|Texas State Legislature|
New session started
|January 10, 2017|
President of the Senate
President Pro Tempore
Length of term
|Authority||Article 3, Texas Constitution|
|Salary||$7,200/year + per diem|
|November 8, 2016|
November 6, 2018|
|State Senate Chamber|
Texas State Capitol
|Texas State Senate|
The Texas Senate is the upper house of the Texas State Legislature. There are 31 members of the Senate, representing single-member districts across the U.S. state of Texas, with populations of approximately 806,000 per constituency, based on the 2010 U.S. Census. There are no term limits, and each term is four years long. Elections are held in even numbered years on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. In elections in years ending in 2, all seats are up for election. Half of the senators will serve a two-year term, based on a drawing; the other half will fill regular four-year terms. In the case of the latter, they or their successors will be up for two-year terms in the next year that ends in 0. As such, in other elections, about half of the Texas Senate is on the ballot. The Senate meets at the Texas State Capitol in Austin. The Republicans currently control the chamber, which is made up of 21 Republicans and 10 Democrats, as of September 18, 2018. It the first time the Senate has had 21 Republican senators in the history of Texas.  
The Lieutenant Governor of Texas serves as the President of the Senate. Unlike most lieutenant governors who are constitutionally designated as presiding officers of the upper house, the Lieutenant Governor regularly exercises this function. The Lieutenant Governor's duties include appointing chairs of committees, committee members, assigning and referring bills to specific committees, recognizing members during debate, and making procedural rulings. The Lieutenant Governor may also cast a vote should a Senate floor vote end in a tie. If the Senate votes to dissolve itself into the Committee of the Whole, in which all members are part of the Committee, the President Pro-Tempore presides over the proceedings, with the Lieutenant Governor acting as a regular voting member. Due to the various powers of committee selection and bill assignment, the Lieutenant Governor is considered one of the most powerful lieutenant governorships in the United States.
Unlike other state legislatures, the Texas Senate does not include majority or minority leaders. Instead, the President Pro Tempore is considered the second most powerful position, and can be reserved to any political party in the chamber regardless if the party is a majority or not. Presidents Pro Tempore are usually the most senior members of the Senate. The President Pro Tempore presides when the Lieutenant Governor is not present or when the legislature is not in regular session.
For the 83rd Legislative Session, which began in 2013, there were six new senators, including Sylvia Garcia, who succeeded the late senator Mario Gallegos Jr. through a special election. The five other new senators were Charles Schwertner, a Republican from Georgetown, Ken Paxton, a Republican from McKinney, Kelly Hancock, a Republican from Fort Worth, Larry Taylor, a Republican from Friendswood, and Donna Campbell, a Republican from New Braunfels. For this term of the Legislature the President of the Senate is Texas Lieutenant Governor Dan Patrick. The President Pro Tempore is Republican Kel Seliger of District 31 ( Amarillo). Senator John Whitmire, a Democrat from Houston, is the Dean of the Senate, meaning he is the most senior member, having served since 1987. Senator Chris Harris, a Republican from Arlington, is the most senior member of his party, and the fourth most-senior overall member.
|Lieutenant Governor/ President of the Senate||Dan Patrick||Republican||Houston|
|President Pro Tempore||Kel Seliger||Republican||Amarillo||31|
There have been at least three cases of quorum-busting in Texas Senate history. The first case was in 1870, with the Rump Senate, followed by the 1979 Killer Ds. and finally the Texas Eleven in August 2003, who were following the example of the Texas house Killer Ds. 
The following represents the Senate committee structure for the 85th Legislature.
- Agriculture, Water & Rural Affairs
- Business & Commerce
- Criminal Justice
- Health & Human Services
- Higher Education
- Intergovernmental Relations
- Natural Resources & Economic Development
- State Affairs
- Veteran Affairs & Border Security
In addition, the House and Senate operate the permanent joint committee known as the Legislative Budget Board (LBB).
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|Begin 2013 ||19||11||30||1|
|March 3, 2013 ||12||31||0|
|June 26, 2018 ||20||10||31||1|
|September 18, 2018 ||21||10||31||0|
|Latest voting share||67.7%||32.3%|
†Elected in a special election
- Edward Clark, Lieutenant Governor of Texas (1859–1861), Governor of Texas (1861).
- Wayne Connally, Senator from Wilson County (1967–1973), brother of Governor John Connally.
- Lloyd Doggett, Texas Supreme Court Justice (1989–1994), U.S. House of Representatives (1995–present).
- Robert L. Duncan, State Senator from Lubbock, 1996–2014; Chancellor of the Texas Tech University System since 2014
- Chet Edwards, U.S. House of Representatives (1991–2011).
- James W. Flanagan, U.S. Senate (1870–1875).
- Glenn Hegar, current Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts (2015–present).
- John Ireland, Texas Supreme Court Justice (1876), Governor of Texas (1883–1887).
- Eddie Bernice Johnson, U.S. House of Representatives (1993–present).
- Rienzi Melville Johnston, U.S. Senate (1913).
- Barbara Jordan, U.S. House of Representatives (1973–1979).
- Earle Bradford Mayfield, U.S. Senate (1923–1929).
- William Neff "Bill" Patman, Senator from Jackson County (1961–1981), U.S. House of Representatives (1981–1985).
- Dan Patrick, current Lieutenant Governor of Texas (2015–present).
- Jerry E. Patterson, Commissioner of the Texas General Land Office (2003–2015).
- Ken Paxton, current Attorney General of Texas (2015–present).
- Lawrence Sullivan Ross, Governor of Texas, (1887–1891).
- Joseph D. Sayers, Lieutenant Governor of Texas (1879–1881), U.S. House of Representatives (1885–1899), Governor of Texas (1899–1903).
- Allan Shivers, Lieutenant Governor of Texas (1946–1949), Governor of Texas (1949–1957).
- Preston Smith, Governor of Texas (1969–1973).
- Frank Tejeda, U.S. House of Representatives (1993–1997).
- James W. Throckmorton, Governor of Texas (1866–1867), U.S. House of Representatives (1875–1879, 1883–1887).
- Carlos Truan, Senator from Corpus Christi (1977–2003); author of Texas Bilingual Education Act.
- Jim Turner, U.S. House of Representatives (1997–2005).
- Matthias Ward, U.S. Senate (1858–1859).
- Ferdinand C. Weinert, Texas House and Texas Senate (1893–1935), Texas Secretary of State (1913).
- Louis Wigfall, U.S. Senate (1859–1861).
- Charles Wilson, U.S. House of Representatives (1973–1997).
- Texas Legislature
- Texas House of Representatives
- List of Presidents pro tempore of the Texas Senate
- Texas Government Newsletter Voting History of the Texas Legislature.
- McGuinness, Dylan. Flores defeats Gallego in Senate District 19, San Antonio Express-News, September 19, 2018.
- Svitek, Patrick. Republican Pete Flores upsets Democrat Pete Gallego in race for Uresti seat, Texas Tribune, September 18, 2018.
- Fikac, Peggy, August 21, 2003, Senators' 1870 walkout also drew GOP's wrath Reconstruction-era tiff led to arrests and one expulsion, San Antonio Express-News
- Democrat Mario Gallegos, Jr. (District 6) died October 16 and was reelected posthumously.
- Democrat Sylvia Garcia elected to succeed Gallegos
- Democrat Carlos Uresti (District 19) resigns
- Republican Pete Flores wins special election