Help:IPA/Nepali

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Nepali

Charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Nepali pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{ IPA-ne}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Nepali phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Nepali.

Key

Consonants
IPA Examples English Approximation
Nepali IAST
b बच्चा baccā back
[1] भाई bhāī No English equivalent
d दाल dāl deal (dental), the ( Th-stopping)
धान dhān No English equivalent
ɖ [2] डब्बा abbā guard (Rhotic dialects)
ɽ [2] गाडी ī barter (Rhotic dialects)
ɖʱ ढक्कन ḍhakkan No English equivalent
d͡z जल jal dads
d͡zʱ झरना jharanā No English equivalent
ɡ गीत gīt grass
ɡʱ [1] घर ghar No English equivalent
ɦ [2] हलो halo ahead
k कलम kalam scan
[1] खाना khānā can
l लामो lāmo leaf
m माटो māṭo much
n नाम nām not
ŋ नङ na sing
ɳ [3] अण्डा aḍā No English equivalent, similar to burn
p पल pal span
[1] फल phal pan
r [4] रातो rāto ring (Trilled R)
ɾ [4] तारा rā American better
s [5] सानो sāno sun
t͡s चोर cor bats
t͡sʰ छाना chānā cats head
t तर tara stick (dental), birth (Th-stopping)
थाल thāl tell (dental), think (Th-stopping)
ʈ टमाटर amāar party (Rhotic dialects)
ʈʰ ठीक ṭhīk artist (Rhotic dialects)
w [6] वकिल vakil want
j याद yād yes
Vowels
IPA Examples English Approximation
Nepali IAST
Monophthongs
a आमा āmā father
ʌ असल asal cut (conservative dialects)
e केरा ke may (monophthongal pronunciation)
i इनाम inām happy
ईनार īnār
o थोपा tho force
u उमेर umēr boot
ऊन ūn
Diphthongs
ʌi̯ ऐना ai writer (Canadian raising)
ʌu̯ मौका mau about (Canadian raising)
ou̯ धोऊ dh goat
oi̯ खोइ khoi toy
au̯ पाउ pāu now
ei̯ केई k day
ai̯ आई āī my
iu̯ जीउ jīu similar to few
ui̯ दुई d similar to wheel
eu̯ एउटा euṭā No English Equivalent, similar to hey ooh
Vowel Diacritic
◌̃ आँसु ā̃su nasal vowel [ʌ̃], [ã], [ũ], etc.)
Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ◌ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː Doubled consonant
(placed after consonant or sometimes vowel [7])

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Voiced and voiceless aspirated/murmured labials and velars can undergo fricativization, therefore, realized as the corresponding homorganic fricatives e.g. /sʌpʰa/ transcribed phonetically as [sʌɸa], /bʱ/as [ β], /kʰ/ as [ x], and /ɡʱ/ as [ ɣ].
  2. ^ a b c Due to a process of h-deletion in some words, ɦ may be replaced by a retroflex flap [ ɽ] if words are pronounced with long vowels e.g. पहाडी which is phonetically [paːɽi] can be analyzed phonemically as /pʌhaɖi/. Additionally, [ɽ] can occur if ɖ or ɖʱ are flapped in postvocalic position.
  3. ^ /ɳ/ may occur as a retroflex nasal flap [ ɽ̃] in spellinɡ pronunciations of some Sanskrit loanwords.
  4. ^ a b /r/ is usually trilled [r] but may be tapped [ ɾ] when in intervocalic position.
  5. ^ /s/ phonetically may be either [s] or [ ʃ].
  6. ^ The combination of the labio-velar approximant /w/ and /e, i, o, ʌi̯, r, w, j/ is constrained in Nepali, thus the orthographic ⟨⟩ is pronounced as a bilabial stop /b/ in such cases.
  7. ^ Words are pronounced with long vowels due to the process of intervocalic h deletion, e.g पहाडी phonemically /pʌɦaɖi/ is realized phonetically as [paːɽi].

Bibliography

  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337–380, doi: 10.1017/S0025100309990181
  • Pokharel, Madhav Prasad (1989), Experimental analysis of Nepali sound system (Ph.D.), University of Pune, India
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN  978-0-521-29944-2.
  • Hutt, Michael; Subedi, Abhi (1999), Teach Yourself Nepali (2003 ed.), McGraw-Hill, ISBN  978-0-07-142468-4.
  • Acharya, Jayaraj (1991), A Descriptive Grammar of Nepali and an Analyzed Corpus, Georgetown University Press, ISBN  0878400737