|The Cleveland Orchestra|
|Concert hall||Severance Hall|
|Principal conductor||Franz Welser-Möst|
The Cleveland Orchestra, based in Cleveland, is one of the five American orchestras informally referred to as the " Big Five".  Founded in 1918 by the pianist and impresario Adella Prentiss Hughes, the orchestra plays most of its concerts at Severance Hall. As of 2017, the incumbent music director is Franz Welser-Möst.
In 2012 Gramophone Magazine ranked the Cleveland Orchestra number 7 on its list of the world's greatest orchestras, and The New York Times referred to the orchestra in 2018 as "America's most understatedly amazing orchestra."  
The orchestra was founded in 1918 by Adella Prentiss Hughes, with Nikolai Sokoloff as its principal conductor. From early in its existence, it toured throughout the eastern United States, made radio broadcasts, and recorded many albums. Subsequent principal conductors, with the title of Music Director, were Artur Rodziński (1933–1943), Erich Leinsdorf (1943–1944), and George Szell (1946–1970).
Subsequent Music Directors were Pierre Boulez (Musical Advisor 1970-1972), Lorin Maazel (1972–1982), and Christoph von Dohnányi (1984–2002). Franz Welser-Möst has been Music Director since 2002 and is contracted to remain through the 2021-2022 season.  
Szell's long reign as Music Director has been largely credited for the orchestra's rise to eminence. He reformed the orchestra in the late-1940s, firing a dozen musicians in the process with a dozen more leaving of their own volition.  Szell is also credited with giving the orchestra its distinct, European sound.  He pushed an ambitious recording schedule with the orchestra, bringing its music to millions worldwide. Szell's influence has continued, even decades after his death.
Cleveland is the smallest city amongst the traditional "Big Five" orchestras; the others are based in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago. However, musicians in Cleveland are often treated as local celebrities, and, much like sports heroes elsewhere, fans seek autographs after performances and greet musicians on the street. Clevelanders are proud that their city boasts an orchestra that has several times been touted as America's finest, and compared favorably to many of the great orchestras in Central Europe.   In the 1960s fans were known to "have airport rallies when the orchestra comes home from tour [and] chant, 'We're the best! We're the best!' and carry placards reading 'Bravo!'" 
In addition to a vast catalog of recordings created with the ensemble's music directors, the orchestra has made many recordings with guest conductors Vladimir Ashkenazy, Oliver Knussen, Kurt Sanderling, Yoel Levi, Riccardo Chailly, Michael Tilson Thomas, and Louis Lane (the orchestra's longtime Associate Conductor). Past assistant conductors of the Cleveland Orchestra include Matthias Bamert, James Levine, Alan Gilbert, James Judd and Michael Stern.
Severance Hall is the Cleveland Orchestra's home. It was built for the orchestra in 1931. The orchestra performs the majority of its concerts at Severance and also uses the hall for rehearsals and to house their administrative offices. The concert organ there is by Ernest M. Skinner IV- 94.
During the summer months, the orchestra presents their annual Blossom Festival at the Blossom Music Center in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. Until 2005, the Blossom Festival had its own music director. The last person to serve in that capacity was Jahja Ling. After he stepped down from that position, the orchestra eliminated the post, and now has current music director Franz Welser-Möst in charge of the classical music concerts at the Blossom Festival. 
The orchestra also has long-term performing relationships in Lucerne, Vienna, New York City, a residency in Miami, and has conducted multi-concert tours on the West Coast off and on since the 1960s. 
- 1918-1933 Nikolai Sokoloff
- 1933-1943 Artur Rodziński
- 1943-1946 Erich Leinsdorf
- 1946-1970 George Szell
- 1970-1972 Pierre Boulez (Musical advisor)
- 1972-1982 Lorin Maazel
- 1984-2002 Christoph von Dohnányi
- 2002–present Franz Welser-Möst
- 1999-2000 Marc-André Dalbavie
- 2001-2003 Matthias Pintscher
- 2003-2005 Susan Botti
- 2005-2007 Julian Anderson
- 2007-2009 Johannes Maria Staud
- 2009-2011 Jörg Widmann
- 2011-2013 Sean Shepherd
- 2013-2015 Ryan Wigglesworth
- 2015-2017 Anthony Cheung 
- 2018–present Bernd Richard Deutsch 
- Cleveland Orchestra Discography
- Cleveland Orchestra Youth Orchestra
- Cleveland Philharmonic Orchestra
- Cleveland Women's Orchestra
- Cleveland Chamber Symphony
- CityMusic Cleveland
- Red (an orchestra)
- The Contemporary Youth Orchestra
- Big Five (orchestras)
- Michael Walsh (1983-04-25). "Which U.S. Orchestras are Best?". Time. Retrieved 2008-03-26.
- The world’s greatest orchestras | gramophone.co.uk
- Zachary Woolfe (2018-04-27). "An Orchestra's Ecstatic, Once-in-a-Lifetime Birthday Party". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
- "Met Opera Suspends James Levine After New Sexual Abuse Accusations," The New York Times.
- "Met Opera suspends famed conductor accused of molestation," The New York Post.
- Cleveland Orchestra music director Franz Welser-Most signs four-year contract extension | cleveland.com
- James R. Oestreich (2008-06-07). "Cleveland Orchestra Extends Music Director's Contract". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
- "The Glorious Instrument". Time. 22 February 1963. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- Michael Walsh (1994-01-01). "The Finest Orchestra? (Surprise!) Cleveland". Time. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- Valerie Scher (2005-09-04). "Ling bids farewell to fest: 'It is time for me to move on'". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- "The Cleveland Orchestra and Miami Performing Arts Center announce 10-year agreement for annual residency appearances" (Press release). 2005-05-09. Archived from the original on 2006-05-16. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- "The Cleveland Orchestra to give world premiere performances of Topos by Anthony Cheung at May 18 and 20 concerts". Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- "The Cleveland Orchestra announces 101st Season for 2018-2019". Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- Rosenberg, Donald (2000). The Cleveland Orchestra Story. Cleveland: Gray & Company. ISBN 1-886228-24-8.
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