Help:IPA/Cantonese

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Cantonese

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Cantonese pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{ IPA-yue}}, {{ IPAc-yue}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Cantonese phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Cantonese.

IPA Yale Jyutping Character English approximation
Non-syllabic consonants
f f fan
h h house
j y j you
k syllable-initial g scan
syllable-final k doctor
syllable-initial k can
gw [1] squeak
kʷʰ kw [2] quick
l l leaf
m m moon
n n noon
ŋ ng singing
p b span
syllable-final p apt
syllable-initial p pan
s s 西 saw
t d stand
syllable-final t Atkins
syllable-initial t tan
ts [3] j z cats
tsʰ [4] ch c cats hissing
w w water
Syllabic consonants
m rhythm
ŋ̩
ŋ̍
ng [5] (syllabic ng)

All non-syllabic consonants except [p̚, t̚, k̚] may begin a
syllable, but some speakers do not have initial [n, ŋ]. [6]
The six non-syllabic consonants [p̚, t̚, k̚, m, n, ŋ] may end a syllable. [7]

IPA Yale Jyutping Character English approximation
Vowels
aa,
syllable-final a
aa father (Australian English)
aːi aai time
aːu aau how
ɐ non-syllable-final a a cut
ɐi ai Canadian price (see Canadian Raising)
ɐu au Canadian clout (see Canadian Raising)
ei ei hey
ɛː e yes
ɛːu eu [8] roughly like yeah well
e i before k or ng sick
i see
iːu iu roughly like few
ou ou hoe (American English)
ɔː o law
ɔːy oi roughly like boy; Häuser in German
œː eu before k or ng
or syllable-finally
oe roughly like fur in British English; fleuve in French
ɵ eu before n or t eo roughly like again but rounded
ɵy eui eoi No English equivalent; like Japanese koi but rounded even at the end
o u before k or ng look
u food
uːy ui roughly like phooey; almost like nouille in French
non-syllable-initial yu [9] yu No English equivalent; menu in French
IPA Yale Jyutping Tone number Character Description
Tones
síː si1 [10] 1 high level: siː˥
sîː 1b (7) high falling: siː˥˧
sǐː si2 2 mid rising: siː˧˥
sīː si si3 3 mid level: siː˧
si̭ː
sȉː
sìh si4 4 low falling: siː˨˩
or very low: siː˩
si̬ː síh si5 5 low rising: siː˨˧
sìː sih si6 6 low level: siː˨
píːt̚ bīt bit1 7 (1) high checked: piːt̚˥
sīːt̚ sit sit3 8 (3) mid checked: siːt̚˧
sìːt̚ siht sit6 9 (6) low checked: siːt̚˨

Notes

  1. ^ [kʷ] is often merged with [ k] before [ ɔː] in Hong Kong Cantonese.
  2. ^ [kʷʰ] is often merged with [kʰ] before [ ɔː] in Hong Kong Cantonese.
  3. ^ Often pronounced as /t͡ʃ/ (Hong Kong)
  4. ^ Often pronounced as /t͡ʃʰ/ (Hong Kong)
  5. ^ Some speakers replace [ŋ̩] by [m̩].
  6. ^ Non-syllabic initial [ŋ] is not pronounced in Hong Kong Cantonese by younger speakers, who replace it with a glottal stop [ʔ] before a, e, o. Also, initial [n] may be replaced by [l].
  7. ^ Non-syllabic final [ŋ] may be replaced by [n] in Hong Kong Cantonese except after [e, o]. [i, u] in diphthongs are equivalent to a final /j, w/. After rounded vowels, an i becomes [y].
  8. ^ [ɛːu] is pronounced only in colloquial speech.
  9. ^ Syllable-initial yu is [jo] before k or ng, and [jyː] otherwise.
  10. ^ The high level and high falling tones have merged to high level in Hong Kong Cantonese for most words.

Bibliography

  • Zee, Eric (1999), "Chinese (Hong Kong Cantonese)" (PDF), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN  0-521-65236-7