Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece (33–717) Article

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This is a timeline of the presence of Orthodoxy in Greece. The history of Greece traditionally encompasses the study of the Greek people, the areas they ruled historically, as well as the territory now composing the modern state of Greece.

Christianity was first brought to the geographical area corresponding to modern Greece by the Apostle Paul, although the church's apostolicity also rests upon St. Andrew who preached the gospel in Greece and suffered martyrdom in Patras, Titus, Paul's companion who preached the gospel in Crete where he became bishop, Philip who, according to the tradition, visited and preached in Athens, Luke the Evangelist who was martyred in Thebes, Lazarus of Bethany, Bishop of Kition in Cyprus, and John the Theologian who was exiled on the island of Patmos where he received the Revelation recorded in the last book of the New Testament. In addition, the Theotokos is regarded as having visited the Holy Mountain in 49 AD according to tradition. [note 1] Thus Greece became the first European area to accept the gospel of Christ. Towards the end of the 2nd century the early apostolic bishoprics had developed into metropolitan sees in the most important cities. Such were the sees of Thessaloniki, Corinth, Nicopolis, Philippi and Athens. [1]

By the 4th century almost the entire Balkan peninsula constituted the Exarchate of Illyricum which was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome. Illyricum was assigned to the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople by the emperor in 732. From then on the Church in Greece remained under Constantinople till the fall of the Byzantine empire to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. As an integral part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the church remained under its jurisdiction until Greek independence. [1] Under Ottoman rule, up to "6,000 Greek clergymen, ca. 100 Bishops, and 11 Patriarchs knew the Ottoman sword". [2] [3] [note 2]

The Greek War of Independence of 1821–28 created an independent southern Greece, but created anomalies in ecclesiastical relations since the Ecumenical Patriarch remained under Ottoman tutelage, and in 1850 the Endemousa Synod in Constantinople declared the Church of Greece autocephalous.

The cultural roots of both Byzantine and modern Greece cannot be separated from Orthodoxy. Therefore, it was natural that in all Greek Constitutions the Orthodox Church was accorded the status of the prevailing religion. [9] [note 3]

In the 20th century, during much of the period of communism, the Church of Greece saw itself as a guardian of Orthodoxy. It cherishes its place as the cradle of the primitive church and the Greek clergy are still present in the historic places of Istanbul and Jerusalem, and Cyprus. [10] The autocephalous Church of Greece is organised into 81 dioceses, however 35 of these – known as the Metropolises of the New Lands – are nominally under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople but are administered as part of the Church of Greece; although the dioceses of Crete, the Dodecanese, and Mount Athos are under the direct jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. [11] [note 4]

The Archbishop of Athens and All Greece presides over both a standing synod of twelve metropolitans (six from the new territories and six from southern Greece), who participate in the synod in rotation and on an annual basis, and a synod of the hierarchy (in which all ruling metropolitans participate), which meets once a year. [1]

The government observes several religious holidays as national holidays including Epiphany, Clean Monday (the start of Great Lent), Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday, Holy Spirit Day, the Dormition of the Theotokos and Christmas. [12]

Among the current concerns of the Church of Greece are the Christian response to globalization, to interreligious dialogue, and a common Christian voice within the framework of the European Union. [1]

The population of Greece is 11.4 million (2011), [13] [note 5] of which 95% [16] [17] [note 6] to 98% [18] are Greek Orthodox.

The early church of Greece (33-325)

Apostolic era (33–100)

Icon of Apostle Paul, Apostle of Greece and Cyprus.
Icon of Apostle Andrew, considered the founder and first bishop of the Church of Byzantium.

Ante-Nicene era (100–325)

icon of St. John the Theologian receiving the Apocalypse on the isle of Patmos (16th century)
Map of the Roman Empire showing the Dioceses created by Diocletian, c. 293 AD., and the four Tetrarchs' zones of influence.
A coin of Constantine (c.337) showing a depiction of his Labarum standard spearing a serpent.

Patriarchate of the Roman era (325–732)

Nicene era (325–451)

The First Ecumenical Council in Nicaea, AD 325.
  • c. 342–343 Death of Nicholas of Myra. [115] [116] [117]
  • 346 Apparition of the Sign of the Cross over Jerusalem, in time of Patriarch Cyril, when a luminous Cross appeared over Jerusalem, stretching from Golgotha to the Mount of Olives. [118] [note 22]
St. Spyridon, Bishop of Trimythous.
The Three Holy Hierarchs, Basil the Great (Basil of Caesarea), Gregory the Theologian (Gregory of Nazianzus) and John Chrysostom.
The division of the Empire after the death of Theodosius I, c. 395 AD superimposed on modern borders.
  Western Roman Empire
  Eastern Roman Empire
St. John Chrysostom, Abp. of Constantinople (398–404).
Map of the Roman Empire with its Dioceses, in 400 AD. The Prefecture of "Eastern Illyricum" (Illyricum Orientale) consisted of the Dioceses of Dacia and Macedonia.

Early Byzantine era (451–843)

Byzantine miniature depicting the Stoudios Monastery and the Propontis (Sea of Marmara).
Eastern Roman Empire c. 477, showing the extent of Koine Greek.
St. Romanos' vision of the Virgin Mary.
  • 519 Eastern and Western churches reconciled with end of Acacian Schism.
An interior view of Hagia Sophia today.
The Byzantine Empire during its greatest territorial extent under Justinian. c. 550.


The Holy Virgin Blachernitissa, divine protectress of the Byzantine Empire (7th century).
Byzantine Empire by 650; by this year it lost all of its southern provinces except the Exarchate of Carthage.
Map of Justinian's Pentarchy, with almost all of modern Greece under Rome.
  • 685 First monastics come to Mount Athos; emperor Justinian II is the first emperor to have the figure of the Lord Jesus Christ stamped on a coin. [note 39]
  • 688 Emperor Justinian II and Caliph Abd al-Malik sign treaty neutralizing Cyprus.
  • 692 The " Pentarchy" form of government of universal Christendom by five patriarchal sees received formal ecclesiastical sanction at the Council in Trullo, held in Constantinople, which ranked the five sees as Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem;
Byzantine-Arab naval struggles, c. AD 717–1025.

See also

History

Church Fathers

Notes

  1. ^ The Theotokos is the Patron of Mount Athos, which is known as: The Garden of the Mother of God, and The Holy Mountain of Our Lady. The arrival of the Theotokos at the Mountain is mentioned by codices L' 66 and I' 31 of the Library of Great Lavra Monastery.
  2. ^ "According to several accounts, from the Conquest of Constantinople to the last phase of the Greek War of Independence, the Ottoman Turks condemned to death 11 Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople, nearly 100 bishops, and several thousands of priests, deacons and monks (Bompolines, 1952; [4] Paparounis, no date; [5] Perantones, 1972; [6] Pouqueville, 1824; [7] Vaporis, 2000. [8])." [3]
  3. ^ The provisions of the 1844 Constitution, where the Bavarian regency bequeathed the Hellenic State with a kind of caesaropapism, were repeated in articles 1 and 2 of the 1864 Constitution; article 1 and 2 of the 1911 Constitution; article 1 of the 1927 Constitution; articles 1 and 2 of the 1952 Constitution; article 1 of the 1968 constitutional text of the military dictatorship; and article 3 of the 1975 Constitution; (as well as article 9 of the 1925 and 1926 Constitutions, which were never enforced). [9]
  4. ^ "Codified in the 1928 Patriarchal and Synodical Act, the " New Lands" were entrusted to the temporary stewardship of the Church of Greece, provided that the Church respected the terms of the Act. The Act subsequently has been incorporated into several pieces of Greek legislation (Laws 3615/1928, 5438/1932, 599/1977, and Article 3, paragraph 1 of the current Greek Constitution), thereby recognizing the ecclesiastical agreement between the two sides."
  5. ^ The World Bank gives a figure of 11.30 million (2011), [14] while according to the 2011 Greek Census, the total enumerated population was 10,787,690. [15]
  6. ^ According to a December 2011 nationwide survey conducted by Metron Analysis (one of the biggest independent market research and public opinion survey companies in Greece), 95% of those polled reported that they were Orthodox Christians, while 1.5% said that they belong to some other religion, and 2.8% of the population said that they were irreligious or atheist, which is among the lowest figures in Europe. [16]
  7. ^ "In 27 BC Augustus divided the area into three provinces – Achaea, Epirus and Macedonia, the latter becoming a senatorial province. In 15 Tiberius joined the provinces of Macedonia, Achaea and Moesia under the command of a single legate, a move reversed by Claudius in 44, who restored Macedonia and Achaea as senatorial provinces. Nero proclaimed "freedom" for Greece in 67, which included exemption from taxes, but this proclamation was reversed by Vespasian. By the reign of Antoninus Pius at the very latest, Epirus was detached from Macedonia as a separate province. In Dicoletians reorganization the area was divided into five provinces within the Diocese of Moesia." [40]
  8. ^ The Christians generally disliked it, alleging that it rendered the Messianic passages incorrectly, but Jerome and Origen speak in its praise. Origen incorporated it in his Hexapla. [45]
  9. ^ "He was by birth a Gentile from Pontus, and is said by Epiphanius to have been a connection by marriage of the emperor Hadrian and to have been appointed by him about the year 128 to an office concerned with the rebuilding of Jerusalem as " Ælia Capitolina"...According to Jerome he was a disciple of Rabbi Akiba (d. A.D. 132). The Talmud states that he finished his translations under the influence of R. Akiba...It is certain, however, that Aquila's translation had appeared before the publication of Irenæus' "Adversus Hæreses"; i.e., before 177." [46]
  10. ^ "If, indeed, we could rely on Epiphanius, the doubt would be solved, for he confidently asserts that Theodotion issued his version in 'the reign of the second Commodus' (i.e. 180–192)...On his authority the Paschal Chronicle sets in down as 184." [51]
  11. ^ " EUSEBIUS speaks of Pinitus, Bishop of Gnossus, in Crete, who lived at the time of Dionysius of Corinth. Dionysius wrote to Pinitus, "not to impose on the brethren, without necessity, too severe a burden in regard to purity, but to pay regard to the infirmity of the great bulk of the people." To which Pinitus, writing in reply, said that he admired and applauded Dionysius, but exhorted him, at the same time, to impart some time or other food which was stronger to his flock, and to feed them with writings abounding in more perfect doctrine, so that they might not remain constantly imbibing the mere milk of doctrine, and grow old under a discipline calculated for children. "In this epistle also, the correct views which Pinitus cherished, and his solicitude for those committed to his care, also his learning and intelligence in divine matters, appear evidently."" [54]
  12. ^ The earliest known prayer to the Theotokos (Greek, Θεοτόκος, meaning "Bearer of God") is a prayer found on a fragment of papyrus dating back to approximately AD 250. In 1917, the John Rylands Library in Manchester, England, acquired a large panel of Egyptian papyrus. The prayer is located on the fragment recorded as reference number Greek Papyrus 470. The prayer appears to be from a Coptic Christmas liturgy or vespers written in Koine Greek although the fragment in question may be a private copy of the prayer. The prayer is still chanted in the Orthodox Church to this day at the end of nearly every Vespers service during Lent. It is also found in the worship services of the Roman Catholic and Oriental Churches. The early date of this prayer is important for a number of reasons, one of which is that it supports our understanding that the term Theotokos was not just a theological concept defended at the Third Ecumenical Council in AD 431, but was already in popular use and well-known several centuries before the Nestorian heresy. As St. Gregory of Nazianzus stated in AD 379, "If someone does not uphold that the holy Mary is Theotokos, he is separated from divinity" (Letter 101, PG 37, 177C). Early Christians recognized the Theotokos as a powerful intercessor for those who are suffering and in need of protection. Christians have been seeking her intercessions from the time of the ancient Church and well over a thousand years up to this very day. The prayer reads:
    • Beneath thy compassion, We take refuge, O Mother of God: do not despise our petitions in time of trouble, but rescue us from dangers, only pure one, only blessed one. [67]
  13. ^ "The invasions of the Goths into the Greek-inhabited districts of the Balkan peninsula and the north and west coasts of Anatolia began in the middle of the 3rd century. Although these plundering raids were at first restricted to Greek outposts on the northern shores of the Black Sea and along the Lower Danube, after the serious defeat of the Romans and the death of emperor Decius in the battle of Abrittus in the Dobrudja (251 A.D.) the situation changed fundamentally. From then on no place was safe from the daring incursions of the northern tribes. In 253 A.D. the ships of the Goths, the Burgundians, Carpi, and Borani (the last probably a Sarmatian tribe) appeared for the first time in the waters of Asia Minor. Similar expeditions repeated themselves year after year." [69]
  14. ^ " Herennius Dexippus went out against them with a small force of 2000 Athenians – that was all the city could throw into the field – and defeated one of their armies." [69]
  15. ^ The Great Synaxaristes records her birth in the year 270AD, and her martyrdom at the age of 15. [73] The Vatican suppressed her cult in 1969. [74]
  16. ^ "Originally the Rotonda formed part of a larger complex of buildings including a triumphal arch over the Via Egnatia, a hippodrome, an octagonal building and several palaces built by Galerius. The Rotonda, as it is called in Greek (with an 'o'), is one of the largest, covered, round Roman buildings still standing today and it is a valuable historical monument on architectural grounds alone. The Pantheon in Rome is a comparable structure... ...Between the 10th and the 12th centuries, and again between 1525 and 1591, the Rotonda served as the main cathedral of Thessaloniki... ...In 1962 the Greek government declared the Rotonda a 'historical conservation monument (istoriko diatiriteo mnimeio) and an archaeological space'. And in 1986 UNESCO included it in its catalogue of international heritage monuments." [91]
  17. ^ "In the history of the Roman Empire and late Greek culture, the reign of Constantine I forms a break. The agreements reached at Milan in 313 A.D. between Constantine and Licinius to place Christianity on an equal footing with the other religions, and besides this to build Constantinople on the Bosporus, mark the beginning of a new era. Constantine laid the foundations of the later Byzantine Empire, which was based on Roman political ideas, on the Greek people and on Greek culture. Once more, thanks to Constantine, the political and cultural primacy shifted from the West to the East." [92]
  18. ^ "This law went further than Galerius' edict of toleration in 311, "by the raising, in a formal juristic manner, of each individual church, and therefore the whole, the universal Church, to the level of a full juristic personality: this was the acknowledgement of the Church as a corpus in a juristic sense." " [97]
  19. ^ He decreed that all work should cease on Sunday, except that farmers could work if necessary. This law, aimed at providing time for worship, was followed later in the same century and in subsequent centuries by further restrictions on Sunday activities. [103]
  20. ^ "According to the 4th-century historian Eusebius, in his Life of Constantine, before the victory over Maxentius (312), Constantine saw a sign of the cross in the sky and the words " in this sign thou shalt conquer" and used it as a talisman in battle. Dating of the labarum is attested by coins issued at Constantinople (now Istanbul) after Constantine's victory over Licinius in 324." [104]
  21. ^ "The East Roman Empire was a fascinating blend of Hellenic Culture, Christian faith, and Roman principles of administration and law. Precisely when this blend passed into the style called Byzantine is a much argued point. The inception certainly was the building of Constantinople early in the 4th century. Yet as late as the reign of Justinian the language of the court was still officially Latin; Justinian himself directed the great compilation in Latin of the Corpis iuris civilis, the form in which later ages knew Roman law. Justnian, however, closed the pagan philosophical schools of Athens and abolished the consulate in 541 as a meaningless survival; from this period on, arts and letters entered ever more into the distinctive Byzantine world." [110]
  22. ^
    • The First Appearance of the Cross occurred on October12, 312: Emperor Constantine the Great had a vision of the cross in broad daylight, with the inscription " En Touto Nika" ("In this sign you will conquer").
    • The Second Appearance of the Cross occurred on 7 May 346: View in Jerusalem in the time of Patriarch Cyril. All the people saw the Cross of divine light spreading from Golgotha to the Mount of Olives. [118]
    • The Third Appearance of the Cross occurred on 14 September 1925: Appearance of the Sign of the Cross over the church of St. John the Theologian at Mount Hymettus in suburban Athens, on the eve of the feast of the Exaltation of the All-Honourable and Life-giving Cross. [119]
  23. ^ Basil established guidelines for monastic life which focus on community life, liturgical prayer, and manual labour. Together with Pachomius he is remembered as a father of communal monasticism in Eastern Christianity.
  24. ^ "Their secrecy notwithstanding, the mysteries of Eleusis are more extensively documented than any other single Greek cult...From the earliest testimony, the Eleusinian section of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, to the proscription of the cult by Theodosius and the destruction of the sanctuary by the Goths about 400 AD [396 AD], we survey a period of a thousand years. During this time the cult drew men and women from all of Greece and later from the whole of the Roman Empire." [132]
  25. ^ The church was constructed directly upon the ruins of The Marneion, the temple sacred to Zeus Marnas, who was the local Hellenistic incarnation of Dagon. It was the last surviving great cult center of paganism, and was burned by order of the Roman emperor in 402 AD. After the Muslim conquest in the 7th century, the Church of St. Porphyrios (Eudoxiana) in Gaza City, founded as a Byzantine Church in 407 AD, was transformed into the Great Mosque of Gaza.
  26. ^ (in Greek) "Κατάφερε δὲ ὁ Ἅγιος τὰ κατεδαφιστεῖ τὸ Μαρνεῖον, ὁ περίφημος ναὸς τῶν Ἐθνικῶν Γαζαίων, ποὺ εἶχε ἱδρυθεῖ ἀπὸ τὸν αὐτοκράτορα Ἀδριανὸ τὸ ἔτος 129 μ.Χ. Στὴν θέση του ἀνοικοδομήθηκε περικαλλὴς ναὸς μὲ χορηγία τῆς αὐτοκράτειρας Εὐδοξίας, ἡ ὁποία ἀπέστειλε γιὰ τὸν σκοπὸ αὐτὸ στὴν Γάζα τὸν Ἀντιοχέα ἀρχιτέκτονα Ρουφίνο. Ὁ ναὸς αὐτός, ποὺ ὀνομάστηκε Εὐδοξιανός, εἶχε 32 μεγάλους κίονες ἀπὸ καρυστινὸ μάρμαρο καὶ τὰ ἐγκαίνιά του ἔγιναν τὸ Πάσχα τοῦ 407 μ.Χ."
  27. ^ (in Greek): "Μετὰ 194 χρόνια, ἐπὶ Θεοδοσίου τοῦ Μικροῦ, στὴν Ἔφεσο κάποια αἵρεση διακήρυττε ὅτι δὲν ὑπάρχει ἀνάσταση νεκρῶν. Ἐκείνη, λοιπόν, τὴν ἐποχή, κάποιο παιδὶ στὴν ἀγορὰ τῆς Ἐφέσου ψώνισε ψωμὶ μὲ τὸ νόμισμα τῆς ἐποχῆς τοῦ Δεκίου. Αὐτὸ προκάλεσε ἔκπληξη. Πῆραν, λοιπὸν τὸ παιδὶ καὶ τὸ ἀνέκριναν. Κατόπιν, πῆγαν στὴ σπηλιὰ καὶ βρῆκαν ζωντανὰ καὶ τὰ ὑπόλοιπα παιδιά." [145]
  28. ^ "Mobs in Alexandria lynch Proterius, a Byzantine Chalcedonian, who had been imposed upon them. They elect Timothy Aelurus. Rejecting the christological definitions of Chalcedon, the Egyptian, or Coptic, church, goes its own way, becoming one of the Oriental Orthodox churches. Small groups of Christians in Egypt and Syria, known as Melkites, do accept the Definition of Chalcedon. The division is generally linguistic. From this time also, the Syrian church begins the hardening of lines between the Monophysitism of West Syrians and the sympathizers of Nestorius among East Syrians." [154]
  29. ^ "PATAPIUS, solitary of Constantinople, native of Thebes, the subject of three homilies written upon him by ANDREAS CRETENSIS. He lived before the 8th century: his feast is 8 Dec.." [157]
  30. ^ After the fall of the Western Empire, the terms " Greek East" and " Latin West" are applied to areas that were formerly part of the Eastern or Western Empires, and also to areas that fell under the Greek or Latin cultural sphere but which had never been part of the Roman Empire. In this sense, particular attention is given to differences in Christianity in the two parts, specifically between Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.
  31. ^ "In Greece the Justinian era forms the decisive break. In 529 A.D. Justinian prohibited instruction under heathen teachers, deprived the professors of the old religion of their income, and confiscated the endowed wealth belonging to the University of Athens. With this gesture he drew the line under the history of education for an entire millennium." [162]
  32. ^ "From 678 to 752, or until after Ravenna had fallen before the Lombards, out of thirteen popes, eleven were orientals... ...in the later seventh and early eighth centuries the Orientals actually formed a majority of the Roman clergy and presumably of the more influential laity as well - a thesis which seems amply substantiated by the remains of the Rome of that period." [166]
  33. ^ Also known as: Gregentios of Taphar; [172] Gregentios of Ethiopia; [170] Gregentius of Himyar; [173] Gregentius Tephrensis; [174] Grigentius of Omir; [175] Gregory of Omiritia; [171] or Gregory of Omirits. [176]
  34. ^ Thessalonica, the most important city in the Balkans except for the imperial capital, Constantinople, was besieged by the Avars and their Slavic auxiliaries for seven days, as described in the Miracles of Saint Demetrius, a collection of miracles attributed to the city's patron saint in two books, one written c. 610 and the other around 680. [186] [187]
    "Like Sophronius and other writers from this period, John (Archbishop John of Thessaloniki, who composed his collection of Miracula in the 7th century) underscored the effectiveness of the saint's intercession by demonstrating the primacy of Demetrius' prayers over the activities of the angels. When, for example, during the Avar-Slav siege of September 586, the city was about to fall, John related that a high-ranking civilian dreamt that he saw two angels dressed as imperial guardsmen enter Demetrius' shrine and demand that he quit the city because God had ordered Thessalonica's destruction. But the saint resisted, telling the angels that the city's fate would be his: either God would relent when he heard the Saint's prayers, or he would 'perish' with the city. Shortly thereafter the city was saved and the efficacy of Demetrius' intercessions manifested. Indeed, the man who had the dream was certain that it was Demetrius who had saved the city because the figure he saw in the vision matched exactly 'the form in which he is represented in his ancient images'." [188]
  35. ^ "Some modern writers maintain that the Parthenon was converted into a Christian sanctuary during the reign of Justinian (527–65)...But there is no evidence to support this in the ancient sources. The existing evidence suggests that the Parthenon was converted into a Christian basilica in the last decade of the sixth century." [189]
  36. ^ According to various scholars, the Hymn is the product of other sieges of Constantinople that took place on later dates: at 860 by the Russians, 820 by the Slovaks, or at 671 and 717–718 by the Moslems. Still others relate it to the " Revolt of Nicas" in 539. Most scholars, however, place the Hymn on the victory of August 626 against the Persians. And since Patriarch Sergios’ name is closely associated with it, many researchers believe that he was the author of the Hymn. [195] The Akathist Hymn (which in its present form was added to by many Ecclesiastical Hymnographers), existed for the most part even before it was formally accepted by the Church in 626 AD.
  37. ^ One-fourth of the bishops were (as indicated by their names) likely of Eastern ethnicity or origin and thus probably Greek-speaking. [210] [211]
  38. ^ "From 614 onward the Levant suffered a series of fearful convulsions any one of which would have forced thousands of refugees across the sea. The first disaster was the Persian invasion under Khusrau II... ...the migration to the Occident in the seventh century seems to have included almost no Coptic or Syriac speaking refugees; it was a purely Hellenic movement... ...Mohammedan histories show that a large proportion of the Greeks left the conquered regions, but it is difficult to distinguish the refugees in the Occident who retreated before the armies of Islam, from those who had previously sought safety from the Persians, and the persecution of Heraclius." [212]
  39. ^ The first portrait of Christ to appear on a coin may be on a gold solidus of Flavius Valerius Marcianus, a senator who came to rule the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire from A.D. 450–457. The coin appears to depict Christ bestowing a blessing on the Emperor of the East and his Empress, Aelia Pulcheria. But such images of Christ were far from popular until many years later. [216]
  40. ^ A list of forty of his discourses, together with twenty-one edited sermons, is given in Patrologia Graeca, XCVII, 801-1304.

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  31. ^ F. Dvornik. "The Idea of Apostolicity in Byzantium and the Legend of the Apostle Andrew." Dumbarton Oaks Studies. IV (Cambridge) 1958.
  32. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἀνδρέας ὁ Ἀπόστολος ὁ Πρωτόκλητος. 30 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  33. ^ Acts 27:8.
  34. ^ Apostle Titus of the Seventy and Bishop of Crete. OCA – Lives of the Saints.
  35. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Τίτος ὁ Ἀπόστολος. 25 Αυγούστου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  36. ^ Dr. Kathryn Tsai. A Timeline of Eastern Church History. Divine Ascent Press, Point Reyes Station, CA, 2004. p.20.
  37. ^ Hieromartyr Dionysius the Areopagite the Bishop of Athens. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  38. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Διονύσιος ὁ Ἀρεοπαγίτης. 3 Οκτωβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  41. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἐλευθέριος. 15 Δεκεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  47. ^ Apostle Quadratus of the Seventy. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  48. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Κοδρᾶτος ὁ Ἀπόστολος ὁ ἐν Μαγνησίᾳ. 21 Σεπτεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  49. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Πολύκαρπος ὁ Ἱερομάρτυρας Ἐπίσκοπος Σμύρνης. 23 Φεβρουαρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  52. ^ 10/23 October. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
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  55. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἀθηναγόρας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, ὁ Ἀπολογητής. 24 Ιουλίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  59. ^ Hieromartyr Hippolytus the Pope of Rome. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  60. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἱππόλυτος ὁ Ἱερομάρτυρας καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ Μάρτυρες. 30 Ιανουαρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  62. ^ David Bentley Hart. The Story of Christianity: An Illustrated History of 2000 Years of the Christian Faith. London: Quercus Editions Ltd. 2011 edition. p. 44.
  63. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Χριστοφόρος ὁ Μεγαλομάρτυρας. 9 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  64. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Οἱ Ἅγιοι Κυπριανὸς καὶ Ἰουστίνη. 2 Οκτωβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  65. ^ Hieromartyr Cyprian of Nicomedia. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  66. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Λεωνίδης Ἐπίσκοπος Ἀθηνῶν. 15 Απριλίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  68. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἰσίδωρος ὁ Μάρτυρας ἐν Χίῳ. 14 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  70. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Γρηγόριος ὁ Θαυματουργός ὁ Νεοκαισαρείας. 17 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  71. ^ St Gregory the Wonderworker of Neocaesarea. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
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  74. ^ Mary Clayton and Hugh Magennis. The Old English Lives of St. Margaret. Volume 9 of Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England. Cambridge University Press, 1994. p. 3. ISBN  9780521433822
  75. ^ Martyr Timothy the Reader and his wife in Egypt. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  76. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Οἱ Ἅγιοι Τιμόθεος καὶ Μαύρα οἱ Μάρτυρες. 3 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  78. ^ Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine. New York: Routledge, 2001. p. 145.
  79. ^ 20,000 Martyrs of Nicomedia. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  80. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek) Οἱ Ἅγιοι Δισμύριοι (20.000) Μάρτυρες οἱ ἐν Νικομηδείᾳ καέντες. 28 Δεκεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  81. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Παντελεήμων ὁ Μεγαλομάρτυρας καὶ Ἰαματικός. 27 Ιουλίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  82. ^ Greatmartyr and Healer Panteleimon. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  83. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Γεώργιος ὁ Μεγαλομάρτυρας ὁ Τροπαιοφόρος. 23 Απριλίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  84. ^ Greatmartyr, Victory-bearer and Wonderworker George. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  85. ^ Virginmartyr Anysia at Thessalonica. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  86. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ἡ Ἁγία Ἀνυσία ἡ Ὁσιομάρτυς. 30 Δεκεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  87. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Δημήτριος ὁ Μεγαλομάρτυρας ὁ Μυροβλύτης. 26 Οκτωβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  88. ^ Holy, Glorious Demetrius the Myrrhgusher of Thessalonica. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  89. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ἡ Ἁγία Βαρβάρα ἡ Μεγαλομάρτυς. 4 Δεκεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  90. ^ Greatmartyr Barbara at Heliopolis, in Syria. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
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  93. ^ Fergus Millar. The Roman Near East: 31 BC – AD 337. 2nd Ed. Harvard University Press, 1993. pp. 179-180. ISBN  9780674778863
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  95. ^ Hieromartyr Methodius the Bishop of Patara. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
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  100. ^ Hieromartyr Blaise the Bishop of Sebaste. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  101. ^ Greatmartyr Theodore Stratelates "the General". OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  102. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Θεόδωρος ὁ Μεγαλομάρτυρας ὁ Στρατηλάτης. Φεβρουαρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  109. ^ Commemoration of the Founding of Constantinople. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
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  113. ^ St Parthenius the Bishop of Lampsacus on the Hellespont. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
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  115. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ἅγιος Νικόλαος ὁ Θαυματουργός Ἀρχιεπίσκοπος Μύρων τῆς Λυκίας. 6 Δεκεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  116. ^ St Nicholas the Wonderworker and Archbishop of Myra in Lycia. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
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  118. ^ a b Great Synaxaristes: (in Greek) Μνήμη τοῦ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ φανέντος σημείου τοῦ Τιμίου Σταυροῦ ἐπὶ Κωνσταντίου. 7 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  121. ^ St Spyridon the Wonderworker and Bishop of Tremithus. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
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  130. ^ St Gregory the Theologian the Archbishop of Constantinople. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
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  135. ^ Great Synaxaristes: (in Greek) Κατάθεσις Τιμίας Ζώνης τῆς Θεοτόκου. 31 Αυγούστου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  136. ^ The Placing of the Cincture (Sash) of the Most Holy Mother of God. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
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  140. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Ὁ Ὅσιος Ἀλέξιος ὁ ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Θεοῦ. 17 Μαρτίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  141. ^ Venerable Alexis the Man of God. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
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  146. ^ 7 Holy Youths "Seven Sleepers" of Ephesus. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  147. ^ Great Synaxaristes: (in Greek) Μνήμη τοῦ μεγάλου σεισμοῦ. 25 Σεπτεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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  152. ^ First and second finding of the Honorable Head of the Holy Glorious Prophet, Forerunner, and Baptist of the Lord, John. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
  153. ^ Great Synaxaristes (in Greek): Εὕρεσις Τιμίας κεφαλῆς τοῦ Ἁγίου Προφήτου, προδρόμου καὶ βαπτιστοῦ Ἰωάννη. 24 Φεβρουαρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
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Further reading

  • ("History of Athens in the Middle Ages. From Justinian to the Turkish Conquest." 1889.)