Help:IPA/Polish

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Polish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Polish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{ IPA-pl}}, {{ IPAc-pl}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Polish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Polish.

Consonants [1]
IPA Polish Example English approximation
b b About this sound bardzo bike
ɕ ś, s(i) [2] About this sound Jaś she
d d About this sound dawno door
d͡z [3] dz About this sound dzban beds
d͡ʑ [3] dź, dz(i) [2] About this sound dziadek jeep [4]
d͡ʐ [3] About this sound akarta jug [4]
f f About this sound foka feist
ɡ g About this sound grać girl
ɡʲ g(i) [2] About this sound Giewont argue
ɣ ch, h niechby Spanish amigo
j j, i [2] About this sound jak yes
[5] ń About this sound koń point
k k About this sound krowa scam
k(i) [2] About this sound kierowca skew
l l About this sound lampa lion
m m [6] About this sound morze mile
n n [6] About this sound nad Nile
ɲ ń, n(i) [6] [2] About this sound nie canyon
ŋ [7] n [6] About this sound mango doing
p p About this sound policja spike
r r About this sound różowy American English atom
s s About this sound smak sign
ʂ sz About this sound szybko shore [4]
t t About this sound tak stow
t͡ɕ [3] ć, c(i) [2] About this sound cierpki cheer [4]
t͡s [3] c About this sound całkiem cats
t͡ʂ [3] cz About this sound czy child [4]
v w About this sound wartość vile
w ł About this sound ładny way
x ch, h About this sound chleb Scottish loch
ch(i), h(i) [2] About this sound hiacynt huge
z z About this sound zebra zebra
ʑ ź, z(i) [2] About this sound ziarno vision, azure [4]
ʐ ż, rz About this sound rzadko
Vowels
IPA Polish Example English approximation
a a About this sound tam father
ɛ e About this sound krem bet
ɛ̃ ę [6] About this sound część French vin
i i [2] About this sound piwo eat
ɨ y About this sound my mill
ɔ o About this sound rok off
ɔ̃ ą [6] About this sound wąż croissant
u u, ó About this sound duży boot
Other symbols used for Polish
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), usually the penultimate syllable of a word.
ˌ Secondary stress (placed before the stressed syllable).
. Syllable break.

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ All voiced obstruents /b, d, ɡ, v, z, ʐ, ʑ, d͡ʐ, d͡ʑ/ are devoiced to [p, t, k, f, s, ʂ, ɕ, t͡ʂ, t͡ɕ] respectively at the ends of words and in clusters ending in any unvoiced obstruents. Voiceless obstruents are voiced (/x/ becoming [ ɣ], etc.) in clusters ending in any voiced obstruent except /v, ʐ/, which are then themselves devoiced.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The letter ⟨i⟩, when it is followed by a vowel, represents a pronunciation like a ⟨j⟩ or a "soft" pronunciation of the preceding consonant (so pies is pronounced as if it were spelt *pjes). It has the same effect as an acute accent on alveolar consonants (⟨s⟩, ⟨z⟩, ⟨c⟩, ⟨dz⟩, ⟨n⟩) so się, cios and niania are pronounced as if they were spelt *śę, *ćos, *ńańa. A following ⟨i⟩ also softens consonants when it is itself pronounced as a vowel: zima, ci and dzisiaj are pronounced as if they were spelled *źima, *ći, *dźiśaj.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Polish contrasts affricates /t͡s, d͡z, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ʂ, d͡ʐ/ with stop–fricative clusters: for example, czysta About this sound [ˈt͡ʂɨsta] "clean" versus trzysta About this sound [ˈtʂɨsta] "three hundred".
  4. ^ a b c d e f Polish makes a distinction between retroflex and alveolo-palatal consonants, both of which sound roughly like the English postalveolars /ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/. The retroflex sounds are pronounced "hard", with the tip of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge and the blade of the tongue somewhat lowered, and the alveolo-palatal sounds are "soft", realized with the middle of the tongue raised, adding a bit of an ⟨ee⟩ sound to them.
  5. ^ Allophone of /ɲ/ in coda position or before fricatives.
  6. ^ a b c d e f The letters ⟨ ą⟩ and ⟨ ę⟩ represent the nasal vowels /ɔ̃, ɛ̃/ except when they are followed by a stop or affricate, in which case they represent oral vowels /ɔ, ɛ/ followed by a nasal consonant homorganic with the following stop or affricate: kąt [ˈkɔnt], gęba [ˈɡɛmba], ręka [ˈrɛŋka], piszący [piˈʂɔnt͡sɨ], pieniądze [pjɛˈɲɔnd͡zɛ], pięć [ˈpjɛɲt͡ɕ], jęczy [ˈjɛnt͡ʂɨ] (as if spelled *kont, *gemba, *renka, *piszoncy, *pieńondze, *pieńć, *jenczy).
  7. ^ Allophone of /n/ before a velar /ɡ, k, x/ in some cases.

Further reading

  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003). "Polish" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 33 (1): 103–107. doi: 10.1017/S0025100303001191.
  • Sadowska, Iwona (2012). Polish: A Comprehensive Grammar. Oxford; New York: Routledge. ISBN  978-0-415-47541-9.