# Discretization

*https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discretization*

In
applied mathematics, **discretization** is the process of transferring
continuous functions, models, variables, and equations into
discrete counterparts. This process is usually carried out as a first step toward making them suitable for numerical evaluation and implementation on digital computers. **Dichotomization** is the special case of discretization in which the number of discrete classes is 2, which can approximate a continuous variable as a
binary variable (creating a
dichotomy for
modeling purposes, as in
binary classification).

Discretization is also related to
discrete mathematics, and is an important component of
granular computing. In this context, *discretization* may also refer to modification of variable or category *granularity*, as when multiple discrete variables are aggregated or multiple discrete categories fused.

Whenever continuous data is **discretized**, there is always some amount of
discretization error. The goal is to reduce the amount to a level considered
negligible for the
modeling purposes at hand.

The terms *discretization * and *
quantization* often have the same
denotation but not always identical
connotations. (Specifically, the two terms share a
semantic field.) The same is true of
discretization error and
quantization error.

Mathematical methods relating to discretization include the Euler–Maruyama method and the zero-order hold.

## Discretization of linear state space models

Discretization is also concerned with the transformation of continuous differential equations into discrete difference equations, suitable for numerical computing.

The following continuous-time state space model

where *v* and *w* are continuous zero-mean
white noise sources with
power spectral densities

can be discretized, assuming
zero-order hold for the input *u* and continuous integration for the noise *v*, to

with covariances

where

- , if is nonsingular

and is the sample time, although is the transposed matrix of . The equation for the discretized measurement noise is a consequence of the continuous measurement noise being defined with a power spectral density.^{
[1]}

A clever trick to compute *A*_{d} and *B*_{d} in one step is by utilizing the following property:^{
[2]}^{:p. 215}

Where and are the discretized state-space matrices.

### Discretization of process noise

Numerical evaluation of is a bit trickier due to the matrix exponential integral. It can, however, be computed by first constructing a matrix, and computing the exponential of it^{
[3]}

The discretized process noise is then evaluated by multiplying the transpose of the lower-right partition of **G** with the upper-right partition of **G**:

### Derivation

Starting with the continuous model

we know that the matrix exponential is

and by premultiplying the model we get

which we recognize as

and by integrating..

which is an analytical solution to the continuous model.

Now we want to discretise the above expression. We assume that u is constant during each timestep.

We recognize the bracketed expression as , and the second term can be simplified by substituting with the function . Note that . We also assume that is constant during the integral, which in turn yields

which is an exact solution to the discretization problem.

When is singular, the latter expression can still be used by replacing by its Taylor expansion,

This yields

which is the form used in practice.

### Approximations

Exact discretization may sometimes be intractable due to the heavy matrix exponential and integral operations involved. It is much easier to calculate an approximate discrete model, based on that for small timesteps . The approximate solution then becomes:

This is also known as the Euler method, which is also known as the forward Euler method. Other possible approximations are , otherwise known as the backward Euler method and , which is known as the bilinear transform, or Tustin transform. Each of these approximations has different stability properties. The bilinear transform preserves the instability of the continuous-time system.

## Discretization of continuous features

In
statistics and machine learning, **discretization** refers to the process of converting continuous features or variables to discretized or nominal features. This can be useful when creating probability mass functions.

## Discretization of smooth functions

In
generalized functions theory, **discretization**
arises as a particular case of the
Convolution Theorem
on
tempered distributions

where is the Dirac comb, is discretization, is periodization, is a rapidly decreasing tempered distribution (e.g. a Dirac delta function or any other compactly supported function), is a smooth, slowly growing ordinary function (e.g. the function that is constantly or any other band-limited function) and is the (unitary, ordinary frequency) Fourier transform. Functions which are not smooth can be made smooth using a mollifier prior to discretization.

As an example, discretization of the function that is constantly yields the sequence which, interpreted as the coefficients of a linear combination of Dirac delta functions, forms a Dirac comb. If additionally truncation is applied, one obtains finite sequences, e.g. . They are discrete in both, time and frequency.

## See also

- Discrete event simulation
- Discrete space
- Discrete time and continuous time
- Finite difference method
- Finite volume method for unsteady flow
- Smoothing
- Stochastic simulation
- Time-scale calculus

## References

**^**Analytic Sciences Corporation. Technical Staff. (1974).*Applied optimal estimation*. Gelb, Arthur, 1937-. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press. pp. 121. ISBN 0-262-20027-9. OCLC 960061.**^**Raymond DeCarlo:*Linear Systems: A State Variable Approach with Numerical Implementation*, Prentice Hall, NJ, 1989**^**Charles Van Loan:*Computing integrals involving the matrix exponential*, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. 23 (3): 395–404, 1978

## Further reading

- Robert Grover Brown & Patrick Y. C. Hwang (1997).
*Introduction to random signals and applied Kalman filtering*(3rd ed.). ISBN 978-0471128397. - Chi-Tsong Chen (1984).
*Linear System Theory and Design*. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Saunders College Publishing. ISBN 978-0030716911. - C. Van Loan (Jun 1978).
"Computing integrals involving the matrix exponential" (PDF).
*IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control*.**23**(3): 395–404. doi: 10.1109/TAC.1978.1101743. hdl: 1813/7095. - R.H. Middleton & G.C. Goodwin (1990).
*Digital control and estimation: a unified approach*. p. 33f. ISBN 978-0132116657.