Joseph Johann von Littrow
Joseph von Littrow
|Died||30 November 1840 (aged 59)|
|Alma mater||Charles University|
|Known for||Littrow projection|
University of Vienna
Joseph Johann von Littrow (13 March 1781, Horšovský Týn ( German: Bischofteinitz) – 30 November 1840, Vienna) was an Austrian astronomer. In 1837, he was ennobled with the title Joseph Johann Edler von Littrow. He was the father of Karl Ludwig Edler von Littrow and the mentor of the mathematician Nikolai Brashman.  His work took him to Russia for a time, which is where his son who succeeded him was born.
He became director of the Vienna Observatory in 1819. He served in this position until his death in 1840. He created the only conformal retroazimuthal map projection, which is known as the Littrow projection. Littrow authored the widely read Wunder des Himmels ("Miracles of the Sky"), which was reprinted eight times by 1897. 
Von Littrow is often associated with a proposal to dig a large circular canal in the Sahara desert and fill it with burning kerosene, thus communicating the fact of human intelligence to aliens who may be observing earth.  However, Von Littrow's connection with this scheme may be apocryphal.  
He is the great-great-great-grandfather of Roman Catholic Cardinal Christoph Schönborn.
- 1799 Entered Charles University
- 1802 Graduated in jurisprudence and theology
- 1803 Became the private tutor of count J. Renard in Silesia
- 1807 Appointed professor of astronomy Krakau University
- 1810 Established the observatory at Kazan University
- 1816 Became co-director of the observatory at Ofen ( Buda)
- 1819 Appointed professor of astronomy at the University of Vienna and became director of the first university observatory Vienna, which he reorganized completely
- Joseph Johann von Littrow at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Andreas W. Daum, Wissenschaftspopularisierung im 19. Jahrhundert: Bürgerliche Kultur, naturwissenschaftliche Bildung und die deutsche Öffentlichkeit, 1848–1914. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1998, ISBN 3-486-56337-8, pp. 500.
- Zappe, Hans (2010). Fundamentals of Micro-Optics. Cambridge University Press. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-521-89542-2.
- The Internet Encyclopedia of Science
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joseph Johann von Littrow.|
- Atlas des Gestirnten Himmels, published in Stuttgart in 1839. – Full digital facsimile, Linda Hall Library
- Atlas des gestirnten himmels, Stuttgart 1854 da www.atlascoelestis.com