Help:IPA/Swedish

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Swedish

The chart below shows how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{ IPA-sv}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

The Sweden pronunciation is based primarily on Central Standard Swedish, and the Finland one on Helsinki pronunciation. Recordings and example transcriptions in this help are in Sweden Swedish, unless otherwise noted.

See Swedish phonology and Swedish alphabet § Sound–spelling correspondences for a more thorough look at the sounds of Swedish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Sweden

SWE

Swedish-speaking Finns

FIN

b About this sound bok book
ɕ About this sound kjol, About this sound tjock, About this sound kön sheep ( SWE) or cheat ( FIN)
d About this sound dop dad
ɖ r d About this sound nord [1] retroflex /d/
f About this sound fot foot
ɡ About this sound god good
h About this sound hot hat
ɧ ʃ About this sound sju, About this sound stjärna, About this sound skör, About this sound station, About this sound pension, About this sound geni, About this sound choklad [2] somewhat like Scottish loch or sheep (varies regionally)
j About this sound jord, About this sound genom, About this sound Göteborg yoyo
k About this sound kon cone
l About this sound lov lack
ɭ r l About this sound rl [1] retroflex /l/
m About this sound mod mode
n About this sound nod node
ɳ r n About this sound barn [1] retroflex /n/
ŋ About this sound ng long
p About this sound pol pole
r About this sound rov [3] somewhat like American water or Scottish rose
s About this sound sot soot
ʂ r s About this sound torsdag [1] retroflex / ʃ/, somewhat like shrine
t About this sound tok tool
ʈ r t About this sound parti [1] retroflex /t/
v About this sound våt vote
Rare sounds
IPA Examples English approximation
w Wales Wales
Zlatan, Bratislava aha
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Sweden

SWE

Swedish-speaking Finns

FIN

a ɑ About this sound matt cut
ɑː About this sound mat bra
æ About this sound värk, About this sound verk [4] trap
æː About this sound ära [4] ham
About this sound fet mayor
ɛ e About this sound häll, About this sound fett sell
ɛː About this sound häl RP pair
ɪ i About this sound sill hit
About this sound sil leave
ɔ o About this sound moll [5] off
About this sound mål [5] floor
œ ø About this sound nött [5] somewhat like hurt
œ About this sound börja [4] [5]
œː About this sound öra [4] [5] somewhat like herd
øː About this sound nöt [5]
ɵ ʉ About this sound full, About this sound musik [5] [6] moot
ʉ duell,
känguru [5] [6] [7]
ʉː About this sound ful [5] [8] mood
ʊ u About this sound bott [5] pull
About this sound bot [5] fool
ʏ y About this sound syll [5] [7] somewhat like cute
About this sound syl [5] [8] somewhat like cube
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
Sweden

SWE

Swedish-speaking Finns

FIN

ˈ◌̌ ˈ◌ anden
[ˈǎnːdɛn]
'the duck'
tone 1 / acute accent: [9]
ˈ◌̂ anden
[ˈânːdɛn]
'the spirit'
tone 2 / grave accent: [9]
  • falling-falling tone in Stockholm: About this sound [ˈânːdɛ̂n]
  • falling-rising tone in Gothenburg: [ˈânːdɛ̌n]
  • rising-falling tone in Malmö: [ˈǎnːdɛ̂n]
ˌ Oxenstierna
[ˈʊ̂ksɛnˌɧæːɳa]
secondary stress, as in intonation
ː Helsingfors
About this sound [hɛlsɪŋˈfɔʂː]
geminated consonant: fresh shrimp [10]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive sandhi process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realisations: [ ɖ], [ ɭ], [ ɳ], [ ʂ], [ ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish, they are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt]. In Finland Swedish, retroflexion might only occur in some varieties, especially among young speakers and in fast speech.
  2. ^ Sweden Swedish /ɧ/ varies regionally and is sometimes [ ], [ ɸˠ], or [ ʂ].
  3. ^ /r/ varies considerably in different dialects: it is pronounced alveolar or similarly (a trilled r when articulated clearly or in slow or formal speech; in normal speech, usually a tapped r or an alveolar approximant) in virtually all dialects (most consistently [r] in Finland), but in South Swedish dialects, it is uvular, similar to the Parisian French r. At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative [ ʐ], similar to in English genre or vision.
  4. ^ a b c d Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: the unrounded vowels /ɛ/ and /ɛː/ are lowered to [ æ] and [ æː] (except certain instances of unstressed /ɛ/), whereas the rounded /œ/ ([ œ˔]) and /øː/ are lowered to open-mid [ œ] and [ œː]. For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid [œ˔] and the open-mid [œ], with both being transcribed as ⟨œ⟩. Note that younger speakers use lower allophones [ ɶ] (which they tend to merge with /ɵ/ into [ ɵ]) and [ ɶː].
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m In Sweden, [ ɔ, , œ, œː, øː, ʏ, ] are protruded vowels, while [ ɵ, ʉ, ʉː, ʊ, ] are compressed. Instead, [ œ, œː, ø, øː, ʉ, ʉː, y, ] are compressed, while only [ o, , u, ] are protruded in Finland. This makes Finland Swedish [y] and [yː] sound closer to Sweden Swedish [ʉ] and [ʉː], which are also fronted, rather than to their respective counterparts.
  6. ^ a b [ ɵ] and [ ʉ] are the Sweden Swedish unstressed allophones of a single phoneme /ɵ/ (stressed /ɵ/ is always realized as [ɵ]):
    • [ɵ] is used in all closed syllables (as in kultur About this sound [kɵlˈtʉːr]) but also in some open syllables, as in musikal [mɵsɪˈkɑːl]. Some cases involve resyllabification caused by retroflexion, which makes the syllable open, as in kurtisan [kɵʈɪˈsɑːn].
    • [ʉ] appears only in open syllables. In some cases, [ʉ] is the only possible realization, as in känguru [ˈɕɛ̌ŋːɡʉrʉ], or when /ɵ/ appears in hiatus, as in duell [dʉˈɛlː].
    • In other cases, [ɵ] is in free variation with [ʉ] so musik can be pronounced as About this sound [mɵˈsiːk] or [mʉˈsiːk] ( Riad 2014:28–9). For simplicity, only ⟨ɵ⟩ will be used.
  7. ^ a b The distinction between compressed [ ʉ] and protruded [ ʏ] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Sweden Swedish compressed [ʉ] sounds very close to German compressed [ ʏ] (as in müssen About this sound [ˈmʏsn̩]);
    • Sweden Swedish protruded [ʏ] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [ʏ], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [ʏ] (as in nytt [nʏtː]).
  8. ^ a b The distinction between compressed [ ʉː] and protruded [ ] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Sweden Swedish compressed [ʉː] sounds very close to German compressed [ ] (as in üben About this sound [ˈyːbn̩]);
    • Sweden Swedish protruded [yː] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ ] (as in leave) than to German compressed [yː], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [yː] (as in lys [lyːs]).
  9. ^ a b Finland Swedish, as well as a few accents of Mainland Sweden, have a simple primary stress (transcribed as ⟨ˈ⟩) rather than a contrastive pitch accent. In such accents, a word like anden is always pronounced as [ˈɑnːden] regardless of its meaning. The variety of Swedish spoken on the Åland Islands usually resembles phonetically speaking the dialects of the Uppland area rather than other Finland Swedish varieties, but the pitch accent is still largely missing.
  10. ^ Consonants always tend to geminate after a stressed short vowel in Sweden Swedish. In Finland, this is not always true and between vowels usually only happens when the short vowel is followed by an orthographic geminate.

Bibliography

  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN  0-521-63751-1
  • Hedelin, Per; Elert, Claes-Christian (1997), Norstedts svenska uttalslexikon, Norstedts, ISBN  91-1-971122-0
  • Reuter, Mikael (1971), "Vokalerna i finlandsvenska: En instrumentell analys och ett försök till systematisering enligt särdrag", Studier i nordisk filologi (in Swedish), Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland, 46: 240–249
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN  978-0-19-954357-1

External links