Milton Santos

From Wikipedia
Milton Santos
Milton Santos (TV Brasil).jpg
Born(1926-05-03)3 May 1926
Died24 June 2001(2001-06-24) (aged 75)
Alma mater Universidade Federal da Bahia, University of Strasbourg
Scientific career
Fields Human geography, Critical geography, Urban studies

Milton Almeida dos Santos (May 3, 1926 – June 24, 2001) was a Brazilian geographer and geography scholar who had a degree in law. [1] He became known for his pioneering works in several branches of geography, notably urban development in developing countries. He is considered the father of critical geography in Brazil. Santos was a recipient of the Vautrin Lud Prize, often seen as geography's equivalent of the Nobel Prize, [2] and a posthumous recipient of the Prêmio Anísio Teixeira, awarded every five years by the Brazilian agency for the improvement of higher education personnel to distinguished contributors to research and development in Brazil.


Santos was born in Brotas de Macaúbas, Bahia, Brazil on May 3, 1926. [3] His parents were elementary school teachers who home-schooled him. His Black paternal grandfather had been formerly enslaved. By the time Santos was eight, he was through with his elementary education. From 1934 to 1936, he lived in Alcobaça, where he went to study French and "good manners".

Santos taught geography and math to fellow high-school students in order to finance his pre-law in Salvador. [4] He graduated in law from the Federal University of Bahia but decided not to practice, becoming instead a high-school geography teacher in Ilhéus. [5] There, he met and married his first wife Jandira, who gave birth to their son Milton filho. Also in Ilhéus, Santos worked on the side as a journalist for the A Tarde newspaper.

Santos studied and taught in Europe, the Americas, and Africa. [6] He completed his PhD at the University of Strasbourg in 1958 under Jean Tricart. Prior to being exiled by the Brazilian military dictatorship, he was forbidden to leave the country and could do so only after a negotiation between the French ambassador and the government[ citation needed]. He managed to turn an otherwise painful thirteen-year exile into a successful international career. He lived in Bordeaux and Toulouse, where he met geography student Hélène, who was to become his second wife and give birth to son Rafael. He also taught in Paris at the Sorbonne, Toronto and the MIT, where he teamed up with Noam Chomsky. [7]

Santos wrote more than forty books, all told, in several languages. His works became a reference for those interested in understanding geography from a critical point of view (if not necessarily in a negative light), especially by applying concepts of the Frankfurt School. [8] His main concerns were connected on the one hand to city structure, urban networks and urbanisation processes in developing nations; and on the other hand, to the epistemology of geography (which means, its object and relationship to other sciences, such as economics and ethnography). His views about space helped geography transition from a concept of space as a stage for human action, to a constraint on human action. [9]

His works include "Por uma Geografia Nova" (For a New Geography) (1978) and "A natureza do espaço" (The Nature of Space) (1996). His work "O espaço dividido" (The Shared Space), in which Santos develops a theory of urban development in developing countries, is considered a geography classic. [10] [11] [12]

In 1994, Santos was awarded the Vautrin Lud Prize, the highest prize in geography. The Prize is modelled after the Nobel Prize and colloquially called the Nobel Prize for geography. To date, Santos remains the only Latin-American scholar to ever win it. [13] [14] [15]

Santos died in São Paulo, on June 24, 2001, at age 75, [16] as a result of prostate cancer diagnosed about seven years earlier. [17]

On 1 October 2018, search engine Google celebrated Milton Santos with a Doodle. [18]

Major Works

  • Santos, M. (1948). O povoamento da Bahia: Suas causas econômicas. Salvador: Imprensa Oficial da Bahia.
  • Santos, M. (1953). Estudos sobre geografia. Salvador: Tipografia Manú.
  • Santos, M. (1960). Marianne em Preto e Branco. Salvador: Livraria Progresso Editora.
  • Santos, M. (1965). A cidade nos países subdesenvolvidos. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira.
  • Santos, M. (1974). Geography, Marxism and underdevelopment. Antipode, 6(3), 1–9.
  • Santos, M. (1975). L’espace partagé: Les deux circuits de l’economie urbaine des pays sous- developpes. Paris: M.-Th. Génin, Librairies Techniques.
  • Santos, M. (1979). The shared space: The two circuits of the urban economy in underdeveloped countries. London and New York, Methuen.
  • Santos, M., M. A. de Souza & M. L. Silveira (Eds.), Território: Globalização e fragmentação. São Paulo: Hucitec and ANPUR.
  • Santos, M. (1990). Metrópole corporativa fragmentada: o caso de São Paulo. São Paulo: Nobel.
  • Santos, M. (1990). Espace et Méthode. Paris: Publisud.
  • Santos, M. (1993, 1998). A Urbanização Brasileira. São Paulo: Hucitec.
  • Santos, M. (1994). Por uma economia política da Cidade, São Paulo: Hucitec.
  • Santos, M. (1996a). A Natureza do espaço. Técnica e tempo. Razão e emoção. São Paulo: Hucitec. TRans: (1997) La Nature de l'Espace. Technique et Temp. Raison et Émotion. Paris: L'Harmattan. Trans: (2000) La Naturaleza del Espacio. Técnica y Tiempo. Razón y Emoción. Barcelona: Ariel.
  • Santos, M. (2000a). Por uma outra globalização: Do pensamento único à consciência universal. Rio de Janeiro: Record. Trans. Santos, M. (2017). Toward an other globalization: From the single thought to universal conscience. Translated by L. Melgaço and T. Clarke. Cham: Springer.
  • Santos, M. (2004 [1978, 1990]). Por uma geografia nova. São Paulo: Edusp. Trans: (2021) For a New Geography. University of Minnesota Press.
  • Santos, M., & Silveira, M. L. (2001). O Brasil: Território e sociedade no início do século XXI. Rio de Janeiro: Record.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Goodchild Awarded the "Nobel Prize" of Geography".
  3. ^ Revista Scripta Nova - University of Barcelona
  4. ^ "Milton Santos: Aspectos de sua vida e obra".
  5. ^ Revista Scripta Nova - University of Barcelona
  6. ^ Revista Scripta Nova - University of Barcelona
  7. ^ "Milton Almeida dos Santos". Museu Afro Brasil. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  8. ^ Revista Scripta Nova - University of Barcelona
  9. ^ "Introdução ao pensamento de Milton Santos: reflexões sobre o Trabalho do Geógrafo".
  10. ^ "Milton Santos: Aspectos de sua vida e obra".
  11. ^ "Mílton Santos".
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-09-03. Retrieved 2012-11-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link)
  13. ^ "Milton Santos: Aspectos de sua vida e obra".
  14. ^ "Mílton Santos".
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-09-03. Retrieved 2012-11-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link)
  16. ^ "A obra de Milton Santos". GGN (in Portuguese). 22 January 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  17. ^ "Professor Milton Santos morre de câncer na próstata aos 75 anos". Folha De S. Paulo (in Portuguese). 24 June 2001. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  18. ^ "Celebrating Milton Santos". Google. 2018-10-01. Retrieved 2018-10-03.

External links