History of science and technology

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science_and_technology

The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history that examines how the understanding of the natural world (science) and the ability to manipulate it ( technology) have changed over the millennia and centuries. This academic discipline also studies the cultural, economic, and political impacts of scientific innovation.

Histories of science were originally written by practicing and retired scientists, starting primarily with William Whewell, as a way to communicate the virtues of science to the public. In the early 1930s, after a famous paper given by the Soviet historian Boris Hessen, was focused into looking at the ways in which scientific practices were allied with the needs and motivations of their context. After World War II, extensive resources were put into teaching and researching the discipline, with the hopes that it would help the public better understand both Science and Technology as they came to play an exceedingly prominent role in the world. In the 1960s, especially in the wake of the work done by Thomas Kuhn, the discipline began to serve a very different function, and began to be used as a way to critically examine the scientific enterprise.

Academic discipline

As an academic field, history of science and technology began with the publication of William Whewell's History of the Inductive Sciences (first published in 1837). A more formal study of the history of science as an independent discipline was launched by George Sarton's publications, Introduction to the History of Science (1927) and the Isis journal (founded in 1912). Sarton exemplified the early 20th-century view of the history of science as the history of great men and great ideas. He shared with many of his contemporaries a Whiggish belief in history as a record of the advances and delays in the march of progress. The history of science was not a recognized subfield of American history in this period, and most of the work was carried out by interested scientists and physicians rather than professional historians. [1] With the work of I. Bernard Cohen at Harvard, the history of science became an established subdiscipline of history after 1945. [2]

The history of mathematics, history of technology, and history of philosophy are distinct areas of research and are covered in other articles. Mathematics is closely related to but distinct from natural science (at least in the modern conception). Technology is likewise closely related to but clearly differs from the search for empirical truth.

History of science is an academic discipline, with an international community of specialists. Main professional organizations for this field include the History of Science Society, the British Society for the History of Science, and the European Society for the History of Science.

Much of the study of the history of science has been devoted to answering questions about what science is, how it functions, and whether it exhibits large-scale patterns and trends. [3] The sociology of science in particular has focused on the ways in which scientists work, looking closely at the ways in which they "produce" and "construct" scientific knowledge. Since the 1960s, a common trend in science studies (the study of the sociology and history of science) has been to emphasize the "human component" of scientific knowledge, and to de-emphasize the view that scientific data are self-evident, value-free, and context-free. [4] The field of Science and Technology Studies, an area that overlaps and often informs historical studies of science, focuses on the social context of science in both contemporary and historical periods.

Humboldtian science refers to the early 19th century approach of combining scientific field work with the age of Romanticism sensitivity, ethics and aesthetic ideals. [5] It helped to install natural history as a separate field, gave base for ecology and was based on the role model of scientist, naturalist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt. [6] The later 19th century positivism asserted that all authentic knowledge allows verification and that all authentic knowledge assumes that the only valid knowledge is scientific. [7]

A major subject of concern and controversy in the philosophy of science has been the nature of theory change in science. Karl Popper argued that scientific knowledge is progressive and cumulative; Thomas Kuhn, that scientific knowledge moves through " paradigm shifts" and is not necessarily progressive; and Paul Feyerabend, that scientific knowledge is not cumulative or progressive and that there can be no demarcation in terms of method between science and any other form of investigation. [8]

The mid 20th century saw a series of studies relying to the role of science in a social context, starting from Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962. It opened the study of science to new disciplines by suggesting that the evolution of science was in part sociologically determined and that positivism did not explain the actual interactions and strategies of the human participants in science. As Thomas Kuhn put it, the history of science may be seen in more nuanced terms, such as that of competing paradigms or conceptual systems in a wider matrix that includes intellectual, cultural, economic and political themes outside of science. "Partly by selection and partly by distortion, the scientists of earlier ages are implicitly presented as having worked upon the same set of fixed problems and in accordance with the same set of fixed canons that the most recent revolution in scientific theory and method made seem scientific." [9]

Further studies, e.g. Jerome Ravetz 1971 Scientific Knowledge and its Social Problems referred to the role of the scientific community, as a social construct, in accepting or rejecting (objective) scientific knowledge. [10] The Science wars of the 1990s were about the influence of especially French philosophers, which denied the objectivity of science in general or seemed to do so. They described as well differences between the idealized model of a pure science and the actual scientific practice; while scientism, a revival of the positivism approach, saw in precise measurement and rigorous calculation the basis for finally settling enduring metaphysical and moral controversies. [11] [12] However, more recently some of the leading critical theorists have recognized that their postmodern deconstructions have at times been counter-productive, and are providing intellectual ammunition for reactionary interests. Bruno Latour noted that "dangerous extremists are using the very same argument of social construction to destroy hard-won evidence that could save our lives. Was I wrong to participate in the invention of this field known as science studies? Is it enough to say that we did not really mean what we meant?" [13]

Universities with HST programs

Argentina

Australia

  • The University of Sydney offers both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in the History and Philosophy of Science, run by the Unit for the History and Philosophy of Science, within the Science Faculty. Undergraduate coursework can be completed as part of either a Bachelor of Science or a Bachelor of Arts Degree. Undergraduate study can be furthered by completing an additional Honours year. For postgraduate study, the Unit offers both coursework and research based degrees. The two course-work based postgraduate degrees are the Graduate Certificate in Science (HPS) and the Graduate Diploma in Science (HPS). The two research based postgraduate degrees are a Master of Science (MSc) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). [14]

Belgium

Canada

France

Germany

Greece

India

History of science and technology is a well developed field in India. At least three generations of scholars can be identified. The first generation includes D.D.Kosambi, Dharmpal, Debiprasad Chattopadhyay and Rahman. The second generation mainly consists of Ashis Nandy, Deepak Kumar, Dhruv Raina, S. Irfan Habib, Shiv Visvanathan, Gyan Prakash, Stan Lourdswamy, V.V. Krishna, Itty Abraham, Richard Grove, Kavita Philip, Mira Nanda and Rob Anderson. There is an emergent third generation that includes scholars like Abha Sur and Jahnavi Phalkey.[ citation needed]

Departments and Programmes

The National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies had a research group active in the 1990s which consolidated social history of science as a field of research in India. Currently there are several institutes and university departments offering HST programmes.

  • Jawaharlal Nehru University has an Mphil-PhD program that offer specialisation in Social History of Science. It is at the History of Science and Education group of the Zakir Husain Centre for Educational Studies (ZHCES) in the School of Social Sciences. Renowned Indian science historians Deepak Kumar and Dhruv Raina teach here. Also, *Centre for Studies in Science Policy has an Mphil-PhD program that offers specialization in Science, Technology, and Society along with various allied subdisciplines.
  • Central University of Gujarat has an MPhil-PhD programme in Studies in Science, Technology & Innovation Policy at the Centre for Studies in Science, Technology & Innovation Policy (CSSTIP), where Social History of Science and Technology in India is a major emphasis for research and teaching.
  • Banaras Hindu University has programs: one in History of Science and Technology at the Faculty of Science and one in Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and the Humanities at the Faculty of Humanities.
  • Andhra University has now set History of Science and Technology as a compulsory subject for all the First year B-Tech students.

Israel

Japan

Netherlands

  • Utrecht University, has two co-operating programs: one in History and Philosophy of Science at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and one in Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and the Humanities at the Faculty of Humanities. [23] [24]

Russia

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

  • University of Bern, has an undergraduate and a graduate program in the History and Philosophy of Science. [30]

Ukraine

  • State University of Infrastructure and Technologies, has a Department of Philosophy and History of Science and technology. [31]

United Kingdom

United States

Academic study of the history of science as an independent discipline was launched by George Sarton at Harvard with his book Introduction to the History of Science (1927) and the Isis journal (founded in 1912). Sarton exemplified the early 20th century view of the history of science as the history of great men and great ideas. He shared with many of his contemporaries a Whiggish belief in history as a record of the advances and delays in the march of progress. The History of Science was not a recognized subfield of American history in this period, and most of the work was carried out by interested Scientists and Physicians rather than professional Historians. [42] With the work of I. Bernard Cohen at Harvard, the history of Science became an established subdiscipline of history after 1945. [43]

  • Arizona State University's Center for Biology and Society offers several paths for MS or PhD students who are interested in issues surrounding the history and philosophy of the science, particularly biological sciences. The strength of the center has much to do with the success of its director Jane Maienschein. With a concentration in Biology and Society one can focus on History and Philosophy of Science, Bioscience Ethics, Policy and Law, or Ecology, Economics, and Ethics of the Environment. [44]
  • Brown University has a program in Science and Technology Studies [45] and the History of Mathematics. [46] (This program is in the process of being phased out. There are no longer any full-time faculty, and no new students are being admitted to the program.)
  • California Institute of Technology offers courses in the History and Philosophy of Science to fulfill its core humanities requirements.
  • Case Western Reserve University has an undergraduate interdisciplinary program in the History and Philosophy of Science [47] and a graduate program in the History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Medicine (STEM). [48]
  • Cornell University offers a variety of courses within the Science and Technology course. One notable course is called Science and Technology History, taught currently by Professor Peter Dear, which centers upon the development of Science and Technology History from the Newtonian era up to the Einsteinian revolution. This class is one of the longest running classes at Cornell University and is offered by the College of Arts and Sciences and caters to students who want to learn more about the development of modern science. [49]
  • Georgia Institute of Technology has an undergraduate and graduate program in the History of Technology and Society. [50]
  • Harvard has a large undergraduate and graduate program in History of Science, and is one of the largest departments currently in the world. [51]
  • Indiana University offers undergraduate courses and a masters and PhD program in the History and Philosophy of Science. [22]
  • Johns Hopkins University has an undergraduate and graduate program in the History of Science, Medicine, and Technology. [52]
  • University of Kings College has a degree program in History of Science and Technology
  • Lehigh University offers an undergraduate level STS concentration (founded in 1972) and a graduate program with emphasis on the History of Industrial America. [53]
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology has a Science, Technology, and Society program which includes HST. [54]
  • Michigan State University offers an undergraduate major and minor in History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science through its Lyman Briggs College. [55]
  • New Jersey Institute of Technology has a Science, Technology, and Society program which includes the History of Science and Technology [56]
  • Oregon State University offers a Masters and Ph.D. in History of Science through its Department of History. [57]
  • Princeton University has a program in the History of Science. [58]
  • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has a Science and Technology Studies department
  • Rutgers has a graduate Program in History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Health. [59]
  • Stanford has a History and Philosophy of Science and Technology program. [60]
  • Stevens Institute of Technology has an undergraduate and graduate program in the History of Science.
  • University of California, Berkeley offers a graduate degree in HST through its History program, and maintains a separate sub-department for the field. [61]
  • University of California, Los Angeles has a relatively large group History of Science and Medicine faculty and graduate students within its History department, and also offers an undergraduate minor in the History of Science. [62]
  • University of California, Santa Barbara has an interdisciplinary graduate program emphasis in Technology & Society through the Center for Information Technology & Society. The history department is affiliated with the emphasis. [63]
  • University of Chicago offers a B.A. program in the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Science and Medicine [64] as well as M.A. and Ph.D. degrees through its Committee on the Conceptual and Historical Studies of Science. The graduate program "has a special focus on the history of the human sciences" while also "differ[ing] from other programs in the history and philosophy of science in its emphasis on the importance of training in science." [65]
  • University of Florida has a Graduate Program in 'History of Science, Technology, and Medicine' at the University of Florida provides undergraduate and graduate degrees. [66]
  • University of Minnesota has a Ph.D. program in History of Science, Technology, and Medicine as well as undergraduate courses in these fields. The Minnesota model "integrates" historians of science, technology, and medicine within the various science departments they study, each holding a joint appointment. [67]
  • University of Oklahoma has an undergraduate minor and a graduate degree program in History of Science. [68]
  • University of Pennsylvania has a program in History and Sociology of Science. [69]
  • University of Pittsburgh's Department of History and Philosophy of Science offers graduate and undergraduate courses. [70]
  • University of Puget Sound has a Science, Technology, and Society program, which includes the history of Science and Technology. [71]
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison has one of the largest programs in History of Science, Medicine and Technology, with particular strength in Medical History, History of Biology, History of Science and Religion, and Environmental History. This program was the first to exist as an independent academic department. It offers M.A. and Ph.D. degrees as well as an undergraduate major. [72]
  • Wesleyan University has a Science in Society program. [73]
  • Yale University has a program in the History of Science and Medicine. [74]

Prominent historians of the field

See also the list of George Sarton medalists.

Journals and periodicals

See also

Professional societies

References

  1. ^ Reingold, Nathan (1986). "History of Science Today, 1. Uniformity as Hidden Diversity: History of Science in the United States, 1920–1940". British Journal for the History of Science. 19 (3): 243–262. doi: 10.1017/S0007087400023268.
  2. ^ Dauben JW, Gleason ML, Smith GE (2009). "Seven Decades of History of Science". Isis. 100 (1): 4–35. doi: 10.1086/597575. PMID  19554868. S2CID  31401544.
  3. ^ What is this thing called science?. Hackett Pub. 1999. ISBN  978-0-87220-452-2.
  4. ^ King Merton, Robert (1979). The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. University of Chicago Press. ISBN  978-0-226-52092-6.
  5. ^ Böhme, Hartmut: Ästhetische Wissenschaft, in: Matices, Nr. 23, 1999, S. 37–41
  6. ^ Jardine et al., Cultures of Natural History, p. 304
  7. ^ Jorge Larrain (1979) The Concept of Ideology p. 197, quotation:

    one of the features of positivism is precisely its postulate that scientific knowledge is the paradigm of valid knowledge, a postulate that indeed is never proved nor intended to be proved.

  8. ^ Matthews, Michael Robert (1994). Science Teaching: The Role of History and Philosophy of Science. Routledge. ISBN  978-0-415-90899-3.
  9. ^ Kuhn, T., 1962, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions", University of Chicago Press, p. 137
  10. ^ Ravetz, Jerome R. (1979). Scientific knowledge and its social problems. Oxford University Press. ISBN  978-0-19-519721-1.[ page needed]
  11. ^ Lears, T.J. Jackson (2013-11-06). "Get Happy!!". The Nation. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013. ...scientism is a revival of the nineteenth-century positivist faith that a reified "science" has discovered (or is about to discover) all the important truths about human life. Precise measurement and rigorous calculation, in this view, are the basis for finally settling enduring metaphysical and moral controversies—explaining consciousness and choice, replacing ambiguity with certainty.
  12. ^ Sorell, Thomas (1994), Scientism: Philosophy and the Infatuation with Science, Routledge, pp. 1ff
  13. ^ Latour, B (2004). "Why Has Critique Run Out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern" (PDF). Critical Inquiry. 30 (2): 225–248. doi: 10.1086/421123. S2CID  159523434. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 September 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
  14. ^ The University of Sydney. "History and Philosophy of Science". Retrieved December 3, 2009.
  15. ^ Université de Liège. "CHST". Archived from the original on February 5, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
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  18. ^ Berlin Technical University. "Philosophy, Theory of Science, and History of Science and Technology". Archived from the original on July 19, 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2006.
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  25. ^ University of the Basque Country. "Máster Universitario en Filosofía, Ciencia y Valores" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 13, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
  26. ^ University of the Basque Country. "THEORIA. International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science". Retrieved August 20, 2011.
  27. ^ Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. "Centre d'Història de la Ciència". Retrieved April 10, 2008.
  28. ^ Universitat Valencia. "Instituto de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia Lopez Piñero". Archived from the original on April 9, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
  29. ^ Linköping University. "Tema Teknik och social förändring". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  30. ^ University of Bern. "History and Philosophy of Science". Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2006.
  31. ^ "The State University of Infrastructure and Technologies of Ukraine has a Department of Philosophy and History of Science and technology".
  32. ^ "History of the Sciences - School of History - University of Kent". www.kent.ac.uk. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
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  37. ^ University of Manchester. "History of Science, Technology and Medicine". Retrieved December 12, 2007.
  38. ^ University of Bristol. "Department of Philosophy". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  39. ^ University of Cambridge. "History and Philosophy of Science". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  40. ^ University of Durham. "Department of Philosophy". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  41. ^ London Centre for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology. "History of Science, Medicine and Technology".
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  43. ^ Dauben, JW; Gleason, ML; Smith, GE (2009). "Seven decades of history of science: I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003), second editor of Isis". Isis; an International Review Devoted to the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences. 100 (1): 4–35. doi: 10.1086/597575. PMID  19554868. S2CID  31401544.
  44. ^ Arizona State University. "Center for Biology and Society - Education". Archived from the original on August 30, 2011. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  45. ^ Brown University. "Committee of Science and Technology Studies".
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  49. ^ Cornell University. "Science and Technology Studies". Retrieved May 16, 2006.
  50. ^ Georgia Institute of Technology. "School of History, Technology, and Society". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  51. ^ Harvard University. "Department of the History of Science". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  52. ^ Johns Hopkins University. "History of Science, Medicine, and Technology". Archived from the original on August 3, 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2006.
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  54. ^ Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Program in Science, Technology, and Society". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  55. ^ Michigan State University. "HPS at LBC". Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  56. ^ New Jersey Institute of Technology. "Program in Science, Technology, and Society". Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved February 28, 2007.
  57. ^ Oregon State University. "Graduate Programs". Archived from the original on October 22, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  58. ^ Princeton University. "Program in History of Science". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  59. ^ Rutgers University. "History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Health". Retrieved May 19, 2013.
  60. ^ Stanford University. "History and Philosophy of Science and Technology". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  61. ^ University of California, Berkeley. "History of science and technology". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
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  63. ^ University of California Santa Barbara. "Center for Information Technology & Society". Retrieved October 6, 2010.
  64. ^ University of Chicago. "2021-2022 Catalog - History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Science and Medicine (HIPS)". Retrieved September 6, 2021.
  65. ^ University of Chicago. "Committee on the Conceptual and Historical Studies of Science - About Us". Retrieved September 6, 2021.
  66. ^ University of Florida. "Department of History". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  67. ^ University of Minnesota. "History of Science, Technology, and Medicine". Retrieved April 21, 2009.
  68. ^ University of Oklahoma. "Department of the History of Science". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  69. ^ University of Pennsylvania. "History & Sociology of Science". Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  70. ^ University of Pittsburgh. "History & Philosophy of Science". Retrieved June 8, 2010.
  71. ^ University of Puget Sound. "Science, Technology, & Society". Retrieved February 14, 2011.
  72. ^ University of Wisconsin–Madison. "History of Science". Retrieved June 24, 2008.
  73. ^ Wesleyan University. "Science in Society program". Retrieved April 29, 2009.
  74. ^ Yale University. "History of Science and Medicine". Retrieved July 30, 2006.

Bibliography

Historiography of science

  • H. Floris Cohen, The Scientific Revolution: A Historiographical Inquiry, University of Chicago Press 1994 - Discussion on the origins of modern science has been going on for more than two hundred years. Cohen provides an excellent overview.
  • Ernst Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, Belknap Press 1985
  • Michel Serres,(ed.), A History of Scientific Thought, Blackwell Publishers 1995
  • Companion to Science in the Twentieth Century, John Krige (Editor), Dominique Pestre (Editor), Taylor & Francis 2003, 941pp
  • The Cambridge History of Science, Cambridge University Press
    • Volume 4, Eighteenth-Century Science, 2003
    • Volume 5, The Modern Physical and Mathematical Sciences, 2002

History of science as a discipline

  • J. A. Bennett, 'Museums and the Establishment of the History of Science at Oxford and Cambridge', British Journal for the History of Science 30, 1997, 29–46
  • Dietrich von Engelhardt, Historisches Bewußtsein in der Naturwissenschaft : von der Aufklärung bis zum Positivismus, Freiburg [u.a.] : Alber, 1979
  • A.-K. Mayer, 'Setting up a Discipline: Conflicting Agendas of the Cambridge History of Science Committee, 1936–1950.' Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 31, 2000