United States District Court for the Southern District of Alabama Article

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United States District Court for the Southern District of Alabama
(S.D. Ala.)
Alabama-southern.png
SDAla.png
Location John Archibald Campbell U.S. Courthouse
More locations
Appeals to Eleventh Circuit
EstablishedMarch 10, 1824
Judges3
Chief Judge Kristi DuBose
Officers of the court
U.S. Attorney Richard W. Moore
U.S. Marshal Mark F. Sloke
www.alsd.uscourts.gov

The United States District Court for the Southern District of Alabama (in case citations, S.D. Ala.) is a federal court in the Eleventh Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit).

The District was established on March 10, 1824, with the division of the state into a Northern and Southern district. [1]

The United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of Alabama represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is Richard W. Moore.

Organization of the court

The United States District Court for the Southern District of Alabama is one of three federal judicial districts in Alabama. [2] Court for the District is held at Mobile and Selma.

Mobile Division comprises the following counties: Baldwin, Choctaw, Clarke, Conecuh, Escambia, Mobile, Monroe, and Washington.

Selma Division comprises the following counties: Dallas, Hale, Marengo, Perry, and Wilcox.

Current judges

# Title Judge Duty station Born Term of service Appointed by
Active Chief Senior
20 Chief Judge Kristi DuBose Mobile 1964 2005–present 2017–present G.W. Bush
21 District Judge Jeff Beaverstock Mobile 1968 2018–present Trump
22 District Judge Terry F. Moorer Mobile 1961 2018–present Trump
16 Senior Judge Charles Randolph Butler Jr. Mobile 1940 1988–2005 1994–2003 2005–present Reagan
18 Senior Judge Callie V. Granade Mobile 1950 2002–2016 2003–2010 2016–present G.W. Bush
19 Senior Judge William H. Steele Mobile 1951 2003–2017 2010–2017 2017–present G.W. Bush

Former judges

# Judge State Born–died Active service Chief Judge Senior status Appointed by Reason for
termination
1 Charles Tait AL 1768–1835 1824 [3]–1826 Monroe resignation
2 William Crawford AL 1784–1849 1826–1849 J.Q. Adams death
3 John Gayle AL 1792–1859 1849–1859 Taylor death
4 William Giles Jones AL 1808–1883 1859 [4]–1861 Buchanan resignation
5 George Washington Lane AL 1806–1863 1861–1863 Lincoln death
6 Richard Busteed AL 1822–1898 1863 [5]–1874 Lincoln resignation
7 John Bruce AL 1832–1901 1875–1886 Grant seat abolished
8 Harry Theophilus Toulmin AL 1838–1916 1887–1916 Cleveland death
9 Robert Tait Ervin AL 1863–1949 1917–1935 1935–1949 Wilson death
10 John McDuffie AL 1883–1950 1935–1950 F. Roosevelt death
11 Daniel Holcombe Thomas AL 1906–2000 1951–1971 1966–1971 1971–2000 Truman death
12 Thomas Virgil Pittman AL 1916–2012 1966–1981 1971–1981 1981–2012 L. Johnson death
13 William Brevard Hand AL 1924–2008 1971–1989 1981–1989 1989–2008 Nixon death
14 Emmett Ripley Cox AL 1935–present 1981–1988 Reagan appointment to 11th Cir.
15 Alex T. Howard Jr. AL 1924–2011 1986–1996 1989–1994 1996–2011 Reagan death
17 Richard W. Vollmer Jr. AL 1926–2003 1990–2000 2000–2003 G.H.W. Bush death

Chief judges

Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.

When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become or remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.

Court Decisions

Wallace v. Jaffree (1983) – Court affirmed that silent prayer was permissible in Mobile County public schools. Decision was reversed by Eleventh Circuit and U.S. Supreme Court, both ruling that it violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Smith v. Board of School Commissioners of Mobile County (1987) – Court rules that textbooks promoting secular humanism were unconstitutional, running contrary to the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. Decision was reversed by Eleventh Circuit, which held that secular humanism was not a violation of the Establishment Clause.

Searcy v. Strange (2015) – District Judge Callie V. S. "Ginny" Granade ruled that Alabama's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional, violating the 14th Amendment's equal protection clause, on January 23. Days later, she issued an order clarifying her ruling, saying that all Alabama probate judges, who issue marriage licenses, must comply with the order. She stayed her order for two weeks to allow state defendants time to seek a stay from a higher court. On February 3, the Eleventh Circuit denied the stay, after denying a stay in a similar case out of Florida months before. On February 9, as the order was set to take effect, the U.S. Supreme Court also denied the stay.

Succession of seats

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.fjc.gov/history/home.nsf/page/courts_district_al.html U.S. District Courts of Alabama, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center
  2. ^ 28 U.S.C. § 81
  3. ^ Initially appointed to the District of Alabama in 1820 by James Monroe; reassigned to both the Northern District of Alabama and the Southern District of Alabama in 1824.
  4. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 23, 1860, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 30, 1860, and received commission on January 30, 1860.
  5. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1864, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 20, 1864, and received commission on January 20, 1864.

External links