Non-standard model

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-standard_model

In model theory, a discipline within mathematical logic, a non-standard model is a model of a theory that is not isomorphic to the intended model (or standard model). [1]

Existence

If the intended model is infinite and the language is first-order, then the Löwenheim–Skolem theorems guarantee the existence of non-standard models. The non-standard models can be chosen as elementary extensions or elementary substructures of the intended model.

Importance

Non-standard models are studied in set theory, non-standard analysis and non-standard models of arithmetic.

See also

References

  1. ^ Roman Kossak, 2004 Nonstandard Models of Arithmetic and Set Theory American Mathematical Soc.