Wolfram Mathematica
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Developer(s)  Wolfram Research 

Initial release  June 23, 1988  ^{ [1]}
Stable release  12.3.1 (June 20, 2021 [±]^{ [2]}  )
Written in  Wolfram Language,^{ [3]} C/ C++, Java^{ [4]} 
Platform  Windows (10),^{ [5]} macOS, Linux, Raspbian, online service.^{ [6]} All platforms support 64bit implementations.^{ [7]} (list) 
Available in  English, Chinese, Japanese 
Type  Computer algebra, numerical computations, information visualization, statistics, user interface creation 
License  Proprietary 
Website 
www 
Wolfram Mathematica is a software system with builtin libraries for several areas of technical computing that allow machine learning, statistics, symbolic computation, manipulating matrices, plotting functions and various types of data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other programming languages. It was conceived by Stephen Wolfram, and is developed by Wolfram Research of Champaign, Illinois.^{ [8]}^{ [9]} The Wolfram Language is the programming language used in Mathematica.^{ [10]}
Notebook interface
Wolfram Mathematica (called Mathematica by some of its users) is split into two parts: the kernel and the front end. The kernel interprets expressions (Wolfram Language code) and returns result expressions, which can then be displayed by the front end.
The original front end, designed by Theodore Gray^{ [11]} in 1988, consists of a notebook interface and allows the creation and editing of notebook documents that can contain code, plaintext, images, and graphics.^{ [12]}
Alternatives to the Mathematica front end include Wolfram Workbench—an Eclipsebased integrated development environment (IDE) that was introduced in 2006. It provides projectbased code development tools for Mathematica, including revision management, debugging, profiling, and testing.^{ [13]}
There is also a plugin for IntelliJ IDEAbased IDEs to work with Wolfram Language code that in addition to syntax highlighting can analyze and autocomplete local variables and defined functions.^{ [14]} The Mathematica Kernel also includes a command line front end.^{ [15]}
Other interfaces include JMath,^{ [16]} based on GNU Readline and WolframScript^{ [17]} which runs selfcontained Mathematica programs (with arguments) from the UNIX command line.
Highperformance computing
Capabilities for highperformance computing were extended with the introduction of packed arrays in version 4 (1999)^{ [18]} and sparse matrices (version 5, 2003),^{ [19]} and by adopting the GNU MultiPrecision Library to evaluate highprecision arithmetic.
Version 5.2 (2005) added automatic multithreading when computations are performed on multicore computers.^{ [20]} This release included CPUspecific optimized libraries.^{ [21]} In addition Mathematica is supported by third party specialist acceleration hardware such as ClearSpeed.^{ [22]}
In 2002, gridMathematica was introduced to allow user level parallel programming on heterogeneous clusters and multiprocessor systems^{ [23]} and in 2008 parallel computing technology was included in all Mathematica licenses including support for grid technology such as Windows HPC Server 2008, Microsoft Compute Cluster Server and Sun Grid.
Support for CUDA and OpenCL GPU hardware was added in 2010.^{ [24]}
In 2019, support was added for compiling Wolfram Language code to LLVM.^{ [25]}
Connections to other applications, programming languages, and services
Communication with other applications occurs through a protocol called Wolfram Symbolic Transfer Protocol (WSTP). It allows communication between the Wolfram Mathematica kernel and front end and provides a general interface between the kernel and other applications.^{ [26]}
Wolfram Research freely distributes a developer kit for linking applications written in the programming language C to the Mathematica kernel through WSTP using J/Link.,^{ [27]} a Java program that can ask Mathematica to perform computations. Similar functionality is achieved with .NET /Link,^{ [28]} but with .NET programs instead of Java programs.
Other languages that connect to Mathematica include Haskell,^{ [29]} AppleScript,^{ [30]} Racket,^{ [31]} Visual Basic,^{ [32]} Python,^{ [33]}^{ [34]} and Clojure.^{ [35]}
Mathematica supports the generation and execution of Modelica models for systems modeling and connects with Wolfram System Modeler.
Links are also available to many thirdparty software packages and APIs.^{ [36]}
Mathematica can also capture realtime data from a variety of sources^{ [37]} and can read and write to public blockchains ( Bitcoin, Ethereum, and ARK).^{ [38]}
It supports import and export of over 220 data, image, video, sound, computeraided design (CAD), geographic information systems (GIS),^{ [39]} document, and biomedical formats
Computable data
Mathematica is also integrated with Wolfram Alpha, an online computational knowledge answer engine that provides additional data, some of which is kept updated in real time, for users who use Mathematica with an internet connection. Some of the data sets include astronomical, chemical, geopolitical, language, biomedical, and weather data, in addition to mathematical data (such as knots and polyhedra).^{ [40]}
Reception
BYTE in 1989 listed Mathematica as among the "Distinction" winners of the BYTE Awards, stating that it "is another breakthrough Macintosh application ... it could enable you to absorb the algebra and calculus that seemed impossible to comprehend from a textbook".^{ [41]} Mathematica has been criticized for being closed source.^{ [42]} Wolfram Research claims keeping Mathematica closed source is central to its business model and the continuity of the software.^{ [43]}
See also
 Comparison of multiparadigm programming languages
 Comparison of numericalanalysis software
 Comparison of programming languages
 Comparison of regular expression engines
 Computational X
 Dynamic programming language
 Fourthgeneration programming language
 Functional programming
 List of computer algebra systems
 List of computer simulation software
 List of graphing software
 Literate programming
 Mathematical markup language
 Mathematical software
 Wolfram Alpha, a web answer engine
 Wolfram Language
 Wolfram SystemModeler, a physical modeling and simulation tool which integrates with Mathematica
References
 ^ Wolfram, Stephen (23 Jun 2008), Mathematica Turns 20 Today, Wolfram, retrieved 16 May 2012
 ^ "Mathematica Quick Revision History". Retrieved 20200520.
 ^ "Celebrating Mathematica's First Quarter Century". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ The Software Engineering of Mathematica—Wolfram Mathematica 9 Documentation. Reference.wolfram.com. Retrieved on 20150323.
 ^ "Mathematica 12 System Requirements and Platform Availability". Retrieved 16 December 2020.
 ^ Raspberry Pi Includes Mathematica for Free The Verge
 ^ "Wolfram Mathematica". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ "Stephen Wolfram: Simple Solutions; The iconoclastic physicist's Mathematica software nails complex puzzles". BusinessWeek. October 3, 2005. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
 ^ "Contact Wolfram Research". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ "Stephen Wolfram's new programming language: Can he make the world computable?". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ Patent US8407580 Google Patent Search
 ^ Hayes, Brian (19900101). "Thoughts on Mathematica" (PDF). Pixel.
 ^ "Wolfram intros Workbench IDE for Mathematica". Macworld. 21 June 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ Mathematica plugin for IntelliJ IDEA
 ^ Using a TextBased Interface documentation at wolfram.com
 ^ "JMath: A GNU Readline based frontend for Mathematica". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ "Directory listing". Retrieved 18 April 2019.
 ^ Math software packs new power; new programs automate such tedious processes as solving nonlinear differential equations and converting units by Agnes Shanley, Chemical Engineering, March 1, 2002.
 ^ Mathematica 5.1: additional features make software wellsuited for operations research professionals by ManMohan S. Sodhi, OR/MS Today, December 1, 2004.
 ^ The 21st annual Editors' Choice Awards, Macworld, February 1, 2006.
 ^ "Mathematica is tuned to take advantage of CPU features when available". Retrieved 13 April 2020.
 ^ "ClearSpeed Advance Accelerator Boards Certified by Wolfram Research; Math Coprocessors Enable Mathematica Users to Quadruple Performance". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ gridMathematica offers parallel computing solution by Dennis Sellers, MacWorld, November 20, 2002.
 ^ "CUDA and OpenCL support added in Mathematica 8". Retrieved 13 April 2020.
 ^ "Create LLVM code". Retrieved 13 April 2020.
 ^ Wolfram Symbolic Transfer Protocol (WSTP)
 ^ Mathematica 4.2 Archived 20071121 at the Wayback Machine by Charles Seiter, Macworld, November 1, 2002.
 ^ .NET/Link: .NET/Link is a toolkit that integrates Mathematica and the Microsoft .NET Framework.
 ^ "mathlink: Write Mathematica packages in Haskell  Hackage". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ S.Kratky. "MathLink for AppleScript". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ "MrMathematica: Calling Mathematica from Scheme". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ "Mathematica for ActiveX  from Wolfram Library Archive". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ "erocarrera/pythonika". GitHub. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ "PYML (Python Mathematica interface)  from Wolfram Library Archive". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
 ^ "Clojuratica  Home". Clojuratica.weebly.com. Retrieved 20130816.
 ^ "Wolfram Documentation: ServiceConnect". Retrieved 4 August 2021.
 ^ Vernier and Mathematica
 ^ "Working with blockchains". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
 ^ Mathematica 6 Labs Review Cadalyst Feb 1, 2008
 ^ "Scientific and Technical Data", Mathematic Guide, Wolfram Research, archived from the original on 10 May 2012, retrieved 16 May 2012
 ^ "The BYTE Awards". BYTE. January 1989. p. 327.
 ^ "Paul Romer". paulromer.net. Retrieved 20210805.
 ^ "Why Wolfram Tech Isn't Open Source—A Dozen Reasons—Wolfram Blog". blog.wolfram.com. Retrieved 20210805.
External links
 Official website
 Mathematica Documentation Center
 A little bit of Mathematica history documenting the growth of code base and number of functions over time
 Image processing software
 1988 software
 Astronomical databases
 Computational notebook
 Computer algebra system software for Linux
 Computer algebra system software for MacOS
 Computer algebra system software for Windows
 Computer algebra systems
 Crossplatform software
 Data mining and machine learning software
 Earth sciences graphics software
 Econometrics software
 Formula editors
 Interactive geometry software
 Mathematical optimization software
 Mathematical software
 Numerical analysis software for Linux
 Numerical analysis software for MacOS
 Numerical analysis software for Windows
 Numerical programming languages
 Numerical software
 Physics software
 Pirelated software
 Plotting software
 Proprietary commercial software for Linux
 Proprietary crossplatform software
 Regression and curve fitting software
 Simulation programming languages
 Software that uses Qt
 Statistical programming languages
 Theorem proving software systems
 Time series software
 Wolfram Research
 Graph drawing software