Mobile technology

From Wikipedia

Mobile technology is the technology used for cellular communication. Mobile technology has evolved rapidly over the past few years. Since the start of this millennium, a standard mobile device has gone from being no more than a simple two-way pager to being a mobile phone, GPS navigation device, an embedded web browser and instant messaging client, and a handheld gaming console. Many experts believe that the future of computer technology rests in mobile computing with wireless networking. Mobile computing by way of tablet computers is becoming more popular. Tablets are available on the 3G and 4G networks. Mobile technology has different meanings in different aspects, mainly mobile technology in information technology and mobile technology in basketball technology, mainly based on the wireless technology of wireless devices (including laptops, tablets, mobile phones, etc.) equipment information technology integration.

Mobile communication convergence [1]

Tesla laid the theoretical foundation for wireless communication in 1890. Marconi, known as the father of radio, first transmitted wireless signals two miles away in 1894. Mobile technology gave human society great change. The use of mobile technology in government departments can also be traced back to World War I. In recent years, the integration of mobile communication technology and information technology has made mobile technology the focus of industry attention. With the integration of mobile communication and mobile computing technology, mobile technology has gradually matured, and the mobile interaction brought by the application and development of mobile technology has provided online connection and communication for Ubiquitous Computing and Any time, anywhere Liaison and information exchange provide possibilities, provide new opportunities and challenges for mobile work, and promote further changes in social and organizational forms.

The integration of information technology and communication technology is bringing great changes to our social life. Mobile technology and the Internet have become the main driving forces for the development of information and communication technologies. Through the use of high-coverage mobile communication networks, high-speed wireless networks, and various types of mobile information terminals, the use of mobile technologies has opened up a vast space for mobile interaction. And has become a popular and popular way of living and working. Due to the attractiveness of mobile interaction and the rapid development of new technologies, mobile information terminals and wireless networks will be no less than the scale and impact of computers and networks in the future. The development of mobile government and mobile commerce has provided new opportunities for further improving the level of city management, improving the level and efficiency of public services, and building a more responsive, efficient, transparent, and responsible government. It also helps to bridge the digital divide and provide citizens with universal Service, agile service. The integration and development of information and communication technology has spurred the formation of an information society and a knowledge society, and has also led to a user-oriented innovation oriented to a knowledge society, a user-centered society, a stage of social practice, and a feature of mass innovation, joint innovation, and open innovation. Shape, innovation 2.0 mode is gradually emerging to the attention of the scientific community and society.

Mobile communication industry [2]

0G: An early cellular mobile phone technology that emerged in the 1970s. At this time, although briefcase-type mobile phones have appeared, they still generally need to be installed in a car or truck.

  • PTT: Push to talk
  • MTS: Mobile Telephone System
  • IMTS: Improved Mobile Telephone Service
  • AMTS: Advanced Mobile Telephone System
  • 0.5G: A group of technologies that improve the basic 0G technical characteristics.
  • Autotel / PALM: Autotel or PALM (Public Automated Land Mobile)
  • ARP: Autoradiopuhelin, Car Radio Phone
  • HCMTS: High Capacity Mobile Telephone System

1G: Refers to the first generation of wireless telephone technology, namely cellular portable wireless telephone. Introduced in the 1980s are analog cellular portable radiotelephone standards.

  • NMT: Nordic Mobile Telephone
  • AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System
  • TACS: Total Access Communication System (TACS: Total Access Communication System) is the European version of AMPS
  • JTAGS: Japan Total Access Communication System

2G: Second-generation wireless telephone based on digital technology. 2G networks are basically only for voice communications, with the exception that some standards can also use SMS messages as a form of data transmission.

  • GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications
  • iDEN: Integrated Digital Enhanced Network
  • D-AMPS: Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System based on TDMA
  • cdmaOne: Code Division Multiple Access defined by IS-95
  • PDC: Personal Digital Cellular
  • TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access

2.5G: A set of transition technologies between 2G and 3G wireless technologies. In addition to voice, it involves digital communication technologies that support E-mail and simple Web browsing.

  • GPRS: General Packet Radio Service
  • WiDEN: Wideband Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network

2.75G: refers to a technology that, although it does not meet 3G requirements, plays a role of 3G in the market.

  • CDMA2000 1xRTT: CDMA-2000 is a TIA standard (IS-2000) evolved from cdmaOne. Compared with 3G, CDMA2000 supporting 1xRTT has lower requirements.
  • EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution

3G: Representing the third generation of wireless communication technology, it supports broadband voice, data and multimedia communication technologies in wireless networks.

  • W-CDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
  • UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
  • FOMA: Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access
  • CDMA2000 1xEV: More advanced than CDMA2000, it supports 1xEV technology and can meet 3G requirements.
  • TD-SCDMA: Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access

3.5G: Generally refers to a technology that goes beyond the development of comprehensive 3G wireless and mobile technologies.

  • HSDPA: High-Speed Downlink Packet Access

3.75G: A technology that goes beyond the development of comprehensive 3G wireless and mobile technologies.

  • HSUPA: High-Speed Uplink Packet Access

4G: Named for high-speed mobile wireless communications technology and designed to enable new data services and interactive TV services in mobile networks.

5G: Aims to improve upon 4G, offering lower response times (lower latency) and higher data transfer speeds

Mobile phone generations

In the early 1980s, 1G was introduced as voice-only communication via "brick phones". [3] Later in 1991, the development of 2G introduced Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) capabilities, allowing picture messages to be sent and received between phones. [3] In 1998, 3G was introduced to provide faster data-transmission speeds to support video calling and internet access. 4G was released in 2008 to support more demanding services such as gaming services, HD mobile TV, video conferencing, and 3D TV. [3] 5G technology has been planned for the upcoming future.

4G networking

4G is the current mainstream cellular service offered to cell phone users, performance roughly 10 times faster than 3G service. [4] One of the most important features in the 4G mobile networks is the domination of high-speed packet transmissions or burst traffic in the channels. The same codes used in the 2G- 3G networks are applied to 4G mobile or wireless networks, the detection of very short bursts will be a serious problem due to their very poor partial correlation properties. A recent study has indicated that traditional multilayer network architecture based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model may not be well suited for 4G mobile network, where transactions of short packets will be the major part of the traffic in the channels. As the packets from different mobiles carry completely different channel characteristics, the receiver should execute all necessary algorithms, such as channel estimation, interactions with all upper layers and so on, within a very 'short' period of time.

5G networking

5G's performance goals are high data rates, reduced latency, energy savings, reduced costs, increased system capacity and large-scale device connectivity.

The main advantage of 5G networks is that the data transmission rate is much higher than the previous cellular network, up to 10Gbit/s, which is faster than the current wired Internet and 100 times faster than the previous 4G LTE cellular network. Another advantage is lower network latency (faster response time), less than 1 millisecond, and 4G is 30-70 milliseconds.

  1. The peak rate needs to reach the Gbit/s standard to meet the high data volume of high-definition video, virtual reality and so on.
  2. The air interface delay level needs to be around 1ms, which meets real-time applications such as autonomous driving and telemedicine.
  3. Large network capacity, providing the connection capacity of 100 billion devices to meet IoT communication.
  4. The spectrum efficiency is 10 times higher than LTE.
  5. With continuous wide area coverage and high mobility, the user experience rate reaches 100 Mbit/s.
  6. The flow density and the number of connections are greatly increased.

Operating systems

Many types of mobile operating systems (OS) are available for smartphones, including Android, BlackBerry OS, webOS, iOS, Symbian, Windows Mobile Professional (touch screen), Windows Mobile Standard (non-touch screen), and Bada. The most popular are the Apple iPhone, and the newest: Android. Android, a mobile OS developed by Google, is the first completely open-source mobile OS, meaning that it is free to any cell phone mobile network.

Since 2008 customizable OSs allow the user to download apps like games, GPS, utilities, and other tools. Users can also create their own apps and publish them, e.g. to Apple's App Store. The Palm Pre using webOS has functionality over the Internet and can support Internet-based programming languages such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), HTML, and JavaScript. The Research In Motion (RIM) BlackBerry is a smartphone with a multimedia player and third-party software installation. The Windows Mobile Professional Smartphones ( Pocket PC or Windows Mobile PDA) are like personal digital assistants (PDA) and have touchscreen abilities. The Windows Mobile Standard does not have a touch screen but uses a trackball, touchpad, or rockers.

Channel hogging and file sharing

There will be a hit to file sharing, the normal web surfer would want to look at a new web page every minute or so at 100 kbs a page loads quickly.[ clarification needed] Because of the changes to the security of wireless networks users will be unable to do huge file transfers because service providers want to reduce channel use. AT&T claimed that they would ban any of their users that they caught using peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing applications on their 3G network. It then became apparent that it would keep any of their users from using their iTunes programs. The users would then be forced to find a Wi-Fi hotspot to be able to download files. The limits of wireless networking will not be cured by 4G, as there are too many fundamental differences between wireless networking and other means of Internet access. If wireless vendors do not realize these differences and bandwidth limits, future wireless customers will find themselves disappointed and the market may suffer setbacks.

Mobile Internet Technology [5]

Mobile Internet is an inevitable product of the development of the PC Internet. It combines mobile communication and the Internet into one. It is a general term for activities in which the technology, platforms, business models, and applications of the Internet are combined with mobile communications technology.

Application area

Medical industry

Affected by the mobile Internet, the current medical industry has begun to make changes, such as online medical treatment, online appointments, telemedicine cooperation and online payment.

From the patient's perspective:

(1) The word-of-mouth evaluation of various hospitals and physicians will be clear at a glance on the Internet. When people see the doctor, they can immediately evaluate the doctor and let everyone know.

(2) The user's illness big data will be stored permanently with the electronic medical record until the end of life.

(3) In the future, the Internet of Things world will network all your information. When did you eat what meals, when did you do something, and the calories consumed that day were all uploaded to the cloud. The doctor can more accurately determine the condition based on your regular diet.

(4) More often, patients can choose not to seek medical treatment in a hospital, and based on the reliability of big data, they can directly solve it remotely.


Mobile e-commerce can provide users with the services, applications, information and entertainment they need anytime, anywhere. Select and purchase goods and services conveniently and conveniently using a mobile terminal. Multiple payment methods, easy to use. The mobile payment platform not only supports various bank cards for online payment, but also supports various terminal operations such as mobile phones and telephones, which meets the needs of online consumers in pursuit of personalization and diversification.


Augmented reality is also called mixed reality. It uses computer technology to apply virtual information to the real world. The real environment and virtual objects are superimposed on the same screen or space in real time. Augmented reality provides information that, in general, differs from what humans can perceive. It not only displays real-world information, but also displays virtual information at the same time, and the two kinds of information complement each other.

Impacts on the modern family

Increasing mobile technology use has changed how the modern family interacts with one another through technology. With the rise of mobile devices, families are becoming increasingly "on-the-move", [6] and spend less time in physical contact with one another. However, this trend does not mean that families are no longer interacting with each other, but rather have evolved into a more digitized variant. A study has shown that the modern family actually learns better with usage of mobile media, [6] and children are more willing to cooperate with their parents via a digital medium than a more direct approach. For example, family members can share information from articles or online videos via mobile devices and thus stay connected with one another during a busy day.

This trend is not without controversy, however. Many parents of elementary school-age children express concern and sometimes disapproval of heavy mobile technology use. [6] Parents may feel that excessive usage of such technologies distracts children from "un-plugged" bonding experiences, and many express safety concerns about children using mobile media. While parents may have many concerns are, they are not necessarily anti-technology. [6] In fact, many parents express approval of mobile technology usage if their children can learn something from the session. for example, through art or music tutorials on YouTube.

In family life, this technological invention has caused positive and negative effects of equal measure. While others may view this gadget as having eased communication among people and families, some researchers have proved otherwise. These gadgets have strengthened family units. For example, families compensate for daily stress through text messages, phone calls, and e-mails. Internet-enabled phones have also assisted in the connection through social sites where family members can discuss their issues even if they are far apart (Alamenciak, 2012). In America, for instance, parents have adjusted to modern technology thus increasing their connection with their children who may be working in different states. Cell phones are bringing families together as they increase the quality of communication among the family members are living separately in the distance. Families use cell phones to get in touch with their children by the use of e-mails and web (George, 2008). These families contact their children to know how they’re redoing and entertain them in the process. Moreover, cell phone communication brings families more closely increasing the relationship between family members. During this time, family heads promote values and set good examples to their children. They encourage openness and communication in case problems arise in the family as well as security since family members get the opportunity to know each other well. Also, cell phones have enhanced accountability either in working premises or at homes. People keep in touch with their core-workers and employees as well as their family members (Good Connection, Bad Example: Cell Phones and The Family, 2007). This creates constant interaction leading to a healthy balance, which is produced and creative. This generates income as it increases the work done. [7]

Future of smartphones

The next generation of smartphones will be context-aware, taking advantage of the growing availability of embedded physical sensors and data exchange abilities. One of the main features applying to this is that phones will start keeping track of users' personal data, and adapt to anticipate the information will need. All-new applications will come out with the new phones, one of which is an X-ray device that reveals information about any location at which the phone is pointed. Companies are developing software to take advantage of more accurate location-sensing data. This has been described as making the phone a virtual mouse able to click the real world.[ citation needed] An example would be pointing the phone's camera at a building while having the live feed open, and the phone will show text with the image of the building, and save its location for use in the future.

Omnitouch is a device via which apps can be viewed and used on a hand, arm, wall, desk, or any other everyday surface. The device uses a sensor touch interface, which enables the user to access all the functions through the use of the touch of a finger. It was developed at Carnegie Mellon University. This device uses a projector and camera worn on the user's shoulder, with no controls other than the user's fingers.

Borderless technology

Borderless phones are free from the shackles of the bezels, allowing the screen to be more free. Loading a larger screen into a limited phone size can increase one-handed operability, aesthetics, and a sense of technology.

However, the technical problems faced by borderless, light leakage on the screen, accidental touch on the edges, and more fragile bare screens have all been obstacles to the popularization of this technology.

Transparent phone

Transparent phone is a mobile phone that uses replaceable glass to achieve a visual penetration effect so that its appearance is transparent. Transparent mobile phones use special switchable glass technology. Once the electrically controlled glass is activated by a current through a transparent wire, these molecules will rearrange to form text, icons and other images.

Chip phone

The idea is that a cell phone can be made directly at the chip level and implanted in the body. Cell phones are used as brain-assisting tools to help improve work efficiency and sensory experience.

Mobile technology classification

Mobile technology, driven by the convergence of mobile communication technology and mobile computing technology, mainly includes four types of technologies.

  1. radio-based two-way radio communication (professional or public mobile radio) or broadcast
  2. mobile phone service based on cellular phones, SMS (Short Message Service), WAP (Wireless Application Protocol), GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), UMTS (3G, 3rd Generation Mobile Communication Network)
  3. mobile-based, including laptops, tablets, PDAs (personal digital assistants), pagers, Bluetooth technology, RFID (radio frequency identification) and GPS (Global Positioning System)
  4. network-based WiFi or WAPI wireless LAN that China is developing.


  1. ^ "Tesla and Marconi".
  2. ^ "Ahmed Audu Maiyaki" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-12-13.
  3. ^ a b c Fendelman, Adam (2017-12-18). "1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, & 5G Explained". Lifewire. Retrieved 2018-02-27.
  4. ^ Cassavoy, Liane (2017-12-18). "What is 4G wireless?". Lifewire. Retrieved 2018-02-27.
  5. ^ "Mobile Technology and Home Broadband 2019". Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. 2019-06-13. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
  6. ^ a b c d Taylor, Katie Headrick; Takeuchi, Lori; Stevens, Reed (2017). "Mapping the daily media round: novel methods for understanding families' mobile technology use". Learning, Media and Technology. 43: 1–15. doi: 10.1080/17439884.2017.1391286. ISSN  1743-9884.
  7. ^,living%20separately%20in%20the%20distance.