Critical geography

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_geography

Critical geography is theoretically informed geographical scholarship that promotes  social justiceliberation, and  leftist politics. [1] Critical geography is also used as an umbrella term for Marxist, feminist, postmodern, poststructural, queer, left-wing, and activist geography. [2] [3]

Critical geography is one variant of  critical social science and the humanities that adopts  Marx’s thesis to interpret and change the world. Fay (1987) defines contemporary critical science as the effort to understand  oppression in a society and use this understanding to promote societal change and liberation. [4] Agger (1998) identifies a number of features of critical social theory practiced in fields like geography, which include: a rejection of  positivism; an endorsement of the possibility of progress; a claim for the structural dynamics of  domination; an argument that dominance is derived from forms of false consciousness, ideology, and myth; a faith in the agency of everyday change and self-transformation and an attendant rejection of  determinism; and a rejection of revolutionary expediency. [5]

Origin

Critical geography in the Anglo-American world rooted in the radical geography that emerged in the early 1970s. Peet (2000) provides an overview of the evolution of radical and critical geography. [6] In the early 1970s, radical geographers tried to transform the scope of the discipline of geography by responding to the great issues of the time: civil rights, environmental pollution, and war. The mid- to late-1970s saw ascending critiques of the  quantitative revolution and the adoption of  Marxist approach. The 1980s were marked by fissures between humanistic, feminist and Marxist streams, and a reversal of structural excess. In the late 1980s, critical geography emerged and gradually became a self-identified field.

Although closely related, critical geography and radical geography are not interchangeable. Critical geography has two crucial departures from radical geography: (1) a rejection of the structural excess of  Marxism, in accordance with the  post-modern turn; and (2) an increasing interest in culture and  representation, in contrast to radical geography’s focus on the economy. [1] Peet (2000) notices a rapprochement between critical and radical geography after heated debate in the 1990s. [6] Nevertheless, Castree (2000) posits that critical and radical geography entail different commitments. [3] He contends that the eclipse of radical geography indicates the professionalization and academicization of Left geography, and therefore worries about the loss of the "radical" tradition. [3]

Common themes

As a consequence of the  post-modern turn, critical geography doesn’t have a unified commitment. Hubbard, Kitchin, Bartley, and Fuller (2002) asserts that critical geography has a diverse  epistemologyontology, and  methodology, and does not have a distinctive theoretical identity. [7] Nonetheless, Blomley (2006) identifies six common themes of critical geography, [8] encompassing:

  1. A commitment to theory and a rejection of  empiricism. Critical geographers consciously deploy theories of some form, but they draw from a variety of theoretical wells, such as  political economygovernmentalityfeminismanti-racism, and  anti-imperialism.
  2. A commitment to reveal the processes that produce  inequalities. Critical geographers seek to unveil  power, uncover  inequality, expose resistance, and cultivate liberating politics and  social changes.
  3. An emphasis on  representation as a means of domination and resistance. A common focus of critical geography is to study how representations of space sustain power; or on the contrary, how representations of space can be used to challenge power.
  4. An optimistic faith in the power of critical scholarship. Critical geographers believe that scholarship can be used to resist dominant representations, and that scholars can undo said domination and help free the oppressed. There exists an implicit confidence in the power of critical scholarship to reach the uninformed, and in the capacities of people to defeat alienation by means of reflexive self-education.
  5. A commitment to progressive practices. Critical geographers want to make a difference through praxis. They claim to be united with  social movements and activists with commitments to  social justice. The actual relationship between critical geography and  activism has been much debated. [9]
  6. An understanding of  space as a critical tool. Critical geographers pay special attention to how spatial arrangements and representations can be used to produce  oppression and  inequality. Critical geographers identify to varying degrees how space can be used as both a veil and tool of power.

Critiques

A few important questions remain unsolved in critical geography. [1] The first one is that there has been relatively limited discussion over the shared commitments of critical geographers, with a few exceptions such as Harvey (2000). [10] The question such as "what are geographers critical of", and "to what end" needs to be answered. [1] Barnes (2002) comments that critical geographers are better at providing explanatory diagnoses than offering anticipatory-utopian imaginations to reconfigure the world. [11]

The second question concerns the institutionalization of critical geography. Even though critical geographers conceive themselves as rebels and outsiders, critical thinking has become prevalent in geography. [12] Critical geography is now situated at the very heart of the discipline of geography. [3] Some see institutionalization as a natural result of the analytical strength and insights of critical geography, while others fear that institutionalization has entailed cooptation. [1] The question is whether critical geography still holds its commitment to political change. [1]

Lastly, as critical geography is practiced across the world, the insights of critical geographers outside the Anglophone world should be better acknowledged. [13] In this regard, Mizuoka et al. (2005) offered an overview of Japanese critical geography praxis since the 1920s. [14] In addition, critical geography should also forge stronger linkage with critical scholars in other disciplines.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Gregory, Derek; Johnston, Ron; Pratt, Geraldine; Watts, Michael; Whatmore, Sarah (2011). The Dictionary of Human Geography. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN  9781444359954.
  2. ^ Best, U. (2009). Kitchin, Rob; Thrift, Nigel (eds.). International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Oxford: Elsevier. pp.  345–357. ISBN  9780080449104.
  3. ^ a b c d Castree, Noel (2000). "Professionalisation, Activism, and the University: Whither 'Critical Geography'?". Environment and Planning A. 32 (6): 955–970. doi: 10.1068/a3263.
  4. ^ Fay, Brian (1987). Critical social science: liberation and its limits. Cornell University Press. ISBN  9780801494581.
  5. ^ Agger, Ben (1988). Critical Social Theories: An Introduction. Avalon Publishing. ISBN  9780813321745.
  6. ^ a b Peet, Richard (2000). "Celebrating Thirty Years of Radical Geography". Environment and Planning A. 32 (6): 951–953. doi: 10.1068/a32202.
  7. ^ Hubbard, Phil; Bartley, Brendan; Fuller, Duncan; Kitchin, Rob (2002). Thinking Geographically: Space, Theory and Contemporary Human Geography. A&C Black. ISBN  9780567259882.
  8. ^ Blomley, Nicholas (2006). "Uncritical critical geography?". Progress in Human Geography. 30 (1): 87–94. doi: 10.1191/0309132506ph593pr.
  9. ^ Fuller, Duncan; Kitchin, Rob (2004). Radical Theory/critical Praxis: Making a Difference Beyond the Academy?. Praxis (e)Press. ISBN  9780973456103.
  10. ^ Harvey, David (2000). Spaces of Hope. University of California Press. ISBN  9780520225787.
  11. ^ Barnes, Trevor J. (2002). "Critical notes on economic geography from an aging radical. Or radical notes on economic geography from a critical age". ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies. 1 (1): 8–14. ISSN  1492-9732.
  12. ^ Byles, Jeff (2001-07-31). "Maps and Chaps". Village Voice. Retrieved 2017-04-04.
  13. ^ Bialasiewicz, Luiza (2003). "The Many Wor(l)ds of Difference and Dissent". Antipode. 35 (1): 14–23. doi: 10.1111/1467-8330.00299. ISSN  1467-8330.
  14. ^ Mizuoka, Fujio; Mizuuchi, Toshio; Hisatake, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Kenji; Fujita, Tetsushi (2005). "The Critical Heritage of Japanese Geography: Its Tortured Trajectory for Eight Decades". Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. 23 (3): 453–473. doi: 10.1068/d2204r.

Further reading