Help:IPA/Bengali

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Bengali

Charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Bengali pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{ IPA-bn}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Bengali phonology and Bengali alphabet for a more thorough look at the sounds of Bengali.

Consonants
IPA Bengali Examples ISO 15919 English Approximation
b বালি b abash
b ʱ ভীরু bh No English equivalent
d দা d deal ( dental), the ( Th-stopping)
d ʱ ধারা dh No English equivalent
ɖ ডুমুর guard (rhotic)
ɖ ʱ ঢো ḍh No English equivalent
জ, য [1] বন j hedge
ʱ ঝা jh No English equivalent
ɡ g agate
ɡ ʱ বাঘা gh No English equivalent
ɦ হ, ঃ হাবাঃ h ahead
k লম k scan
k ʰ খ, ক্ষ শাখা ক্ষমা kh can
l মালিনী l leaf
m মানুষ m much
n ন, ণ, ঞ নীলা বা n not
ŋ ঙ, ং বাঙালি অং sing
p পাকা p span
p ʰ [2] ph pin or fan (varies amongst speakers/varieties)
r [3] র,‍‍ র্ক, ‍‍্র বিরাম তর্ক শ্র r ring (may be flapped or trilled)
ɽ ড়, ঢ় ড় দৃঢ় US: larder
s সেলাম s sue
ʃ শ, ষ, স শা ষাময় ś shoe
t ত, ৎ মাল উ t get (dental), think (Th-stopping)
t ʰ থাবা th tub (dental), thought (Th-stopping)
ʈ art (rhotic)
ʈ ʰ কাঠুরে ṭh artist (rhotic)
মুচি c catch
ʰ ছাগল ch choose
Marginal consonants
j য় [4] য় y yes
z জ, য [1] জাকাত যিয়ারত z zip
Vowels
Monophthongs
IPA Bengali Examples ISO 15919 English Approximation
a আ, পা ঙিনা ā Australian father, RP cut
ɛ অ্যা, প্যা, এ, পে ত্যাখেলা ai dress
e এ, পে মেদিনী ē may (monophthongal)
i ই, পি, ঈ, পী দিদী i beat
o ও, পো, অ, প জন ঙ্কুর ō sole (monophthongal)
ɔ অ, প মর a off
u উ, পু, ঊ, পূ কুকূ u boot
◌̃ ইঁদুর nasal vowel
([ã], [õ], etc.)
Semivowels
য় খায় Similar to very
ভা i happy
যা হায়া ō Similar to look
ঝা u too
Diphthongs
ii̯ িই নিই ii tea
iu̯ িউ বিউভোল iu ew
ei̯ েয় দেয় ēi bay (diphthongal)
eu̯ েও ঢেও ēu No equivalent
ɛe̯ ্যায় ন্যায় aiẏ No equivalent
ai̯ াই পাই āi Buy
ae̯ ায় পায় āẏ Similar to Hi
au̯ াউ পাউ āu How
ao̯ াও পাও āō Similar to ow
ɔe̯ ◌য় নয় aẏ No equivalent
ɔo̯ ◌ও নও No equivalent
oi̯ োই দোই ōi Similar to boy
oo̯ োও দোও ōō no
ou̯ নৌকা ōu go (diphthongal)
ui̯ ুই, ূই ধুই ui No equivalent
Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ primary stress
(placed before stressed syllable) [5]
ˌ secondary stress
(placed before stressed syllable) [5]
ː doubled consonant

Notes

  1. ^ a b ⟩ and ⟨⟩ may represent a voiced affricate / / in Standard Bengali words of native origin, but they can also represent / z/ in foreign words and names (জাকাত [zakat] ' zakah charity', আজিজ [aziz] 'Aziz'). However, many speakers usually replace /z/ with /dʒ/. Additionally, some words that originally had /z/ are now pronounced with / / in Standard Bengali (সবজি [ɕobdʑi] 'vegetable', from Persian sabzi).
  2. ^ /pʰ/ is phonetically realised either as [] or [ f~ ɸ] depending on the speaker and variety.
  3. ^ /r/ is phonetically an alveolar flap [ ɾ], alveolar trill [ r] or alveolar approximant [ ɹ] depending on the variety and speaker.
  4. ^ The [j] phoneme occurs in some pronunciations of Bengali vowel clusters, such as নয়ন [nɔjon].
  5. ^ a b Primary stress usually occurs in word-initial positions with secondary stress occurring afterwards.

Bibliography

  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla (2010), "Bengali (Bangladeshi Standard)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 221–225, doi: 10.1017/S0025100310000071