Jund al-Urdunn

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Syria ( Bilad al-Sham) and its provinces under the Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th century

Jund al-Urdunn ( Arabic: جُـنْـد الْأُرْدُنّ‎, translation: "The military district of Jordan") was one of the five districts of Bilad al-Sham (Islamic Syria) during the early Islamic period. It was established under the Rashidun and its capital was Tiberias throughout its rule by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates. It encompassed southern Mount Lebanon, the Galilee, the southern Hauran, the Golan Heights, and most of the eastern Jordan Valley (especially in the north). [1]

Subdistricts and major towns

The 10th-century geographer Ibn al-Faqih held that besides its capital at Tiberias, the Urdunn's chief districts (qura) were Samaria (al-Samira in Arabic), i.e. Nablus, Beisan, Qadas, Pella (Fahl in Arabic), Jerash, Acre (Akka in Arabic), and Tyre (Sur in Arabic). [2] The geographer al-Muqaddasi (d. 985) notes that the principal towns of the district were its capital Tiberias, Qadas, Tyre, Acre, Faradiyya, Kabul, Beisan, Lajjun and Adhri'at. [3] The 13th-century geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi counted the quras of Urdunn as Tiberias, Beisan, Acre, Beit Ras, Jadar (Jaydur, area adjacent to the east of the Golan Heights), Tyre and Saffuriya. [4]

The geographers Ibn Hawqal (d. c. 978) and Estakhri (d. 957) noted the Ghawr ( Jordan Valley) district, the low-lying area along the Jordan River between Lake Tiberias to the Dead Sea, with its capital at Jericho (Ariha in Arabic), was administratively subordinate to Urdunn. [5] The geographer al-Ya'qubi (d. 892) held that the Ghawr was subordinate to Jund Dimashq. [2]

Governors

Rashidun period

Umayyad period

Abbasid period

See also

References

  1. ^ Le Strange, G. (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. pp. 30–39. OCLC  1004386.
  2. ^ a b le Strange 1890, p. 30.
  3. ^ le Strange 1890, p. 39.
  4. ^ le Strange 1890, p. 32.
  5. ^ le Strange 1890, pp. 30–31.
  6. ^ a b Hinds 1993, p. 264.
  7. ^ a b c Crone 1980, p. 125.
  8. ^ a b Gil 1997, p. 115.
  9. ^ Ahmed 2010, p. 114.
  10. ^ Crone 1980, p. 126.
  11. ^ Crone 1980, p. 127.
  12. ^ Crone 1980, p. 128.
  13. ^ a b Sharon 1999, p. 218.
  14. ^ Amitai-Preiss 2015, p. 72.

Bibliography