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A literary society is a group of people interested in literature. In the modern sense, this refers to a society that wants to promote one genre of writing or a specific author. Modern literary societies typically promote research, publish newsletters, and hold meetings where findings can be presented and discussed. Some are more academic and scholarly, while others are more social groups of amateurs who appreciate a chance to discuss their favourite writer with other hobbyists.
Historically, "literary society" has also referred to salons such as those of Madame de Stael, Madame Geoffrin and Madame de Tencin in Ancien Regime France. Another meaning was of college literary societies, student groups specific to the United States.
Modern examples of literary societies include:
- In France, Parnassian poets (ca. 1866)
- In Germany, the Tunnel über der Spree and the Georgekreis are among the most famous. However, the largest society are the Literarische Gesellschaft/Scheffelbund Karlsruhe, founded 1891 (in Schwetzingen, now Karlsruhe) in honor of Joseph Victor von Scheffel with about 7.000 members,  and the Deutsche Schillergesellschaft (founded in 1895), honoring Friedrich Schiller and hosting the Deutsches Literaturarchiv Marbach, the largest private German literary archive with about 2.500 members. 
- In Russia, the Arzamas Society (1815)
- In India, the Bangiya Sahitya Parishad (1893), to promote Bengali literature
- In Italy, the Società letteraria di Verona (1808)
- In Mexico, the Arcadia Mexicana (1808),  the Academia de Letrán (1836),  and the Liceo Hidalgo (1850) 
- In Canada, The Bootmakers of Toronto
- In Germany, the Group 47
- In India, the Assam Sahitya Sabha, to promote Assamese literature
- In Russia, the Serapion Brothers and the Left Front of the Arts's group
- In UK, The Kipling Society
- In US, The Baker Street Irregulars, The Jane Austen Society of North America (5000 members), the Norman Mailer Society, and The Wolfe Pack
There was a specialized form of the literary society which existed at American colleges and universities in the 19th century. The college literary societies were a part of virtually all academic institutions. Usually they existed in pairs at a particular campus, and would compete for members and prestige, and supplemented the classical studies of the curriculum with modern literature and current events. Many also maintained significant libraries, which often rivaled or surpassed the college library. When they disbanded, the libraries were typically given to the college. Even today, the oldest books in the early American colleges often bear the bookplate of a literary society.
These are Latin-named and -themed organizations whose purposes vary from society to society. Activities include but are not limited to: The weekly presentation of papers written by society members, and a debate on its merits; Readings of members work and others', followed by discussion; literary Productions, which are practices in oratory skill; intramural sports teams; service events; and social gatherings. Meetings were often ended with snacks, such as peanuts or sardines. Singing and music also played a role in society life as musical instruments became more available. There are seven active literary societies at Illinois College. It is from the collegiate literary societies with Latin names that the earliest Greek organizations sprung. As an example, Beta Theta Pi fraternity was started by 8 students of the Union Literary Society at Miami University in 1839. Many early Greek chapters were started as a result of schism in the Latin societies. The Greek chapters were smaller, numbering from 8 to 15 at any given time. These were more intimate groups as compared to the societies. Confidences could be shared, promoting a certain amount of secrecy, which became an early hallmark of a Greek chapter. And as the Greek organizations grew, the literary societies declined. Some vestiges remain, but for the most part society life ended in the early twentieth century.
- "Academies: Academies of belles lettres". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1 (14 ed.). 1930. p. 82.
- "Literarische Gesellschaft/Scheffelbund Karlsruhe". Archived from the original on March 23, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- Die Deutsche Schillergesellschaft (DSG)
- Arcadia Mexicana in the Encyclopedia of Mexican Literature
- Academia de Letrán in the Encyclopedia of Mexican Literature
- Liceo Hidalgo in the Encyclopedia of Mexican Literature
- Murray, H. (2002). Come, Bright Improvement!: The Literary Societies of Nineteenth-century Ontario. University of Toronto Press.
United States of America
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