United States presidential election in Virginia, 1988 Article

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United States presidential election in Virginia, 1988

←  1984 November 8, 1988 1992 →
  1988 Bush.jpg 1988 Dukakis.jpg
Nominee George H. W. Bush Michael Dukakis
Party Republican Democratic
Home state Texas Massachusetts
Running mate Dan Quayle Lloyd Bentsen
Electoral vote 12 0
Popular vote 1,309,162 859,799
Percentage 59.74% 39.23%

VA1988.jpg
County Results
  Dukakis—70-80%
  Dukakis—60-70%
  Dukakis—50-60%
  Bush—50-60%
  Bush—60-70%
  Bush—70-80%

President before election

Ronald Reagan
Republican

Elected President

George H. W. Bush
Republican

The 1988 United States presidential election in Virginia took place on November 8, 1988. All fifty states and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1988 United States presidential election. Virginia voters chose twelve electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Virginia was won by incumbent United States Vice President George H. W. Bush of Texas, who was running against Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis. Bush ran with Indiana Senator Dan Quayle as Vice President, and Dukakis ran with Texas Senator Lloyd Bentsen.

Virginia weighed in for this election as 13 percentage points more Republican than the national average.

Partisan background

The presidential election of 1988 was a very partisan election for Virginia, with over 98 percent of the electorate voting for either the Democratic or Republican parties, and only four candidates on the ballot. [1] Most counties in Virginia turned out for Bush, including the highly populated regions of Virginia Beach and Fairfax County.

As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Northampton County and the independent cities of Martinsville, Fredericksburg, and Hampton voted for a Republican presidential candidate. [2]

Republican victory

Bush won the election in Virginia with a solid 20 point sweep-out landslide. This is the first election (post-Reagan) where Virginia voted reliably in block with the states of the Deep South during presidential elections - a trend which would continue for nearly 20 years. The election results in Virginia are also reflective of a nationwide reconsolidation of base for the Republican Party, which took place through the 1980s. Through the passage of some very controversial economic programs, spearheaded by then President Ronald Reagan (called, collectively, " Reaganomics"), the mid-to-late 1980s saw a period of economic growth and stability. The hallmark for Reaganomics was, in part, the wide-scale deregulation of corporate interests, and tax cuts for the wealthy. [3]

Dukakis ran his campaign on a socially liberal platform, and advocated for higher economic regulation and environmental protection. Bush, alternatively, ran on a campaign of continuing the social and economic policies of former President Reagan - which gained him much support with social conservatives and people living in rural areas. Additionally, while the economic programs passed under Reagan, and furthered under Bush and Clinton, may have boosted the economy for a brief period, they are criticized by many analysts as "setting the stage" for economic troubles in the United State after 2007, such as the Great Recession. [4]

Results

United States presidential election in Virginia, 1988 [5]
Party Candidate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Republican George H. W. Bush 1,309,162 59.74% 12
Democratic Michael Dukakis 859,799 39.23% 0
New Alliance Lenora Fulani 14,312 0.65% 0
Libertarian Ron Paul 8,336 0.38% 0
Totals 2,191,609 100.0% 12

Results by county

George Herbert Walker Bush
Republican
Michael Stanley Dukakis
Democratic
Various candidates
Other parties
Margin Total votes cast
County or Independent City # % # % # % # % #
Accomack County 6,926 60.01% 4,443 38.49% 173 1.50% 2,483 21.51% 11,542
Albemarle County 15,117 58.70% 10,363 40.24% 273 1.06% 4,754 18.46% 25,753
Alleghany County 2,555 51.87% 2,316 47.02% 55 1.12% 239 4.85% 4,926
Amelia County 2,187 60.85% 1,359 37.81% 48 1.34% 828 23.04% 3,594
Amherst County 6,507 64.10% 3,567 35.14% 77 0.76% 2,940 28.96% 10,151
Appomattox County 3,205 63.59% 1,740 34.52% 95 1.88% 1,465 29.07% 5,040
Arlington County 34,191 45.37% 40,314 53.49% 860 1.14% -6,123 -8.12% 75,365
Augusta County 13,251 75.14% 4,170 23.65% 213 1.21% 9,081 51.50% 17,634
Bath County 1,273 58.74% 881 40.66% 13 0.60% 392 18.09% 2,167
Bedford County 10,702 65.33% 5,406 33.00% 274 1.67% 5,296 32.33% 16,382
Bland County 1,556 61.12% 937 36.80% 53 2.08% 619 24.31% 2,546
Botetourt County 5,687 59.30% 3,763 39.23% 141 1.47% 1,924 20.06% 9,591
Brunswick County 2,742 46.60% 3,070 52.18% 72 1.22% -328 -5.57% 5,884
Buchanan County 3,912 35.68% 6,935 63.25% 118 1.08% -3,023 -27.57% 10,965
Buckingham County 2,481 55.49% 1,941 43.41% 49 1.10% 540 12.08% 4,471
Campbell County 12,713 72.51% 4,574 26.09% 246 1.40% 8,139 46.42% 17,533
Caroline County 3,065 48.71% 3,186 50.64% 41 0.65% -121 -1.92% 6,292
Carroll County 6,377 66.17% 3,190 33.10% 70 0.73% 3,187 33.07% 9,637
Charles City County 826 30.59% 1,839 68.11% 35 1.30% -1,013 -37.52% 2,700
Charlotte County 2,699 57.44% 1,923 40.92% 77 1.64% 776 16.51% 4,699
Chesterfield County 58,828 75.34% 18,723 23.98% 532 0.68% 40,105 51.36% 78,083
Clarke County 2,502 62.24% 1,478 36.77% 40 1.00% 1,024 25.47% 4,020
Craig County 1,112 55.46% 864 43.09% 29 1.45% 248 12.37% 2,005
Culpeper County 5,896 68.57% 2,555 29.71% 148 1.72% 3,341 38.85% 8,599
Cumberland County 1,978 62.61% 1,132 35.83% 49 1.55% 846 26.78% 3,159
Dickenson County 3,091 40.65% 4,461 58.67% 52 0.68% -1,370 -18.02% 7,604
Dinwiddie County 4,165 54.38% 3,405 44.46% 89 1.16% 760 9.92% 7,659
Essex County 2,038 60.56% 1,294 38.45% 33 0.98% 744 22.11% 3,365
Fairfax County 200,641 61.10% 125,711 38.28% 2,013 0.61% 74,930 22.82% 328,365
Fauquier County 11,733 69.86% 4,837 28.80% 226 1.35% 6,896 41.06% 16,796
Floyd County 2,921 61.69% 1,727 36.47% 87 1.84% 1,194 25.22% 4,735
Fluvanna County 2,447 60.29% 1,562 38.48% 50 1.23% 885 21.80% 4,059
Franklin County 7,391 55.73% 5,734 43.24% 136 1.03% 1,657 12.50% 13,261
Frederick County 9,921 72.33% 3,707 27.02% 89 0.65% 6,214 45.30% 13,717
Giles County 3,490 52.50% 3,042 45.76% 116 1.74% 448 6.74% 6,648
Gloucester County 7,646 68.38% 3,372 30.16% 163 1.46% 4,274 38.23% 11,181
Goochland County 3,765 62.61% 2,209 36.74% 39 0.65% 1,556 25.88% 6,013
Grayson County 3,968 61.51% 2,441 37.84% 42 0.65% 1,527 23.67% 6,451
Greene County 2,234 69.29% 899 27.88% 91 2.82% 1,335 41.41% 3,224
Greensville County 1,610 43.13% 2,083 55.80% 40 1.07% -473 -12.67% 3,733
Halifax County 5,671 56.02% 4,282 42.30% 171 1.69% 1,389 13.72% 10,124
Hanover County 20,570 76.99% 5,985 22.40% 163 0.61% 14,585 54.59% 26,718
Henrico County 62,284 69.29% 26,980 30.02% 623 0.69% 35,304 39.28% 89,887
Henry County 10,871 58.04% 7,536 40.24% 322 1.72% 3,335 17.81% 18,729
Highland County 807 62.75% 456 35.46% 23 1.79% 351 27.29% 1,286
Isle of Wight County 5,779 60.07% 3,747 38.95% 95 0.99% 2,032 21.12% 9,621
James City County 8,945 64.95% 4,642 33.70% 186 1.35% 4,303 31.24% 13,773
King and Queen County 1,376 50.46% 1,309 48.00% 42 1.54% 67 2.46% 2,727
King George County 2,587 62.40% 1,519 36.64% 40 0.96% 1,068 25.76% 4,146
King William County 2,735 62.89% 1,561 35.89% 53 1.22% 1,174 26.99% 4,349
Lancaster County 3,380 67.02% 1,551 30.76% 112 2.22% 1,829 36.27% 5,043
Lee County 4,080 45.11% 4,906 54.24% 59 0.65% -826 -9.13% 9,045
Loudoun County 20,448 66.26% 10,101 32.73% 313 1.01% 10,347 33.53% 30,862
Louisa County 3,831 57.16% 2,789 41.61% 82 1.22% 1,042 15.55% 6,702
Lunenburg County 2,530 56.27% 1,870 41.59% 96 2.14% 660 14.68% 4,496
Madison County 2,501 62.12% 1,427 35.44% 98 2.43% 1,074 26.68% 4,026
Mathews County 2,752 67.52% 1,235 30.30% 89 2.18% 1,517 37.22% 4,076
Mecklenburg County 5,887 63.45% 3,275 35.30% 116 1.25% 2,612 28.15% 9,278
Middlesex County 2,571 63.99% 1,361 33.87% 86 2.14% 1,210 30.11% 4,018
Montgomery County 12,326 57.48% 8,909 41.55% 209 0.97% 3,417 15.93% 21,444
Nelson County 2,502 51.60% 2,272 46.86% 75 1.55% 230 4.74% 4,849
New Kent County 2,917 66.54% 1,427 32.55% 40 0.91% 1,490 33.99% 4,384
Northampton County 2,562 52.00% 2,242 45.50% 123 2.50% 320 6.49% 4,927
Northumberland County 2,984 65.14% 1,506 32.87% 91 1.99% 1,478 32.26% 4,581
Nottoway County 3,161 57.38% 2,217 40.24% 131 2.38% 944 17.14% 5,509
Orange County 4,319 61.57% 2,592 36.95% 104 1.48% 1,727 24.62% 7,015
Page County 5,013 66.18% 2,499 32.99% 63 0.83% 2,514 33.19% 7,575
Patrick County 3,990 64.06% 2,093 33.60% 146 2.34% 1,897 30.45% 6,229
Pittsylvania County 12,229 63.69% 6,612 34.44% 360 1.87% 5,617 29.25% 19,201
Powhatan County 4,040 72.91% 1,467 26.48% 34 0.61% 2,573 46.44% 5,541
Prince Edward County 3,147 55.02% 2,434 42.55% 139 2.43% 713 12.47% 5,720
Prince George County 4,982 66.29% 2,469 32.85% 64 0.85% 2,513 33.44% 7,515
Prince William County 39,654 66.70% 19,198 32.29% 601 1.01% 20,456 34.41% 59,453
Pulaski County 6,844 58.40% 4,686 39.99% 189 1.61% 2,158 18.41% 11,719
Rappahannock County 1,657 61.69% 1,003 37.34% 26 0.97% 654 24.35% 2,686
Richmond County 1,862 66.24% 924 32.87% 25 0.89% 938 33.37% 2,811
Roanoke County 22,011 62.61% 12,938 36.80% 208 0.59% 9,073 25.81% 35,157
Rockbridge County 3,541 58.41% 2,412 39.79% 109 1.80% 1,129 18.62% 6,062
Rockingham County 13,241 72.59% 4,716 25.85% 284 1.56% 8,525 46.74% 18,241
Russell County 4,374 40.68% 6,222 57.86% 157 1.46% -1,848 -17.19% 10,753
Scott County 4,986 56.76% 3,616 41.16% 183 2.08% 1,370 15.59% 8,785
Shenandoah County 8,612 71.74% 3,276 27.29% 116 0.97% 5,336 44.45% 12,004
Smyth County 7,446 63.49% 3,989 34.02% 292 2.49% 3,457 29.48% 11,727
Southampton County 3,439 52.96% 3,000 46.20% 54 0.83% 439 6.76% 6,493
Spotsylvania County 10,978 66.16% 5,486 33.06% 129 0.78% 5,492 33.10% 16,593
Stafford County 12,234 69.07% 5,380 30.37% 98 0.55% 6,854 38.70% 17,712
Surry County 1,246 42.98% 1,602 55.26% 51 1.76% -356 -12.28% 2,899
Sussex County 1,822 46.77% 1,958 50.26% 116 2.98% -136 -3.49% 3,896
Tazewell County 7,165 46.37% 8,098 52.40% 190 1.23% -933 -6.04% 15,453
Warren County 4,700 61.86% 2,769 36.44% 129 1.70% 1,931 25.41% 7,598
Washington County 10,722 63.45% 5,819 34.43% 358 2.12% 4,903 29.01% 16,899
Westmoreland County 2,974 55.38% 2,311 43.04% 85 1.58% 663 12.35% 5,370
Wise County 6,189 46.23% 7,017 52.42% 180 1.34% -828 -6.19% 13,386
Wythe County 5,827 63.17% 3,201 34.70% 197 2.14% 2,626 28.47% 9,225
York County 11,103 69.96% 4,639 29.23% 129 0.81% 6,464 40.73% 15,871
Alexandria City 20,913 45.66% 24,358 53.18% 533 1.16% -3,445 -7.52% 45,804
Bedford City 1,322 56.79% 960 41.24% 46 1.98% 362 15.55% 2,328
Bristol City 4,407 63.92% 2,446 35.47% 42 0.61% 1,961 28.44% 6,895
Buena Vista City 1,121 56.08% 828 41.42% 50 2.50% 293 14.66% 1,999
Charlottesville City 5,817 42.61% 7,671 56.19% 164 1.20% -1,854 -13.58% 13,652
Chesapeake City 29,738 60.87% 18,828 38.54% 289 0.59% 10,910 22.33% 48,855
Clifton Forge City 759 43.65% 961 55.26% 19 1.09% -202 -11.62% 1,739
Colonial Heights City 6,001 78.57% 1,581 20.70% 56 0.73% 4,420 57.87% 7,638
Covington City 1,274 43.70% 1,567 53.76% 74 2.54% -293 -10.05% 2,915
Danville City 12,221 61.49% 7,353 37.00% 300 1.51% 4,868 24.49% 19,874
Emporia City 1,289 56.61% 977 42.91% 11 0.48% 312 13.70% 2,277
Fairfax City 5,576 61.27% 3,430 37.69% 95 1.04% 2,146 23.58% 9,101
Falls Church City 2,470 49.51% 2,484 49.79% 35 0.70% -14 -0.28% 4,989
Franklin City 1,557 48.50% 1,630 50.78% 23 0.72% -73 -2.27% 3,210
Fredericksburg City 3,401 55.26% 2,683 43.60% 70 1.14% 718 11.67% 6,154
Galax City 1,278 58.09% 907 41.23% 15 0.68% 371 16.86% 2,200
Hampton City 24,034 54.85% 19,106 43.60% 678 1.55% 4,928 11.25% 43,818
Harrisonburg City 5,376 64.86% 2,799 33.77% 113 1.36% 2,577 31.09% 8,288
Hopewell City 4,672 63.48% 2,566 34.86% 122 1.66% 2,106 28.61% 7,360
Lexington City 994 49.11% 997 49.26% 33 1.63% -3 -0.15% 2,024
Lynchburg City 15,323 64.04% 8,279 34.60% 324 1.35% 7,044 29.44% 23,926
Manassas City 5,980 68.59% 2,658 30.49% 81 0.93% 3,322 38.10% 8,719
Manassas Park City 993 68.67% 434 30.01% 19 1.31% 559 38.66% 1,446
Martinsville City 3,360 53.64% 2,794 44.60% 110 1.76% 566 9.04% 6,264
Newport News City 32,570 59.88% 21,413 39.37% 412 0.76% 11,157 20.51% 54,395
Norfolk City 30,538 44.33% 37,778 54.84% 575 0.83% -7,240 -10.51% 68,891
Norton City 608 42.73% 795 55.87% 20 1.41% -187 -13.14% 1,423
Petersburg City 4,231 33.60% 8,177 64.94% 183 1.45% -3,946 -31.34% 12,591
Poquoson City 3,840 80.83% 877 18.46% 34 0.72% 2,963 62.37% 4,751
Portsmouth City 16,087 44.61% 19,698 54.63% 274 0.76% -3,611 -10.01% 36,059
Radford City 2,481 56.84% 1,855 42.50% 29 0.66% 626 14.34% 4,365
Richmond City 31,586 42.26% 42,155 56.41% 995 1.33% -10,569 -14.14% 74,736
Roanoke City 15,389 46.90% 17,185 52.37% 239 0.73% -1,796 -5.47% 32,813
Salem City 5,694 59.77% 3,760 39.47% 73 0.77% 1,934 20.30% 9,527
South Boston City 1,694 64.05% 936 35.39% 15 0.57% 758 28.66% 2,645
Staunton City 5,775 69.29% 2,457 29.48% 102 1.22% 3,318 39.81% 8,334
Suffolk City 9,742 54.27% 8,080 45.01% 128 0.71% 1,662 9.26% 17,950
Virginia Beach City 76,481 68.89% 33,780 30.43% 757 0.68% 42,701 38.46% 111,018
Waynesboro City 4,672 68.72% 2,038 29.97% 89 1.31% 2,634 38.74% 6,799
Williamsburg City 1,648 50.91% 1,534 47.39% 55 1.70% 114 3.52% 3,237
Winchester City 4,497 65.53% 2,300 33.52% 65 0.95% 2,197 32.02% 6,862
Totals 1,309,162 59.74% 859,799 39.23% 22,648 1.03% 449,363 20.50% 2,191,609

See also

References

  1. ^ "1988 Presidential General Election Results – Virginia". Dave Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 2018-01-07.
  2. ^ Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016
  3. ^ "Since 1980s, the Kindest of Tax Cuts for the Rich". The New York Times. 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
  4. ^ Jerry Lanson (2008-11-06). "A historic victory. A changed nation. Now, can Obama deliver?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
  5. ^ http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/1988election.pdf