Yuman–Cochimí languages Information

From Wikipedia

Table of Contents ⇨
Colorado River basin and Baja California
Linguistic classification Hokan ?
  • Yuman–CochimĂ­
Glottolog coch1271 [1]
Yuman–Cochimí map.svg
Pre-contact distribution of Yuman–Cochimí languages

The Yuman–Cochimí languages are a family of languages spoken in Baja California, northern Sonora, southern California, and western Arizona. Cochimí is no longer spoken as of the late 18th century, and most other Yuman languages are threatened.

Genetic relations

There are approximately a dozen Yuman languages. The extinct Cochimí, attested from the 18th century, was identified after the rest of the family had been established, and was found to be more divergent. The resulting family was therefore called Yuman–Cochimí, with Yuman being the extra-Cochimí languages.

  • CochimĂ­ † (Northern CochimĂ­ and Southern CochimĂ­ may have been distinct languages)
  • Kiliwa
  • Delta–California Yuman
    • Ipai (a.k.a. 'Iipay, Northern Diegueño)
    • Kumeyaay (a.k.a. Southern Diegueño, Campo, Kamia)
    • Tipai (a.k.a. Southern Diegueño, Huerteño, Ku'ahl)
    • Cocopah (a.k.a. CucapĂĄ; cf. Kahwan, Halyikwamai)
  • River Yuman
  • Pai

CochimĂ­ is now extinct. CucapĂĄ is the Spanish name for the Cocopa. Diegueño is the Spanish name for Ipai–Kumeyaay–Tipai, now often referred to collectively as Kumeyaay. Upland Yuman consists of several mutually intelligible dialects spoken by the politically distinct Yavapai, Hualapai, and Havasupai.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cochimi–Yuman". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.


  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford University Press.
  • Goddard, Ives. (1996). "Introduction". In Languages, edited by Ives Goddard, pp. 1–16. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Vol. 17. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Kendall, Martha B. (1983). "Yuman languages". In Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 4–12. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Vol. 10. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Langdon, Margaret. (1990). "Diegueño: how many languages?" In Proceedings of the 1990 Hokan–Penutian Language Workshop, edited by James E. Redden, pp. 184–190. Occasional Papers in Linguistics No. 15. University of Southern Illinois, Carbondale.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN  0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN  0-521-29875-X.
  • Mixco, Mauricio J. (2006). "The indigenous languages". In The Prehistory of Baja California: Advances in the Archaeology of the Forgotten Peninsula, edited by Don Laylander and Jerry D. Moore, pp. 24–41.

External links