National mapping agency

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_mapping_agency
The original draftsman's drawings for the area around St. Columb Major, Cornwall, made in 1810.

A national mapping agency is an organisation, usually publicly owned, that produces topographic maps and geographic information of a country. Some national mapping agencies also deal with cadastral matters.

History

Ordnance Survey

The first national mapping agency was the Ordnance Survey in the United Kingdom; [1] [2] its roots go back to 1747, when the compilation of a map of the Scottish Highlands was proposed. [3] [4] This survey at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards (1:36,000) [5] was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain (1783–1853), and led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself; work was begun in earnest in 1790, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey at one- inch-to-the- mile (1:63,360 scale). [6] During the next thirty years, roughly a third of England and Wales was mapped (see Principal Triangulation of Great Britain), as other military matters took precedence. [7]

List

Country or territory National mapping agency [8] Web site Online map viewer Notes
Afghanistan Afghan Geodesy & Cartography Head Office
اداره عمومی جیودیزی وکارتوگرافی
دجیودیزی او کارتوگرافی لوی اداره
agcho.gov.af
Albania State Authority for Geospatial Information (ASIG)
Autoriteti Shtetëror për Informacionin Gjeohapësinor
asig.gov.al Map layers
Algeria المعهد الوطني للخرائط و الكشف عن بعد
Institut National de Cartographie et de Télédétection
National Institute of Cartography and Teledetection
inct.mdn.dz
Argentina Instituto Geográfico Nacional ign.gob.ar
Armenia Կառավարությանն առընթեր անշարժ գույքի կադաստրի պետական կոմիտե cadastre.am
Australia Geoscience Australia ga.gov.au Interactive Maps
Austria Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen (BEV) bev.gv.at Austrian Map online
Azerbaijan Əmlak Məsələləri Dövlət Komitəsi
State Committee on Property Issues
emdk.gov.az
Bahamas Bahamas National Geographic Information Systems (BNGIS) Centre bahamas.gov.bs
Bahrain الجهاز المركزي للمعلومات
Central Informatics Organization
cio.gov.bh
Bangladesh বাংলাদেশ জরিপ অধিদপ্তর
Survey of Bangladesh
sob.gov.bd
Barbados Lands and Surveys Department landsandsurveys.gov.bb
Belarus Дзяржаўны камітэт па маёмасці Рэспублікі Беларусь
Государственный комитет по имуществу Республики Беларусь
gki.gov.by
Belgium Nationaal Geografisch Instituut (NGI)
Institut géographique national (IGN)
ngi.be
ign.be
Topomap Viewer
Belize Lands and Surveys Department mnra.gov.bz
Bénin Institut Géographique National du Bénin (IGN) ign.bj Geoportal 2 (planned)
Geoportal 1 (hidden)
Bolivia Instituto Geográfico Militar igmbolivia.gob.bo Geoportal
Bosnia Federal Administration for Geodetic and Property Affairs fgu.com.ba Geoportal
Botswana Department of Surveys and Mapping mlh.gov.bw
Brazil Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) ibge.gov.br Portal de Mapas
Brunei Jabatan Ukur
Survey Department
mod.gov.bn/survey Geoportal
Bulgaria Агенция по геодезия, картография и кадастър (АГКК)
Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre Agency
cadastre.bg
Burkina Faso Institut Géographique du Burkina igb.bb (offline>webarchive)
Cambodia General Department of Cadastre and Geography
Canada Natural Resources Canada – Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation [9] nrcan.gc.ca Toporama
Chile Instituto Geográfico Militar igm.cl
China 国家测绘地理信息局
National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation
nasg.gov.cn
Colombia Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi (IGAC) igac.gov.co Geoportal
Costa Rica Instituto Geográfico Nacional registronacional.go.cr
Croatia Državna geodetska uprava (DGU) dgu.hr Geoportal DGU
Cuba Instituto de Geografía Tropical geotech.cu
Cyprus Tmima Ktimatologiou Kai Chorometrias
Department of Lands and Surveys
moi.gov.cy
Czech Republic Český úřad zeměměřický a katastrální (ČÚZK)
Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre
cuzk.cz Geoprohlížeč
Denmark Geodatastyrelsen
Danish Geodata Agency
gst.dk including Faroe Islands and Greenland
Dominican Republic Instituto Cartográfico Militar (ICM) icm.mil.do
Ecuador Instituto Geográfico Militar (IGM) igm.gob.ec Geoportal IGM
Egypt Egyptian general Survey Authority (ESA) esa.gov.eg
El Salvador Instituto Geográfico y del Catastro Nacional (IGCN) cnr.gob.sv Visualizador Geográfico
Estonia Maa-amet
Estonian Land Board
maaamet.ee Geoportal
Ethiopia የኢትዮጵያ ካርታ ሥራ ኤጀንሲ
Ethiopian Mapping Agency
ema.gov.et
Fiji Mapping and Land Information lands.gov.fj
Finland Maanmittauslaitos (MML)
Lantmäteriverket (LMV)
National Land Survey of Finland (NLS)
maanmittauslaitos.fi MapSite
France Institut national de l'information géographique et forestière (IGN)
National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN)
ign.fr Géoportail
Germany Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie (BKG)
Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy
bkg.bund.de Geoportal.de excluding 1:5000 – 1:100 000
Ghana Lands Commission ghanalap.gov.gh
Great Britain Ordnance Survey (OS) ordnancesurvey.co.uk OS Maps online excluding Northern Ireland
Greece Γεωγραφική Υπηρεσία Στρατού (ΓΥΣ)
Hellenic Military Geographical Service
(HMGS)
gys.gr
Guatemala Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) ign.gob.gt
Guyana Guyana Lands and Survey Commission lands.gov.gy
Hong Kong 地政总署测绘处
Survey and Mapping Office (SMO)
landsd.gov.hk GeoInfo Map
Honduras Dirección General de Catastro y Geografía (DGCG) dgcg.ip.gob.hn Visor de Mapas
Hungary Földmérési és Távérzékelési Intézet (fömi)
Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Remote Sensing
fomi.hu
Iceland Landmælingar Íslands (LMÍ)
National Landsurvey of Iceland (NLIS)
lmi.is Map viewer
India Survey of India surveyofindia.gov.in
Indonesia Badan Informasi Geospasial big.go.id Ina-Geoportal
Iran سازمان نقشه برداری کشور
National Cartographic Center
ncc.org.ir
Ireland Ordnance Survey Ireland (OSi)
Suirbhéireacht Ordanáis Éireann
osi.ie GeoHive
Israel המרכז למיפוי ישראל
Survey Of Israel
mapi.gov.il govMap
Italy Istituto Geografico Militare igmi.org
Jamaica National Spatial Data Management Division (NSDMD) mwh.gov.jm
Japan 国土地理院
Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI)
gsi.go.jp GSI maps
Jordan للمركـز الجغـرافي الملكـي الأردني
Royal Jordanian Geographic Centre (RJGC)
rjgc.gov.jo
Kenya Survey of Kenya lands.go.ke
Kosovo Kosovo Cadastral Agency Gjeoportali shtetëror
Laos National Geographic Department of Lao (NGD)
ngd.la Geoportal WMS
Latvia Latvijas Geotelpiskas Informacijas Agentura (LGIA)
Latvian Geospatial Information Agency (LGIA)
lgia.gov.lv
Lebanon مديرية الشؤون الجفرافية
Direction des affaires géographiques
Directorate of Geographic Affairs
lebarmy.gov.lb
Lithuania Nacionalinės žemės tarnybos (NŽT)
National Land Service
nzt.lt geoportal.lt
Luxembourg Administration du Cadastre et de la Topographie etat.lu
Macao Direcção dos Serviços de Cartografia e Cadastro (DSCC) dscc.gov.mo
Madagascar Institut Géographique et Hydrographique National ftm.mg
Malaysia Rasmi Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia (JUPEM)
Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia
jupem.gov.my
Maldives Maldives Land and Survey Authority surveyofmaldives.gov.mv onemap.mv (ESRI Login)
Mali Institut Géographique du Mali (IGM) igm-mali.ml
Malta Planning Authority pa.org.mt
Mexico Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) inegi.org.mx Mapa digital de México
Montenegro Uprava za nekretnine nekretnine.co.me Geoportal
Morocco Agence Nationale de la Conservation Foncière du Cadastre et de la Cartographie (ANCFCC) ancfcc.gov.ma
Mozambique Centro Nacional de Cartografia e Teledetecção (CENACARTA)
Nepal नापी विभाग
Survey Department
dos.gov.np
Netherlands Kadaster kadaster.nl PDOK excluding Caribbean Netherlands
New Zealand Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) linz.govt.nz
Nicaragua Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) ineter.gob.ni
Nigeria Office of the Surveyor-General of the Federation (OSGOF) osgof.gov.ng
Northern Ireland Land and Property Services (LPS) lpsni.gov.uk formerly Ordnance Survey Northern Ireland
North Macedonia Агенција за катастар на недвижности (AKH)
Agjencia e kadastrës së pasurisë së patundshme (AKPP)
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre (AREC)
katastar.gov.mk OSSP
Norway Statens Kartverk
Norwegian Mapping Authority
kartverket.no Norgeskart
Oman The National Survey Authority (Oman) nsaom.org.om
Pakistan Survey of Pakistan surveyofpakistan.gov.pk
Palestine Palestine Ministry of Local Government GeoMOLG
Panama Instituto Geográfico Nacional "Tommy Guardia" ignpanama.anati.gob.pa
Paraguay Dirección del Servicio Geográfico Militar (DISERGEMIL) disergemil.mil.py
Peru Instituto Geográfico Nacional ign.gob.pe
Philippines National Mapping and Resource Information Authority namria.gov.ph Philippine geoportal
Poland Główny Urząd Geodezji i Kartografii
Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography (GUGIK)
gugik.edu.pl Geoportal
Portugal Instituto Geográfico Português igeo.pt
Puerto Rico Sistemas de Información Geográfica (GIS) pr.gov
Qatar Qatari Center for Geographic Information Systems (QCGIS) gisqatar.org.qa
Republic of Korea National Geographic Information Institute ngii.go.kr
Romania Agentia Nationala de Cadastru si Publicitate Imobiliara ancpi.ro
Russia Федеральная служба государственной регистрации, кадастра и картографии

Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography (Rosreestr)

rosreestr.ru Rosreestr Interactive Map
Saudi Arabia General Commission for Survey (Saudi Arabia) gcs.gov.sa
Senegal Direction des Travaux Géographiques et Cartographiques
Agence Nationale pour l'Aménagement du Territoire
au-senegal.com
anat.sn
BaseGeo
Serbia Republički geodetski zavod (RGZ)
Republic Geodetic Authority
rgz.gov.rs Geoportal geoSrbija
Singapore Singapore Land Authority sla.gov.sg Onemap v2
Slovakia Úrad geodézie, kartografie a katastra

(Authority of Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre)

skgeodesy.sk
Kataster
Geoportal
Mapový Klient ZBGIS
Cadrastal portal
Slovenia Surveying and Mapping Authority of the Republic of Slovenia gu.gov.si Map viewer
South Africa Chief Directorate: National Geo-spatial Information ngi.gov.za
Spain Instituto Geográfico Nacional ign.es Iberpix
Sri Lanka Department of Survey survey.gov.lk
Sweden Lantmäteriet lantmateriet.se Kartsök och ortnamn
Switzerland Swisstopo swisstopo.admin.ch Maps of Switzerland
Taiwan 中華民國內政部國土測繪中心
National Land Surveying and Mapping Center (NLSC)
nlsc.gov.tw
Thailand Royal Thai Survey Department rtsd.mi.th WebGIS
Trinidad and Tobago Survey and Mapping Division agriculture.gov.tt
Tunisia Office de la Topographie et du Cadastre (OTC) otc.nat.tn
Turkey Harita Genel Müdürlüğü harita.gov.tr HGK-Atlas
Uganda Department of Surveys and Mapping mlhud.go.ug
United States United States Geological Survey usgs.gov National Map
Ukraine State Service of Ukraine for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre ( StateGeoCadastre); Ukrainian: Derzhavna sluzhba Ukrainy z pytan heodezii, kartohrafii ta kadastru (DerzhHeoKadastr) land.gov.ua/en/ Public cadastral map of Ukraine
Uruguay Servicio Geografico Militar sgm.gub.uy
Uzbekistan O’zdavgeodezkadastr (State committee of land resources, geodesy, cartography and cadastre of Uzbekistan)
Venezuela Instituto Geográfico de Venezuela Simón Bolívar (IGVSB) igvsb.gob.ve
Vietnam Cục Đo đạc và Bản đồ Việt Nam
Department of Survey and Mapping
dosm.gov.vn
Yemen Survey Authority survey-authority.gov.ye

Discussion

Although virtually the entire terrestrial surface of Earth has been mapped at scale 1:1,000,000, medium and large-scale mapping has been accomplished intensively in some countries and much less in others. [10] Nevertheless, national mapping programs listed below are only a partial selection. Several commercial vendors supply international topographic map series.

Australia

The NMIG (National Mapping Information Group) of Geoscience Australia is the Australian Government's national mapping agency. It provides topographic maps and data to meet the needs of the sustainable development of the nation. The Office of Spatial Data Management provides an online free map service MapConnect. [11] These topographic maps of scales 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 are available in printed form from the Sales Centre. [12] 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 maps are produced in conjunction with the Department of Defence. [13]

Austria

Austrian Maps ( German: Österreichische Karte (ÖK)) is the government agency producing maps of Austria, which are distributed by Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen (BEV) in Vienna. The maps are published at scales 1:25,000 1:50,000 1:200,000 and 1:500,000. Maps can also be viewed online. [14]

Canada

The Centre for Topographic Information produces topographic maps of Canada at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. The full map catalogue is known as the National Topographic System (NTS). [15] A government proposal to discontinue publishing of all hardcopy or paper topographic maps in favor of digital-only mapping data was shelved in 2005 after intense public opposition. [16]

China

The State Bureau of Surveying and Cartography compiles topographic maps at 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 scales. It is reported that these maps are accurate and attractively printed in seven colors, and that successive editions show progressive improvement in accuracy. [17]

These large-scale maps are the basis for maps at smaller scales. Maps at scales 1:4,000,000 or smaller are exported by Cartographic Publishing House, Beijing while larger-scale maps are restricted as state secrets, and prohibited from publishing by legislation, all except Hong Kong and Macau. China's topographic maps follow the international system of subdivision with 1:100,000 maps spanning 30 minutes longitude by 20 minutes latitude. [18]

Colombia

The Geographic Institute Agustín Codazzi is the government entity responsible for producing and distributing topographic maps of Colombia in 1:500,000 and 1:100,000 scales. These and several other Geographic information services can be accessed using the Instituto Geográfico Agustin Codazzi website [19] in Spanish.

Denmark

The National Survey and Cadastre of Denmark is responsible for producing topographic and nautical geodata of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. [20]

Finland

The National Land Survey of Finland produces the Topographic Database (accuracy 1:5000-1:10 000) and publishes topographic maps of Finland at 1:25,000 and 1:50,000. In addition topographics maps can be viewed by using a free map service MapSite. [21] [22]

France

The Institut Géographique National (IGN) produces topographic maps of France at 1:25,000 and 1:50,000. [23] In addition, topographic maps are freely accessible online, through the Géoportail website.

Germany

In principle, each federal state (Bundesland) is in charge of producing the official topographic maps. In fact, the maps between 1:5,000 and 1:100,000 are produced and published by the land surveying offices of each federal state, the maps between 1:200,000 and 1:1,000,000 by a federal house – the Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie (BKG) in Frankfurt am Main. [24]

Greece

Topographic maps for general use are available at 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 from the Hellenic Military Geographical Service (HMGS). [25] They use a national projection system called EGSA'87, which is a Transverse Mercatorial Projection mapping Greece in one zone. A few areas are also available at 1:25,000. Some private firms sell topographic maps of national parks based on HMGS topography.

Hong Kong

The Department of Lands is the government agency responsible for surveying and publishing topographic maps of Hong Kong. Commonly used maps such as the HM20C series (1:20,000) are reviewed and updated every year or two. Very large scale (1:600 in Urban area and the 1:1,000 HM1C series for all of HK) topographic maps are also available to public for various uses. [26]

India

The Survey of India is responsible for all topographic control, surveys and mapping of India. [27]

Israel

The Survey of Israel is responsible for the civilian mapping of Israel. Standard map scales are 1:50,000 and 1:100,000. The 1:50,000 map is available online. [28]

The Military Intelligence Directorate of the Israel Defense Forces has its own mapping unit, which is a sub-unit of Unit 9900.

Japan

The Geographical Survey Institute of Japan is responsible for base mapping of Japan. Standard map scales are 1:25,000, 1:50,000, 1:200,000 and 1:500,000. [29]

Nepal

From 1992 to 2000 a definitive series of large scale topographic maps were surveyed and published through a joint project by Government of Nepal Survey Department [30] and Finland's Ministry for Foreign Affairs contracting through the FinnMap consulting firm. [31] Japan International Cooperation Agency [32] substituted for FinnMap in Lumbini Zone.

Topographic sheets at 1:25,000 scale covering 7.5 minutes latitude and longitude map the densely populated Terai and Middle Mountain regions. Less populated high mountain regions are on 15-minute sheets at 1:50,000. JPG scans can be downloaded. [33] Currently, Survey Department is updating it's topographical base map using ZY-3 imagery. The first update phase completed 208 sheets [34]

Netherlands

The Land Registry Kadaster (formerly Topografische Dienst) collects, processes and provides topographical information of the entire Dutch territory. The history of the Land Registry goes back to the year 1815, that year was commissioned to create a large map, known as Map of Krayenhoff. Around 1836 they began printing the topographic map on a scale of 1: 50,000, followed in 1865 by the topographic map on a scale of 1: 25,000. In 1951 began the start of production of the topographic map on a scale of 1: 10,000. From various reorganizations arose in 1932 the Topografische Dienst as national mapping agency of the Netherlands, since January 2004 housed within the Land Registry Kadaster.

New Zealand

Land Information New Zealand is the government agency responsible for providing up-to-date topographic mapping. LINZ topographic maps cover all of New Zealand, offshore islands, some Pacific Islands and the Ross Sea Region. [35] The standard issue NZTopo map series was published September 2009 at 1:50,000 (NZTopo50), and 1:250,000 (NZTopo250). Vector data [36] from the New Zealand Topographic Database (NZTopo) is also available.

Pakistan

The responsibility for topographic mapping and aerial photography lies with the Surveyor General of Pakistan [SGP]. Established in 1947, the Survey of Pakistan (SOP) is based in Rawalpindi with a number of regional offices distributed at urban centers throughout Pakistan. SGP is a civil organization which, for security reasons, is headed by a Surveyor General and works under the strict control of Army General Headquarters (GHQ). Colonel C.A.K. Innes-Wilson, a Royal Engineers officer who joined the Survey of India which mapped the subcontinent, was the first Surveyor General of Pakistan.

All departments which require topographic maps make their request to SGP and many are permanently registered with it for mapping and aerial photographs procurement. The SOP performs these functions under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence (MOD). Organisationally, the SOP is overseen by the Surveyor General (SG) who is a direct military appointee and a senior uniformed officer. The SG reports directly to the Secretary of Defence. Under the SG are two Deputy SG's (I and II) who manage the operational departments of the agency and a Senior Technical Advisor. These departments are divided into Regional Directorates for Topographic Mapping including the Northern region centred in Peshawar, Eastern region (Lahore), Western region (Quetta) and finally, the Southern region in Karachi. Responsibility for fields surveys and the maintenance/update of topographic maps are sub-divided according to these geographic areas.

Portugal

The Army's Geographical Institute – Instituto Geográfico do Exército [1] – produces 1.25,000, 1:500,000 maps for public sale, as well as many geographical services.

Romania

Until recently, the two major government mapping authorities in Romania have been the Military Topographic Department (Directia Topografica Militara (DTM)), and the Institute for Geodesy, Photogrammetry, Cartography and Land Management (Institutul de Geodezie, Fotogrammetrie, Cartografie, si Organizarea Teritoriului (IGFCOT)). This situation has recently changed, following a decision in 1996 by the Romanian Government to establish a combined civilian National Office of Cadastre, Geodesy and Cartography (Oficiul National de Cadastru, Geodezie si Cartografie (ONCGC). Maps continued to be published under the imprint of the previous organizations into the late 1990s. From 1958, a number of town maps at scales of 1:5,000 or 1:10,000 were also made, initially on the Gauss-Krϋger projection, but after 1970 on a stereographic projection. More than 100 such sheets have been produced. There is also a street map of Bucharest in four sheets at 1:15,000 derived from larger-scale surveys, which is revised annually.

The 1:50,000 series in 737 sheets is now regarded as the base map. It was revised in the period 1965–72 using aerial photographs, and is currently being updated again with the intention of establishing a revision cycle of five to six years. The 1:25,000 will be retained, but revision only at 15-20-year intervals, except for sheets covering areas of rapid change.

Russia

Detailed, accurate topographic maps have long been a military priority. They are currently produced by the Military-topographic service of armed forces of the Russian Federation ( Russian: Военно-топографическая служба Вооружённых сил Российской Федерации or ВТС ВС). Military topographic mapping departments held other titles in the Russian Empire since 1793 and in the Soviet Union [37] where these maps also came to be used for internal control and economic development.

The Soviet Union conducted the world's most comprehensive cartographic project of the twentieth century. [38] Soviet map sheets adopted the global sheet nomenclature of the International Map of the World system and already covered foreign territories by 1938. [39] When Germany invaded in 1941, detailed maps from the USSR's western borders to the Volga River became an urgent task, accomplished in less than one year. After the war years the entire Soviet Union was mapped at scales down to 1:25,000—even 1:10,000 for the agriculturally productive fraction. The rest of the world except Antarctica is believed to have been mapped at scales down to 1:200,000, with regions of special interest down to 1:50,000 and many urban areas to 1:10,000. In all there may have been over one million map sheets [40] of high quality and detail. [41] [42] [43] Soviet maps were also notable for their consistent global indexing system. [44] [45] These advantages held for Soviet military maps of other countries, although there were some errors due to faulty intelligence. [46]

Soviet maps for domestic civilian purposes were often of lower quality. [47] From 1919 to 1967 they were produced by Head geodesic administration ( Russian: Высшее геодезическое управление or ВГУ), then by Chief administration of geodesy and cartography ( Russian: Главное управление геодезии и картографии or ГУГК). Now (June 2011) civilian maps are produced by the Federal agency for geodesy and cartography ( Russian: Федеральное агентство геодезии и картографии or Роскартография). [48]

Soviet military maps were state secrets. After the 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, many maps leaked into the public domain. [49] Map scales 1:100.000–1:500.000 can be viewed online. [50] [51]

Spain

The Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) is responsible for the official topographic maps. It does use six scales that cover all the Spanish territory: 1:25,000, 1:50,000, 1:200,000, 1:500,000, 1:1,000,000 and 1:2,000,000. The most common scale is the first one, which utilizes the UTM system.

South Africa

The Chief Directorate: National Geo-spatial Information (CD:NGI) produces three topographic map series, each covering the whole country, at scales 1:50 000, 1:250 000, and 1:500 000.

Switzerland

Swisstopo (the Federal Office of Topography) produces topographic maps of Switzerland at seven different scales.

Taiwan

Topographic maps for Taiwan had long been kept as confidential information due to security concerns. It has only been recently made available to public from the National Land Surveying and Mapping Center, the government agency responsible for surveying and publishing various maps. Topographic maps of up to 1:25,000 is now available in digital and printed format. [52]

United Kingdom

The Ordnance Survey (OS) produces topographic map series covering Great Britain at 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 scales. [53] The 1:25,000 scale is known as the "Explorer" series, and include an "OL" (Outdoor Leisure) sub-series for areas of special interest to hikers and walkers. It replaced the "Pathfinder" series, which was less colourful and covered a smaller area on each map. The 1:50,000 scale is known as the "Landranger" and carries a distinctive pink cover. More detailed mapping as fine as 1:10,000 covers some parts of the country. [54] The 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 scales are easily coordinated with standard romer scales on currently available compasses and plotting tools. The Ordnance Survey maintains a mapping database from which they can print specialist maps at virtually any scale. [55]

The Ordnance Survey National Grid divides Great Britain into cells 500 km, 100 km, 10 km and 1 km square on a Transverse Mercator grid aligned true north–south along the 2°W meridian. OS map products are based on this grid.

United States

The United States Geological Survey (USGS), a scientific federal agency, produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest (both in terms of scale and quantity) and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute or 1:24,000 quadrangle. This scale is unique to the United States,[ citation needed] where nearly every other developed nation has introduced a metric 1:25,000 or 1:50,000 large scale topo map. The USGS also publishes 1:100,000 maps covering 30 minutes latitude by one degree longitude, 1:250,000 covering one by two degrees, and state maps at 1:500,000 with California, Michigan and Montana needing two sheets while Texas has four. Alaska is mapped on a single sheet, at scales ranging from 1:1,584,000 to 1:12,000,000. [56][ citation needed]

Recent USGS digital National Map omits several important geographic details that were featured in the original USGS topographic map series (1945–1992). [57] Examples of omitted details and features include power transmission lines, telephone lines, railroads, recreational trails, pipelines, survey marks, and buildings. [57] For many of these feature classes, the USGS is working with other agencies to develop data or adapt existing data on missing details that will be included in The National Map. [57] In other areas USGS digital map revisions may omit geographic features such as ruins, mine locations, springs, wells, and even trails in an effort to protect natural resources and the public at large, or because such features are not present in any public domain database. [57]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ordnance Survey forms OS International to offer national mapping assistance internationally". Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
  2. ^ Nina Morgan. "Ordnance Survey maps that changed the world" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
  3. ^ By Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson to facilitate the subjugation of the clans following the Jacobite rising of 1745
  4. ^ Porter, Whitworth (1889). "History of the Corps of Royal Engineers". I. London: Longmans, Green, and Co: 167–68. Retrieved 2008-08-14. Cite journal requires |journal= ( help)
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  6. ^ Hindle, Paul (1998). Maps for Historians. Phillimore & Co. p. 117. ISBN  0-85033-934-0.
  7. ^ Seymour, W.A., ed. (1980). A History of the Ordnance Survey. Folkestone: Wm Dawson & Sons. p. 71. Archived from the original on 2013-07-25. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
  8. ^ Names in the languages listed on the agency's website
  9. ^ "Natural Resources Canada". Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
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  12. ^ Geoscience Australia Sales Centre Archived 15 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
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  25. ^ "Untitled". web.gys.gr. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  26. ^ "地政總署測繪處 – 關於測繪處". www.landsd.gov.hk. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  27. ^ Department of Scientific and Technology: Survey of India Archived 11 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ Israel 1:50,000 map
  29. ^ "Japan maps and guides from Omnimap, a leading international map store with 275,000 map titles". www.omnimap.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  30. ^ "Government of Nepal, Survey Department". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  31. ^ "Land Administration & Management, Mapping, Surveying and Aerial Photography, Major Reference Projects" (PDF). FinnMap. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
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  33. ^ "Nepal-Topo Maps". PAHAR Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset. MyPublisher. 2013-03-09. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  34. ^ Wagle, Nimisha; Acharya, Tri Dev (2020-06-16). "Past and Present Practices of Topographic Base Map Database Update in Nepal". ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 9 (6): 397. Bibcode: 2020IJGI....9..397W. doi: 10.3390/ijgi9060397. ISSN  2220-9964.
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  36. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link)
  37. ^ ru:Топографическая служба Вооружённых сил Российской Федерации[ better source needed]
  38. ^ Kent, Alexander J.; Davis, Martin; Davies, John (2019). "The Soviet mapping of Poland – A brief overview". Miscellanea Geographica. 23 (1): 5–15. doi: 10.2478/mgrsd-2018-0034.
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  42. ^ J. Davies (August 2005). "...(part 2)" (PDF). Sheetlines. 73: 6–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
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  45. ^ ru:Советская система разграфки и номенклатуры топографических карт[ better source needed]
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  47. ^ Postnikov, Alexey (2002). "Maps for Ordinary Consumers versus Maps for the Military: Double Standards of Map Accuracy in Soviet Cartography, 1917–1991". Cartography and Geographic Information Science. 29 (3): 243–260. doi: 10.1559/152304002782008431. S2CID  140680368.
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  49. ^ Davies, John; Kent, Alexander (2017). The Red Atlas: How the Soviet Union Secretly Mapped the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN  978-0226389578. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
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  51. ^ "Collection of Soviet Military Map Country Mosaics 1:200,000 Scale" [Online Viewer]. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  52. ^ http://www.nlsc.gov.tw/websites/make_page.aspx?la=1&le=2&li=11&sno=136&le2=3&li2=135. Retrieved 2014-01-04. Missing or empty |title= ( help)[ permanent dead link]
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  54. ^ 1:10,000 Scale Raster: mid-scale high-resolution detailed mapping Archived 10 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ The MasterMap Topography Layer contains information about buildings, roads, woodland, administrative boundaries, etc., with just a few spot heights along the roads. For contours or a digital terrain model, a separate product called OS Terrain Archived 1 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine is required.
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External links