger 4.7" 16:9 screen size. Rounder and thinner exterior design, new 64-bit Apple A8 processor, Keeping Touch ID, improved Wi-Fi and 4G LTE capabilities, NFC support with Apple Pay, released with iOS 8 operating system.
      • iPhone 6S – ninth generation model, a more advanced revision of its predecessor, incorporating a similar exterior design, but with a new 64-bit Apple A9 processor, a 12 MP camera, a pressure-sensitive touch screen (called 3D Touch) and iOS 9.
      • iPhone 7 – tenth generation model, with NFC read-write support, tactile home button and removal of 3.5mm headphone jack.
        • iPhone 7 Plus – tenth generation model, with dual camera setup and higher RAM than the iPhone 7
      • iPhone 8 – eleventh generation model, with support for wireless charging and A11 processor with integrated Neural Engine.
        • iPhone 8 Plus – eleventh generation model, with dual camera setup and higher RAM than the iPhone 8
      • iPhone X – eleventh generation model, with 5.8" screen, A11 processor with integrated Neural Engine, redesigned front, OLED-based display, dual camera setup and a face recognition technology called Face ID.
      • iPhone XS – twelfth generation model, with A12 processor and improved Neural Engine
        • iPhone XS Max – thirteenth generation model, equivalent to previous "Plus" iPhone models, with 6.5" screen.
        • iPhone XR – twelfth generation model, aimed as a lower cost model, with 6.1" LCD screen, single camera setup, and no pressure-sensitive touch screen.
      • iPhone 11 Pro – twelfth generation model, with a triple camera setup and removal of pressure-sensitive touch screen. Successor to the iPhone XS
        • iPhone 11 Pro Max – thirteenth generation model.
        • iPhone 11 – thirteenth generation model, aimed as a lower cost model, with dual camera setup. Successor to the iPhone XR.
        • iPhone SE (2nd generation) – thirteenth generation model, with design of the iPhone 8 and processor of the iPhone 11
      • iPhone 12 Pro – fourteenth generation model, with 6.1" screen, design language elements from the iPhone 4 and the iPhone 5, lidar sensor, Dolby Vision HDR video recording
        • iPhone 12 – lower cost model, with dual camera setup, OLED screen. Successor to the iPhone 11
        • iPhone 12 Mini – lower cost model with 5.4" screen, with dual camera setup, OLED screen. Successor to the iPhone 11
        • iPhone 12 Pro Max – larger model, with 6.7" screen, sensor-shift image stabilization for the camera
    • iPod Touch – a portable media player, personal digital assistant, handheld game console, and Wi-Fi mobile device designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPod Touch adds the multi-touch graphical user interface to the iPod line.
  • iPod – a line of portable media players
    • iPod Classic – The original iPod, introduced in 2001 as just iPod. Sold with up to 160 GB of storage. Discontinued in September 2014.
    • iPod Nano – The smaller iPod. The first generation of iPod Nano was introduced on September 7, 2005 as a replacement for iPod Mini. [10] It uses flash memory for storage. iPod Nano has gone through seven models, or generations, since its introduction. Discontinued in July 2017.
    • iPod Shuffle – The smallest model in Apple's iPod family, and was the first to use flash memory. The first model was announced at the Macworld Conference & Expo on January 11, 2005; the last fourth generation model was introduced on September 1, 2010. [11] Discontinued in July 2017.
  • eMate 300 – first (and only) generation of a low-cost laptop-style variation of the MessagePad 2100, designed for the educational market, based on the Apple Newton platform, running the Newton OS, discontinued in 1998
The Apple Newton MessagePad 2100, alongside the original iPhone

Hardware accessories

  • AirPortLocal area wireless networking products based on the IEEE 802.11 standard (also known as Wi-Fi). AirPort and AirPort Extreme in common usage can refer to the protocol ( 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n), the expansion card or the router.
  • Apple Thunderbolt Display – The newest flat-panel computer monitor, introduced on July 20, 2011. The display model and the older Apple LED Cinema Display are the only two display models currently sold by Apple, both sharing the same technical specification for the display portion of the product. New to the Thunderbolt Display is the switch from Mini DisplayPort and USB to a single Thunderbolt connection for the data transfer between Mac and display. The increased bitrate from switching to Thunderbolt enables inclusion of a Gigabit Ethernet port and a FireWire 800 port on the display. Older Mac models with Mini DisplayPort, including all Mac models introduced in 2010, are incompatible with the Thunderbolt Display.
  • iPad accessories – The iPad has a wide variety of accessories made by Apple available for it, including a screen cover specifically for the iPad 2 called "Smart Cover", as well as a number of accessories to allow the iPad to connect to other devices, some of which enable non-touchscreen input.
  • Apple Keyboard – A wireless keyboard built for Macintosh computers and the iPad. It interacts over Bluetooth wireless technology and unlike its wired version, it has no USB connectors or ports. Both generations have low-power features when not in use.
  • Magic Mouse – A multi-touch mouse that was [12] announced and sold for the first time on October 20, 2009. [13] The Magic Mouse is the first consumer mouse to have multi-touch capabilities. [12] Taking after the iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, and multi-touch trackpads, the Magic Mouse allows the use of gestures such as swiping and scrolling across the top surface of the mouse to interact with desktop computers. It connects via Bluetooth and runs on two AA batteries.
  • Magic Trackpad – a multi-touch trackpad Announced on July 27, 2010, it is similar to the trackpad found on the current MacBook family of laptops, albeit 80% larger. The trackpad is fully compatible with Macintosh computers running Mac OS X Snow Leopard versions 10.6.4 and higher with a software update, as well as Windows 7, Windows XP, and Windows Vista in Apple's Boot Camp with an added device driver. It is also capable of performing in a basic capacity when paired with a Windows computer or a Macintosh without the necessary software.
  • Apple Pencil - a digital stylus, an input device, designed to work exclusively with the iPad Pro tablet computer. It is marketed at the creative work done by professional artists as it makes electronic drawing on iPad Pro feasible. [14]


Steve Jobs talks about the transition to Intel in 2005
  • Aperture – a photo editing and management computer program aimed at pro users, compared to the consumer-based, iPhoto. Discontinued in April 2015, and along with iPhoto, both replaced by new app Photos.
  • Bento – a database application. Discontinued in September 2013.
  • FileMaker Pro – a cross-platform relational database application.
  • Final Cut Pro – a non-linear video editing software.
  • iLife – a suite of software applications for organizing, editing, and publishing photos, movies, and music. The suite comprises five applications, all of which run on the macOS operating system:
    • iPhoto – a consumer-based photo storage and editing application forming part of the original iLife software suite, subsequently sold separately via the Mac App Store, giving users tools to edit and organize their photos. Later, it also enabled connection to Photo Stream capabilities. Apple's Aperture is available for pro users. Discontinued in April 2015 and replaced by Photos.
      • Digital Photo Access Protocol (DPAP) – Apple's proprietary protocol allowing iPhoto folders stored on remote storage devices (e.g. network-attached storage (NAS) drives) limited share ability to multiple devices.
    • iMovie – a video creation application forming part of the original iLife software suite and subsequently sold separately via the Mac App Store, giving users tools to edit and sequence video footage into a coherent video.
    • iDVD – a DVD authoring application forming part of the original iLife software suite, allowing users to design and put together a DVD, and also to burn to blank DVD discs if required. Discontinued with the release of Mountain Lion.
    • GarageBand – an audio editing and sequencing application forming part of the original iLife software suite and subsequently sold separately via the Mac App Store, giving users tools to edit and sequence audio.
    • iWeb – a web designing application forming part of the original iLife software suite, giving users basic HTML webpage design tools, and also tools to publish these pages to a server. Discontinued with the release of Mountain Lion.
  • iOS (previously iPhone OS) – software for iOS devices, usually in the form of apps of OS updates. Unlike Mac OS apps, since iOS inception, all apps have been released and sold through the Apple iOS App Store.
    • CarPlay (previously iOS in the Car) – a standard Apple is introducing from 2014 into car systems allowing native iOS device control using the car's in-build controls and displays, giving eyes-free and hands-free operation. It also incorporates the usage of Apple's previously released Siri Eyes Free mode.
    • Jailbreaking – a form of privilege escalation on iOS, giving users root access to the operating system, allowing them to download additional applications, extensions, and themes that are unavailable through the official Apple iOS App Store for the iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, and Apple TV (2nd generation).
    • Version history – version history of the iOS operating system.
  • iTunes – a media player computer program, used for playing, downloading, saving, and organizing digital music and video files on desktop or laptop computers. It can also manage contents on iPod, iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad. iTunes can connect to the iTunes Store to purchase and download music, music videos, television shows, iPod games, audiobooks, podcasts, movies and movie rentals (not available in all countries), and ringtones (only available on iPod Touch (4th generation) onwards, and iPhone). It is also used to download apps from the App Store for the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. iTunes has been criticized for not being able to transfer music from one portable device to another.
    • Digital Audio Access Protocol (DAAP) (as used for iTunes Server functionality) – Apple's proprietary protocol allowing iTunes media folders stored on remote storage devices (e.g. network-attached storage (NAS) drives) limited share ability to multiple devices.
    • Apple Podcasts – Similar to songs, "Smart playlists" can be used to control podcasts in a playlist, setting criteria such as date and number of times listened to.
  • iWork – an office suite of desktop applications for the macOS and iOS operating systems. [15] The first version of iWork, iWork '05, was released in 2005. The suite originally bundled Keynote, a presentation program which had previously been sold as a standalone application, and Pages, a combined word processing and page layout application. In 2007, Apple released iWork '08, which contained Numbers; a new spreadsheet application. iWork also included access to iWork.com, which came around the time of iWork '09's (January 6, 2009) release, and was a beta service that allowed users to upload and share documents online with others, who could download & edit them, and give feedback, although iWork.com was later withdrawn from the market in 2011 with the release of iCloud. From late 2013, an online version of the iWork apps were made accessible for free through all users iCloud online account access instead. iWork integrates with existing applications from Apple's iLife suite through the Media Browser, which allows users to drag and drop media content from iTunes (music), iMovie (video), and iPhoto or Aperture (photos), directly into iWork documents.
  • Logic Studio – a music production suite. It claims to be the largest collection of modeled instruments, sampler instruments, effect plug-ins, and audio loops ever put in a single box.
  • macOS (previously "Mac OS X" and "OS X") – a series of Unix-based graphical interface operating systems that runs exclusively on Macintosh computers and has been pre-loaded on all Macs since 2002.
    • macOS Server – originally a completely different server version of the macOS operating system, but from 2011, a package of apps (known simply as "macOS Server") available as a single purchase from the Mac App Store which works on top of the standard edition of macOS.
    • History of macOS – the history of the operating system.
    • Mac transition to Intel processors – the process of changing the CPU of Macintosh computers from PowerPC processors to Intel x86 processors.
    • Architecture of macOS – the components of macOS's architecture.
    • macOS Components – a list of the components of macOS.
    • Versions of macOS – a list of all the versions released of macOS.
      • Kodiak (Public Beta) – an early beta version of Mac OS X 10.0. It was released to the public on September 13, 2000. It allowed software developers and early adopters to test a preview of the upcoming operating system and develop software for the forthcoming operating system before its final release.
      • Cheetah (10.0) – the first major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system. Mac OS X v10.0 was released on March 24, 2001. It was the successor of the Mac OS X Public Beta and the predecessor of Mac OS X v10.1. Mac OS X v10.0 was a radical departure from the previous "classic" Macintosh operating system and was Apple's long-awaited answer to the call for a next-generation Macintosh operating system.
      • Puma (10.1) – the second major release of Mac OS X. Apple introduced many features that were missing from the last version, as well as improving overall system performance.
      • Jaguar (10.2) – the third major release of Mac OS X. It was seen as a large step forward in the areas of stability, general speed enhancements, compatibility with other flavors of Unix and the lineup of both graphical and command-line applications available
      • Panther (10.3) – The fourth major release of Mac OS X. Finder was updated with a brushed-metal interface, a new live search engine, customizable Sidebar, secure deletion, colored labels (resurrected from classic Mac OS [16]) in the filesystem and Zip support built-in. The Finder icon was also changed.
      • Tiger (10.4) – the fifth major release of Mac OS X. Some of the new features include a fast searching system called Spotlight, a new version of the Safari web browser, Dashboard, a new 'Unified' theme, and improved support for 64-bit addressing on Power Mac G5s.
      • Leopard (10.5) – the sixth major release of Mac OS X. Leopard contains over 300 changes and enhancements over its predecessor, Mac OS X Tiger, [17] covering core operating system components as well as included applications and developer tools. Leopard introduces a significantly revised desktop, with a redesigned Dock, Stacks, a semitransparent menu bar, and an updated Finder that incorporates the Cover Flow visual navigation interface first seen in iTunes. Other notable features include support for writing 64-bit graphical user interface applications, an automated backup utility called Time Machine, support for Spotlight searches across multiple machines, and the inclusion of Front Row and Photo Booth, which were previously included with only some Mac models.
      • Snow Leopard (10.6) – the seventh major release of Mac OS X. Unlike previous versions of Mac OS X, the goals with Snow Leopard were improved performance, greater efficiency, and the reduction of its overall memory footprint. Addition of new end-user features was not a primary goal. Much of the software in Mac OS X was extensively rewritten for this release in order to fully take advantage of modern Macintosh hardware. New programming frameworks, such as OpenCL, were created, allowing software developers to use graphics cards in their applications. This is also the first Mac OS release since System 7.1.1 that does not support Macs that use PowerPC processors, as Apple now intends to focus on its current line of Intel-based products. As support for Rosetta was dropped in Mac OS X Lion, Snow Leopard is the last version of Mac OS X that is able to run PowerPC-only applications.
      • Lion (10.7) – The eighth major release of Mac OS X. It brings many developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications, to the Mac, and includes support for the Mac App Store, as introduced in Mac OS X Snow Leopard version 10.6.6. [18] [19]
      • Mountain Lion (10.8) – The ninth major release of OS X; [20] in this release, Apple dropped the "Mac" from the operating system's name. OS X Mountain Lion was announced on February 16, 2012 and was released worldwide on July 25, 2012. [20] It gained additional features from iOS, some of which were previously introduced to the Mac in OS X Lion.
      • Mavericks (10.9) – The tenth major release of OS X. The main goal was to improve battery life for portable Macs. It also includes Finder and other power user enhancements. Announced on June 10, 2013 at WWDC 2013, [21] [22] and released on October 22, 2013.
      • Yosemite (10.10) – The eleventh major release of OS X. Includes a major overhaul of OS X's user interface, a new feature called Continuity which increases integration with iOS devices and iCloud. Announced on June 2, 2014, at WWDC 2014, and released on October 16, 2014.
      • El Capitan (10.11) – The twelfth major release of OS X.
      • Sierra (10.12) – The thirteenth major release of macOS; in this release, Apple changed the name of the operating system from "OS X" to "macOS".
      • High Sierra (10.13) – The fourteenth major release of macOS; in this release, unlike previous macOS versions, Apple removed users' ability to re-download the previous version (Sierra 10.12) from the Mac App Store.
      • Mojave (10.14) – The fifteenth major release of macOS; in this release, Apple brought several of its iOS apps ( Apple News, Voice Memos, and Home) to the desktop platform.
      • Catalina (10.15) – The sixteenth major release of macOS; in this release, Apple limited support to only 64-bit applications and introduced Activation Lock for Macs.
      • Big Sur (11.0) – The seventeenth major release of macOS; in this release, Apple completely redesigned the user interface, introduced support for iOS and iPadOS apps on Macs that use Apple silicon, and incremented the primary version number for the first time since the year 2000.
    • List of applications – a list of applications for macOS.
    • List of games – a list of games for macOS.
  • Newton OS – the operating system developed for the Apple Newton platform and its line of MessagePad personal digital assistants and the eMate, first commercial operating system with handwriting recognition, discontinued in 1998
    • The user environment of the Newton OS is built from the following, tightly integrated applications:
      • Works – drawing and word processing application, included features such as rulers, margins, page breaks, formatting, printing, spell checking and find & replace tools
      • Notes – note-taking application for checklists, drawing and writing
      • Dates – calendar application for scheduling appointments and events
      • Names – contact management application
      • Formulas – application for conversions (i.e. currencies, metric - imperial, etc.) and formulas, with pre-built calculators for loan and mortgage, tips, etc.
      • Calculator – calculator application with functions like square root, percentage, MR, M+, and M- in addition to basic calculator functions
      • Clock – floating-window-type application, with features such as alarm, minute timer, and date display
      • Book Reader – electronic books reader application
  • Xsan – a storage area network or clustered file system for macOS. Xsan enables multiple Mac desktop and Xserve systems to access shared block storage over a Fibre Channel network. With the Xsan file system installed, these computers can read and write to the same storage volume at the same time. Xsan is a complete SAN solution that includes the metadata controller software, the file system client software, and integrated setup, management, and monitoring tools.
  • Classic Mac OS – the Macintosh operating system preceding macOS.
    • System 1, 2, 3, and 4 – versions 1 to 4 of Apple's OS, released from 1984 to 1987.
    • System 5 – the fifth version of Apple's OS, released in 1987.
    • System 6 – the sixth version of Apple's OS, released in 1988.
    • System 7 – the seventh version of Apple's OS, released in 1991. Version 7.1.2 was the first edition released for Macs equipped with a PowerPC processors. On 1997s release of version 7.6, Apple officially renamed the operating system "Mac OS".
    • Copland – a scrapped project which was a potential OS successor to System 7.
    • Mac OS 8 – the eighth version of Apple's OS, and the first full release titled "Mac OS" released in 1997. It represented the largest overhaul of the Mac OS since the initial release of System 7, some six years previously.
    • Mac OS 9 – the ninth version of Apple's OS, released in 1999. Featured a great many major moves towards the interfaces and technologies currently in macOS.
  • Ancillary operating systems

Stores and services

  • Apple Developer Connection (ADC) – Apple's developer network, which makes resources available to help software developers write software for the macOS and iOS platforms.
  • AppleCare – a service and support plan that extends the standard Apple warranty and phone support for its products to two years for iPods, iPads, and iPhones or three years for Macs.
  • Apple Specialist – an independent Apple reseller which over time has demonstrated an exceptional, consistent, and comprehensive knowledge of Apple technology, offers its entire line of hardware and software, offers complete service and support for branded products, and has been designated as Specialist by the manufacturer. Apple Premiere Specialists constitute an elite 100 businesses among the Specialist designated group.
  • Apple Music – a music and video streaming service. Users select music to stream to their device on-demand, or they can listen to existing, curated playlists. The service also includes the Internet radio station Apple Music 1, Apple Music Hits, and Apple Music Country, which broadcasts live to over 160 countries 24 hours a day. The service was announced on June 8, 2015, and launched on June 30, 2015 in over 100 countries worldwide. New subscribers get a six-month free trial period before the service requires a monthly subscription.
  • Apple News – a news aggregator platform for iOS. The user can read newspaper articles published by various newspapers, such as The New York Times. The app was announced at Apple's 2015 WWDC. It was released alongside iOS 9 on September 16, 2015 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
  • Apple Store ( online) – Apple Inc.'s worldwide chain of over 424 retail stores [23] designed as sleek playrooms filled with gadgets. [24] They sell Macintosh personal computers, software, iPods, iPads, iPhones, third-party accessories, and other consumer electronics such as Apple TV.
    • Theatre – many Apple Stores feature a Theatre for presentations and workshops.
    • Studio – area set up for training with Apple products. Found in most Apple Stores.
    • Genius Bar – tech support station located inside every Apple Store, offering help and support for Apple products, including repairs.
  • App Store – a digital application distribution platform for iOS. The service allows users to browse and download applications from the iTunes Store that were developed with the iOS SDK or Mac SDK and published through Apple. Depending on the application, they are available either for free or at a cost. The applications can be downloaded directly to a target device, or downloaded onto a personal computer (PC) or Macintosh via iTunes. 30% of revenue from the store goes to Apple, and 70% goes to the producer of the app.
    • iOS app approvals – iOS App Store approvals process, and past application of store rules.
  • Mac App Store – a digital distribution platform for macOS applications. The platform was announced on October 20, 2010 at Apple's " Back to the Mac" event. [25] [26] [27] Apple began accepting app submissions from registered developers on November 3, 2010 in preparation for its launch. [28] It was released on January 6, 2011 as part of the free Mac OS X v10.6.6 update for all current Snow Leopard users. [25] [26] After 24 hours of release, Apple announced that there was a total of more than one million downloads. [29]
  • Apple certification programs – Programs to verify an in-depth knowledge of various areas of Apple's products. They are designed to create a high level of technical proficiency among Macintosh service technicians, help desk support, technical support, system administrators, and professional users. Apple certification exams are offered at Prometric testing centers and Apple Authorized Training Centers.
  • iCloud – a cloud storage and cloud computing service [30] [31] [32] from Apple Inc. announced on June 6, 2011 at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC). The service allows users to store data such as music files on remote computer servers for download to multiple devices such as iOS-based devices, and personal computers running macOS or Microsoft Windows. It also replaces Apple's MobileMe service, acting as a data syncing center for email, contacts, calendars, bookmarks, notes, to-do lists, and other data. As of 2012, the service has over 100 million users. [33]
  • iTunes Store – a software-based online digital media store that opened on April 28, 2003. As of October 4, 2011, the store served its 16 billionth song. [34]
    • iTunes Connect – software that allows content to be uploaded to the iTunes Store, as well as companies doing so to be able to see statistical info about sales figures and financial information.
  • One to One – fee-based service for private training at Apple retail stores.






  • Braeburn Capital – Apple-owned asset management company subsidiary, that deals with Apple's assets and tax arrangements.
  • FileMaker Inc. – Apple subsidiary that designs and releases database applications. Formerly Bento (Apple-only platform database), currently FileMaker Pro (cross-platform relational database) applications.
  • Kaleida Labs – (founded 1992), a partnership co-founded with IBM as a result of the historic 1991 AIM alliance, meant to explore the creation of multimedia platforms
  • Taligent – (founded March 2, 1992), a partnership co-founded with IBM as a result of the historic 1991 AIM alliance, meant to bring the radically object-oriented operating system Pink to market
  • Apple Inc. mergers and acquisitions – a list of company mergers and acquisitions by Apple (in alphabetical order):
    • AlgoTrim – (bought August 2013), a Swedish data compression company, especially focused on still/video image compression, founded by Anders Berglund, Anders Holtsberg, and Martin Lindberg in 2005.
    • Anobit – (bought December 2011), an Israeli fabless flash memory company, founded by Ehud Weinstein, Ariel Maislos, and Ofir Shalvi in 2006.
    • AuthenTec – (bought July 2012), security hardware and software for PCs and mobile device company, founded in 1998.
    • Beats Electronics – (bought August 2014), music headphones and streaming service
    • Chomp – (bought February 2012), an app search engine company, founded by Ben Keighran and Cathy Edwards in 2009.
    • Cue – (bought October 2013), a personal assistant app company, founded by Daniel Gross and Robby Walker in 2010.
    • Emagic – (bought July 2002), music software and hardware company, best known for its music sequencer, Logic.
    • Embark – (bought August 2013), a startup company focused on developing transit information apps for user public transportation navigation in major US cities, founded by John Hering, David Hodge, Taylor Malloy, and Ian Leighton in 2011.
    • FingerWorks – (bought early 2005), a gesture recognition company, founded by John Elias and Wayne Westerman in 1998.
    • HopStop – (bought July 2013), an online transit guide with subway, bus directions, and maps, founded by Chinedu Echeruo in 2005.
    • Intrinsity – (bought April 2010), fabless semiconductor company, founded as EVSX in 1997 on the remnants of Exponential Technology, then renamed Intrinsity in 2000.
    • Lala – (bought December 2009), online music store company, founded by Bill Nguyen.
    • Locationary – (bought July 2013), a Canadian crowdsourced location data management company, founded by Grant Ritchie in 2009.
    • Matcha – (bought August 2013), a second screen TV/video startup, previously available as a media discovery iOS app (closed in May 2013), founded by Guy Piekarz, Ilan Ben Zeev, and Paul Petrick in September 2010.
    • NeXT – (bought December 1996), computer company, founded in 1985 by Apple Inc. co-founder Steve Jobs after he was fired from Apple the same year. Current macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS operating systems are largely built on its programming environment standard, OpenStep. Early versions of Mac OS X Server (codename Rhapsody) were OPENSTEP with a Mac-look and feel.
    • Nothing Real – (bought February 2002), a high-end digital effects software development company for the feature film, broadcast and interactive gaming industries, founded by Allen Edwards and Arnaud Hervas in October 1996.
    • P.A. Semi – (bought April 2008), a fabless semiconductor company founded by Daniel W. Dobberpuhl in 2003.
    • Particle – (bought September 2012), a HTML5 web app company, founded by Ericson de Jesus, Cole Rise, and Aubrey Anderson in 2008.
    • Passif Semiconductor – (bought August 2013), an Oakland, California based semiconductor company specializing in low energy wireless chips, founded by Ben Cook and Axel Berny in 2007.
    • PrimeSense – (bought November 2013), an Israeli fabless semiconductor company specializing in 3D sensing, founded by Aviad Maizels, Alexander Shpunt, Ophir Sharon, Tamir Berliner and Dima Rais in 2005.
    • Redmatica – (bought June 2012), an Italian music editing software company, known for Keymap Pro sampler software, founded by Andrea Gozzi in 2004.
    • Silicon Color – (bought October 2006), "FinalTouch" color correction software and non-linear video editing software development company, now known as Apple's Final Cut Pro software.
    • Siri – (bought April 2010), an intelligent personal assistant and knowledge navigator software company, founded by Dag Kittlaus, Adam Cheyer, Tom Gruber, together with Norman Winarsky in 2007. Apple initially integrated the software into iOS, the later to the watchOS and tvOS platforms.
    • Spruce Technologies – (bought July 2001), a DVD authoring company, founded by Dr. Hiromu Soga in 1996.
    • Topsy – (bought December 2013), a US data analytics company, founded by Vipul Ved Prakash, Rishab Aiyer Ghosh, Gary Iwatani, Justin Foutts in 2007.
    • WiFiSlam – (bought March 2013), an indoor location services company, founded by former Stanford students Darin Tay, Joseph Huang, Jessica Tsoong and Dave Millman in 2011. [38]



  • Media events – special events where Apple Inc. announce the release of their products and services. Usually, this is done by Apple's current CEO often featuring other executives, previously most notably Steve Jobs.
    • Stevenote – keynote addresses, usually held at the beginning of media events, where former CEO Steve Jobs would announce the release of new Apple products. Noted for his idiosyncratic style of presenting, and also for his " One More Thing..." surprise announcements at the end.
  • Advertising – various Apple Inc. advertising techniques and campaigns.
    • 1984 (advertisement) – specific TV and print ad campaign, inferring how Mac computers will free users from tyrannies similar to those prophesied in the George Orwell novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. Launched the first Macintosh computer; the Macintosh 128K.
    • Think Different – specific TV & print ad campaign, inferring how Macs do things differently (meaning better) to other computers used in the home and small to medium-sized businesses.
    • Get a Mac – specific TV ad campaign, humorously inferring the superior nature of a Mac vs. Windows PC.
    • iPod advertising – various iPod ad campaigns since its initial release in 2001.



See also


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  16. ^ "One more cool cat". The Baltimore Sun. October 30, 2003. Those nostalgic for Mac OS 9 will celebrate the return of colored file labels in this menu.
  17. ^ "Mac OS X Leopard — Features - 300+ New Features". Apple Inc. 16 October 2007. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved October 16, 2007.
  18. ^ Graham, Jefferson (October 21, 2010). "New Apple MacBook Air costs less, plus App Store is coming". USA Today.
  19. ^ "Apple unveils new MacBook Airs, previews Lion". CNET. Beyond Binary – CNET News. October 20, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
  20. ^ a b "Apple Releases OS X Mountain Lion Developer Preview with Over 100 New Features" (Press release). Apple Inc. February 16, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
  21. ^ "Live Coverage of Apple's WWDC 2013 Keynote". MacRumors. June 10, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
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  30. ^ "Switched On: Apple's cloud conundrum". Engadget. June 13, 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
  31. ^ "Fourth time's a charm? Why Apple has trouble with cloud computing". ArsTechnica. June 8, 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
  32. ^ "4th Time a Charm for Apple? From iDisk to .Mac to MobileMe to iCloud". Wired. May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
  33. ^ "Presentation by Tim Cook, Apple's CEO in Goldman Sachs Technology and Internet Conference on February 14, 2012". February 14, 2012.
  34. ^ "Apple: 16 billion iTunes songs downloaded, 300 million iPods sold". Engadget. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  35. ^ "Apple – Press Info – Apple Leadership". Retrieved October 25, 2013.
  36. ^ Slivka, Eric (November 3, 2013). "Key iOS Engineering Executive Henri Lamiraux Retires from Apple". MacRumors. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
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  38. ^ Cromwell Schubarth (March 25, 2013). "Apple pays $20M for indoor GPS company WiFiSLAM". Silicon Valley Business Journal.
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  40. ^ "QI: Series J: Jolly". BBC. January 11, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2013. ...one of the ones that was always fascinating, was 'laptop machines' is an anagram of 'Apple Macintosh', which is very extraordinary, isn't it.
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External links