Susan Collins Information

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susan_Collins

Table of Contents ⇨

Susan Collins
Susan Collins official Senate photo.jpg
United States Senator
from Maine
Assumed office
January 3, 1997
Serving with Angus King
Preceded by William Cohen
Chair of the Senate Aging Committee
Assumed office
January 3, 2015
Preceded by Bill Nelson
Chair of the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee
In office
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007
Preceded by Joe Lieberman
Succeeded byJoe Lieberman
Personal details
Born
Susan Margaret Collins

(1952-12-07) December 7, 1952 (age 66)
Caribou, Maine, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s)
Thomas Daffron ( m. 2012)
Parents Donald Collins
Patricia McGuigan
Relatives Samuel Collins (uncle)
Education St. Lawrence University ( BA)
Website Senate website

Susan Margaret Collins (born December 7, 1952) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator for Maine. A Republican, Collins has served in the Senate since 1997.

Born in Caribou, Maine, Collins is a graduate of St. Lawrence University. Beginning her career as a staff assistant for Senator William Cohen in 1975, she later became staff director of the Oversight of Government Management Subcommittee of the Committee on Governmental Affairs (which later became the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs) [1] in 1981. She was then appointed as the Commissioner of the Maine Department of Professional and Financial Regulation by Governor John R. McKernan, Jr. in 1987. In 1992, she was appointed by President George H. W. Bush as the director of the Small Business Administration's regional office in Boston, Massachusetts. Collins became Treasurer and Receiver-General of Massachusetts in 1993. After moving back to Maine in 1994, Collins became the Republican nominee for Governor of Maine in the 1994 general election. Collins was the first female major-party nominee for the post, finishing third in a four-way race with 23% of the vote. After her bid for governor in 1994, Collins became the founding director of the Center for Family Business at Husson University.

Collins was first elected to the U.S. Senate in 1996. She was re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2014. Collins is the chair of the Senate Special Committee on Aging and is a former chair of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. She is known for having never missed a single Senate vote since she became senator; by September 2015, her consecutive-votes streak had reached 6,000. [2] She is the most senior Republican woman in the Senate, is dean of Maine's congressional delegation, and is the only New England Republican in the 116th Congress. [3] Along with Lisa Murkowski from Alaska, she is frequently described as one of the most moderate Republicans in the Senate. She often positions herself as a pivotal vote, thus becoming a focal point during highly watched legislation. [4] [5]

Early life

One of six children, Collins was born in Caribou, Maine, where her family operates a lumber business established by her great-great-great grandfather, Samuel W. Collins, in 1844. [6]

Her parents, Patricia (née McGuigan) and Donald F. Collins (1925-2018), each served as mayor of Caribou. Her father, a decorated World War II vet, also served in both houses of the Maine Legislature, one term in the house and four in the senate. [7] [8] Her mother was born in Barrancabermeja, Colombia, to American parents. [9] Collins has English and Irish ancestry. Her uncle, Samuel W. Collins Jr., sat on the Maine Supreme Judicial Court from 1988 to 1994 and served in the Maine Senate from 1973 to 1984. [10]

Collins attended Caribou High School, where she was president of the student council. [11] During her senior year of high school in 1971, Collins was chosen to participate in the U.S. Senate Youth Program, through which she visited Washington, D.C. for the first time and engaged in a two-hour conversation with Maine's first female United States Senator, Margaret Chase Smith, also a Republican. Collins is the first program delegate elected to the Senate and currently holds the seat once held by Smith. [11]

After graduating from Caribou High School, she continued her education at St. Lawrence University in Canton, New York. [12] Like her father, she was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa national academic honor society and Collins graduated from St. Lawrence magna cum laude with a bachelor's degree in government in 1975. [6]

Early political career

Following graduation, Collins worked as a legislative assistant to U.S. Representative, and later U.S. Senator William Cohen (R-ME) from 1975 to 1987. [12] She was also staff director of the Oversight of Government Management Subcommittee on the United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (1981–87). [12]

In 1987, Collins joined the cabinet of Governor John R. McKernan, Jr., as Commissioner of the Department of Professional and Financial Regulation. [6] She was appointed the New England regional director for the Small Business Administration by President George H. W. Bush in 1992. [8] After briefly serving in this post until the 1992 election of Democrat Bill Clinton, she moved to Massachusetts and became Deputy State Treasurer of Massachusetts under Joe Malone in 1993. [12]

Returning to Maine, Collins won an eight-way Republican primary in the 1994 gubernatorial election, becoming the first woman to be nominated by a major party for Governor of Maine. [8] During the campaign, she received little support from Republican leaders and was criticized by conservative groups for her more liberal views on social issues. She lost the general election, receiving 23% of the vote and placed third behind Democrat Joseph E. Brennan and the winner, Independent candidate Angus King, her future Senate colleague. [13]

In December 1994, Collins became the founding executive director of the Center for Family Business at Husson College, Bangor, Maine. [6] She served in this post until 1996, when she announced her candidacy for the seat in the U.S. Senate being vacated by her former boss, William Cohen, who retired to become United States Secretary of Defense under President Clinton. With Cohen's public endorsement, she won a difficult four-way primary and faced Joe Brennan, her Democratic opponent from the 1994 gubernatorial election, in the general election. She eventually defeated Brennan by a margin of 49% to 44%.[ citation needed]

Senate career

Collins with President Barack Obama

Collins was elected as the Senator from Maine in the 1996 senate election.

She was reelected in 2002 over State Senator Chellie Pingree (D), 58%–42%, and again in 2008 over Rep. Tom Allen (D), 61.5%–38.5%. In both elections, she carried every county in Maine. In 2014, Collins defeated Democrat Shenna Bellows, 68.5%-31.5%, again carrying every county.[ citation needed]

Collins was described as one of "the last survivors of a once common species of moderate Northeastern Republican" during the Obama administration. [10] She is considered a centrist member of the Republican Party, and an influential player in the U.S. Senate. [14] [15] [16]

In 2017, The Lugar Center, a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit founded by Senator Richard Lugar released a bipartisan index in cooperation with Georgetown University, ranking Senator Collins the most bipartisan senator during the first session of the 115th Congress (and the only U.S. Senator from the Northeast ranked among the top 10 most bipartisan senators). [17] [18]

She is a member of several moderate organizations within the Republican Party, including the Republican Main Street Partnership, Republican Majority For Choice, Republicans for Choice, The Wish List, Republicans for Environmental Protection, and the Republican Leadership Council. Although she shares a centrist ideology with Maine's former senator, Olympia Snowe, Collins is considered a "half-turn more conservative" than Snowe. [10] Collins has consistently been endorsed by the Human Rights Campaign, a major LGBT rights organization; she was one of six Republicans running in 2008 to be endorsed by the HRC. [19] She supported John McCain in the 2008 election for President of the United States. Collins became the state's senior senator in 2013 when Snowe left the Senate and was replaced by independent Angus King, who had defeated Collins in the 1994 governor election.[ citation needed]

In the 1990s, Collins played an important role during the U.S. Senate's impeachment trial of Bill Clinton when she and fellow Maine Senator Olympia Snowe sponsored a motion that would have allowed the Senate to vote separately on the charges and the remedy. When the motion failed, both Snowe and Collins subsequently voted to acquit, believing that while Clinton had broken the law by committing perjury, the charges did not amount to grounds for removal from office.[ citation needed]

In March 1997, the Senate adopted a broader investigation into White House and Congressional campaign fund-raising practices than initially wanted by Senate Republicans, who softened on the issue after a lunch meeting in a private caucus room. Collins stated there were "a number of allegations that may or may not be illegal, but they may be improper". [20]

In a May 1997 interview, Collins stated her support for a proposal by Tom Daschle banning all abortions after the fetus was capable of living outside the womb and allowing exceptions to save the life of the woman and to protect her from physical injury imposed by the pregnancy. At the time there was an alternate measure proposed by Rick Santorum that would ban partial-birth abortion, which Collins said "ignores cases in the medical literature involving women with very serious physical health problems." [21]

In 2004, Collins was one of the primary sponsors of legislation overhauling the U.S. intelligence community via the creation of a new post of national intelligence director that would oversee budgets and most assets of the spy agencies and mandates federal agencies establish minimum standards for states as it pertained to issuing driver's licenses and birth certificates along with directing the United States Department of Homeland Security to form standards for ID used to board airplanes. The bill passed in the House and Senate in December, Collins stating afterward, "This was the most difficult bill to bring from conception to birth that I can imagine being involved with. But that makes the victory doubly satisfying." [22] President Bush signed Collins' bill, formally known as the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, on December 17, 2004. [23]

In April 2010, Collins and Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman issued a subpoena seeking documents and interviews associated with the American government's investigation into the conduct of investigators during their interactions with Nidal Hasan prior to the Fort Hood shooting. The Pentagon announced that the Obama administration would not authorize Senate investigators to question intelligence agents who reviewed e-mails between Hasan and an extremist Islamic cleric ahead of the shooting. Collins and Lieberman issued a statement accusing the Departments of Justice and Defense of refusing "to provide access to their agents who reportedly reviewed Major Hasan's communications with radical extremist cleric Anwar al Awlaki and to transcripts of prosecution interviews with Hasan's associates and superiors, which DOD already provided to its internal review." [24]

In May 2010, Collins and Olympia Snowe were the only two Republicans to vote for an unsuccessful Democratic measure that would prevent bailouts, highlight financial products of complexity and toughen consumer protection. [25]

In February 2013, Collins announced her opposition to the confirmation of fellow Republican Chuck Hagel for United States Secretary of Defense, citing her belief that Hagel's "past positions, votes and statements match the challenges of our time." The announcement came as a surprise, as Collins was considered a possible supporter of his nomination, and occurred while the nomination was being filibustered. [26] The filibuster on Hagel's nomination was defeated, [27] and he was confirmed later that month. [28]

In May 2013, following the disclosure that the Internal Revenue Service put additional scrutiny on conservative groups, Collins stated that the revelation would "contributes to the profound distrust that the American people have in government" and added that she was disappointed that President Obama "hasn't personally condemned this and spoken out." [29]

On March 26, 2014, Elle Magazine honored Collins as "one of the ten most powerful Women in Washington Power List". [30]

Collins cast her 6,000th consecutive roll call vote on September 17, 2015. [2] Only William Proxmire has a longer consecutive streak. [31]

According to a poll released by Morning Consult on November 24, 2015, Collins, with a 78% approval rating, had the highest approval rating of any sitting Republican U.S. senator, as well as the second-highest overall, behind only Independent Bernie Sanders of Vermont. [32] In July, 2018, Morning Consult showed Collins with a 56% approval rating, with 34% disapproving. [33] Only a month later, on August 21, a Public Policy Polling poll showed Collins with a 35% approval rating, with 48% disapproving, following her support for Brett Kavanaugh's nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court. [34] However, a January 2019 poll showed her approval rating to be back up at 53% with 38% disapproving. [35]

In May 2016, the Senate passed an appropriations bill containing an amendment from Collins that the latter said would assist with preventing the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development from gaining "national zoning authority for every neighborhood in our country". The legislation was given a veto threat by the White House, which was said by the Office of Management and Budget to be opposed "to the inclusion of problematic ideological provisions that are beyond the scope of funding legislation." [36]

In February 2019, Collins was one of five senators to sponsor legislation authorizing the Treasury Department to mint coins honoring the late George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush under the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005. [37]

Political positions

With former US Senator Olympia Snowe (also R-ME)

Collins is a self-described " moderate Republican". She has occasionally been referred to as a " liberal Republican" relative to her colleagues. [38] [39] [40] In 2013, the National Journal gave Collins a score of 55% conservative and 45% liberal. [41]

The New York Times arranged Republican Senators in 2017 based on ideology and ranked Senator Collins as the most liberal Republican. [42] [43] According to GovTrack, Senator Collins is the most moderate Republican in the Senate; GovTrack's analysis places her to the left of every Republican and four Democrats in 2017. [44] Another website, OnTheIssues.org, labels Collins a "Moderate Libertarian Liberal". It also gives politicians a "social score" and an "economic score". Her social score is 60%, with 0% being the most conservative and 100% being the most liberal. Additionally, Collins's economic score is 53%, with 0% being the most liberal and 100% being the most conservative. [45] The American Conservative Union gives her a lifetime rating of 46.03% conservative. [46] In 2016, the ACU gave Collins a score of 23%. [47] The Americans for Democratic Action gives her a rating of 45% liberal. [48] In 2015, the ADA gave her a score of 30%. [49]

According to CQ Roll Call, Collins sided with President Obama's position 75.9% of the time, one of only two Republicans to vote with him more than 70% of the time. [50] Five ThirtyEight, which tracks Congressional votes, found that Collins voted with President Trump's positions about 71% of the time as of June, 2019. [51] Nonetheless, she has voted with the GOP majority on party-line votes with much greater frequency during the Trump presidency than during the Obama presidency. "In 2017...Collins voted with her party a significantly higher 87% of the time on party-line votes. That was by far the highest in her career. It still made her the Republican senator most likely to cross the aisle, but it also moved her significantly closer to how often the average Republican senator voted with their party on party-line votes (96% in 2017). Collins voted for the Republican tax plan and, perhaps most significantly, for Neil Gorsuch's confirmation to the Supreme Court." [52]

Bipartisanship and moderate Republicanism

Susan Collins has been considered by some groups and organizations to be a relatively bipartisan member of Congress. In 2018, Collins was considered the most bipartisan senator for the fifth consecutive year by the Lugar Center, an organization founded by former Republican Senate colleague Richard Lugar. [53] A study published by Congressional Quarterly found that Collins voted with her party on party-line votes 59% of the time between 1997 and 2016; currently, she is the Republican senator most likely to vote with Democrats. [54] Her perceived bipartisanship is largely due to her roots as a Northeastern Republican. [55] With regard to judicial nominees, however, Collins has voted with the GOP majority nearly 99% of the time over the last 22 years. [56] [57] However, she also voted to confirm Democratic Supreme Court nominees, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan. [58] [59] Her office also noted that she has voted to confirm both Democratic and Republican judicial nominees 90% of the time during her tenure. [60] [61]

In 2014, her Senate colleague, Angus King, an Independent who caucuses with the Democratic Party, endorsed her for her re-election campaign. [62] In 2019, Democratic Senator Joe Manchin endorsed Susan Collins for her 2020 re-election bid. [63] This bipartisanship and centrism has attracted some criticism from the conservative faction of the GOP. The conservative magazine, Human Events, considered her to be one of the top ten RINOs, or what they label insufficiently conservative, in 2005. [64] Her highest conservative composite score from the National Journal was a 62% in 2009, while her highest liberal composite score was a 52.8% in 2006. [65] The Tea Party threatened to challenge Collins over some of her votes. [66] Collins "who is fiscally conservative but holds socially moderate views, plays a unique role in the current Republican drama at a time when a strong Tea Party faction has pushed the GOP — and its leadership — to the right." [67] She was the subject of negative criticism from movement conservatives for her vote against repealing Obamacare. [68]

Donald Trump

On August 8, 2016, Collins announced that she would not be voting for Donald Trump, the Republican nominee for the 2016 election. She said that as a lifelong Republican she did not make the decision lightly but felt that he is unsuitable for office, "based on his disregard for the precept of treating others with respect, an idea that should transcend politics." [69] She considered voting for the Libertarian Party's ticket or a write-in candidate. [70] [71] During the Trump presidency, Collins has voted with the GOP majority with much greater frequency (87% of the time on party-line votes in 2017). [52]

Firing of FBI Director James Comey

Collins supported Trump's decision to fire FBI Director James Comey. [72]

Travel ban

On January 28, 2017, Collins joined five other Republicans to oppose President Donald Trump's temporary ban on immigration from seven Muslim-majority countries saying it is "overly broad and implementing it will be immediately problematic." She said, for example, that "it could interfere with the immigration of Iraqis who worked for American forces in Iraq as translators and bodyguards — people who literally saved the lives of our troops and diplomats during the last decade and whose lives are at risk if they remain in Iraq." She also objected to the religious aspects of the ban saying, "As I stated last summer, religious tests serve no useful purpose in the immigration process and run contrary to our American values." [73]

Investigations

Collins stated in February 2017 that she was open to subpoena President Trump's tax returns as part of an investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election. [74] She also said that she was open to public and secret hearings into Michael T. Flynn's covert communications with Russian officials. [74]

In July 2017, after President Trump said it would be a violation for Special Counsel Robert Mueller to investigate the finances of both him and his family not related to the probe, Collins commented, "I understand how difficult and frustrating this investigation is for the president, but he should not say anything further about the special counsel, his staff or the investigation." [75]

In a January 2018 interview, Collins stated her openness to legislation protecting Special Counsel Robert Mueller from being fired after reports surfaced that President Trump considered doing so the previous June and her confidence in United States Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein: "It probably wouldn't hurt for us to pass one of those bills. There are some constitutional issues with those bills, but it certainly wouldn't hurt to put that extra safeguard in place given the latest stories, but again, I have faith in the deputy attorney general." She furthered that Rosenstein being fired would be a mistake and compared the scenario to that of the Saturday Night Massacre. [76]

In November 2018, Collins expressed concern over comments made by Acting Attorney General of the United States Matthew Whitaker and support for the Senate bringing up "legislation that would put restrictions on the ability of President Donald Trump to fire the special counsel", furthering that the bill being debated and passed in the Senate would "send a powerful message that Mr. Mueller must be able to complete his work unimpeded." [77]

Foreign policy and terrorism

October 10, 2002, saw Collins vote with the majority in favor of the Iraq War Resolution authorizing President George W. Bush to go to war against Iraq. [78] In June 2014, while growing violence erupted in Iraq under the leadership of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, Collins stated that the violence would have been slower had a residual NATO force been present in Iraq and that the question was whether air strikes were effective. [79]

On September 19, 2007, she voted against a motion to invoke cloture on Senator Arlen Specter's amendment proposing to restore habeas corpus for those detained by the United States. [80]

Collins, joining the Senate majority, voted in favor of the Protect America Act, an amendment to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978. She later sponsored the Accountability in Government Contracting Act of 2007, approved unanimously by the Senate, which would create more competition between military contractors. [81]

Agreeing with the majority in both parties, Collins voted in favor of the Kyl-Lieberman Amendment, [82] which gave President Bush and the executive branch the authorization for military force against Iran. [83]

In January 2010, Collins was one of six senators to sign a letter to the Justice Department expressing concern "about using the U.S. criminal justice system for trying enemy combatants" and urged a reconsideration of the "decision to try Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and the other alleged conspirators in the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York." The senators cited the September 11 attacks as an act of war with the perpetrators being "war criminals". [84]

In December 2010, Collins voted for the ratification of New START, [85] a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and Russian Federation obliging both countries to have no more than 1,550 strategic warheads as well as 700 launchers deployed during the next seven years along with providing a continuation of on-site inspections that halted when START I expired the previous year. It was the first arms treaty with Russia in eight years. [86]

In September 2014, Collins voted for President Obama's plan to training and arm moderate Syrian rebels to battle the Islamic State as part of the administration's military campaign to destroy the latter group while noting that she believed she was not given enough information in accordance with her position as a member of the Senate Intelligence Committee and expressed concern "that the fighters that we train will be focused on what really motivates them, which is removing (Syrian President Bashar al-) Assad, not fighting ISIS." [87]

In August 2017, after President Trump threatened North Korea would be "met with fire and fury like the world has never seen" if it continued threatening the United States, Collins said in a statement, "Given the credible and serious threat North Korea poses to our country, and in particular to U.S. forces and our allies in the region, I welcome the administration's success in securing new economic sanctions against North Korea at the United Nations." [88] In July 2018, Collins said a Washington Post report that found North Korea allegedly not willing to denuclearize as troubling, citing North Korea's "long history of cheating on agreements that it's made with previous administrations." She recalled her support for Trump communicating with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un was "because I do believe that has the potential for increasing our safety and eventually leading to the denuclearization of North Korea" and added that this could be achieved through "verifiable, unimpeded, reliable inspections." [89]

In January 2018, in response to the Trump administration not implementing congressional-approved sanctions on Russia, Collins stated that it was confirmed Russia tried to interfere in the 2016 U.S. Presidential election, furthering that "not only should there be a price to pay in terms of sanctions, but also we need to put safeguards in place right now for the elections for this year." She noted that the legislation received bipartisan support and predicted that Russia would also attempt to interfere in the 2018 elections. [90]

In March 2018, Collins was one of five Republican senators to vote against tabling a resolution that would cease the U.S. military's support for Saudi Arabia's bombing operations in Yemen. [91] In August, Collins was one of nine senators and two Republicans to sign a letter to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo urging the Trump administration to comply with a law requiring certification that Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates were meeting a humanitarian criteria or else being removed from American military assistance. The letter implicated the ongoing Yemen civil war as posing a threat to American interests through its continuation. [92] In October 2018, Collins was one of seven senators to sign a letter to Secretary of State Pompeo expressing that they found it "difficult to reconcile known facts with at least two" of the Trump administration's certifications that Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates were attempting to protect Yemen civilians and were in compliance with US laws on arms sales, citing their lack of understanding for "a certification that the Saudi and Emirati governments are complying with applicable agreements and laws regulating defense articles when the [memo] explicitly states that, in certain instances, they have not done so." [93] In December, Collins was one of seven Republican senators to vote for the resolution withdrawing American armed forces' support for the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen and an amendment by Todd Young ensuring mid-air refueling between American and Saudi Air Force did not resume. [94] In February 2019, Collins was one of seven senators to reintroduce legislation requiring sanctions on Saudi officials involved in the killing of Jamal Khashoggi and seeking to address support for the Yemen civil war through prohibiting some weapons sales to Saudi Arabia and U.S. military refueling of Saudi coalition planes. [95]

In May 2018, Collins and fellow Maine senator Angus King introduced the PRINT Act, a bill that if enacted would halt collections of countervailing duties and antidumping duties on Canadian newsprint and assert the U.S. Department of Commerce conduct a study of economic health of printing and publishing industries. Proponents of the bill argued it would offer a lifeline to the publishing industry amid newsprint price increases while critics accused it of setting "a dangerous precedent for future investigations into allegations of unfair trade practices." [96]

In January 2019, Collins was one of eleven Republican senators to vote to advance legislation intended to block President Trump's intent to lift sanctions against three Russian companies. Collins told reporters that she disagreed with "the easing of the sanctions because I think it sends the wrong message to Russia and to the oligarch and close ally of Mr. Putin, Oleg Deripaska, who will in my judgement continue to maintain considerable [ownership] under the Treasury's plan." [97]

In January 2019, Collins was one of eight senators to reintroduce legislation to prevent President Trump from withdrawing the United States from NATO by imposing a requirement of a two-thirds approval from the Senate for a president to suspend, terminate or withdraw American involvement with the international organization following a report that President Trump expressed interest in withdrawing from NATO several times during the previous year. [98]

In 2019, after President Trump cut aid to Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador as part of an effort to curb immigration to the United States from those countries, Collins opined "that cutting aid may have the opposite effect" and could possibly "make the lives of these individuals even worse and thus encourage more of them to flee the countries that they are now leaving. So I'd actually like to see the president consider a different approach, an opposite approach." She added that increasing aid could "help the countries stem some of the problems that are causing people to leave." [99] In February 2019, Collins was one of seven Republicans who voted to end US support for the war in Yemen, and, in May 2019, she was again one of seven Republicans who voted to override Trump's veto of the resolution on Yemen. [100]

In May 2019, Collins was one of thirteen senators to support a bipartisan proposal that would remove restrictions on private financing for exports in an effort to remove a barrier for farmers interested in selling products to Cuba. Collins and Angus King said in a statement that the intended effects of the proposal were about evening "the playing field for American farmers to open up a significant new export opportunity." [101]

China

Following reports of China-based hackers breaking into the computer networks of the U.S. government personnel office and stealing information identifying at least 4 million federal workers in June 2015, Collins commented that the hacking was "yet another indication of a foreign power probing successfully and focusing on what appears to be data that would identify people with security clearances." [102] Ahead of President Obama and President of the People's Republic of China Xi Jinping holding a meeting at an informal retreat, Collins cosponsored legislation that would expand American law to authorize the Commerce Department impose "countervailing duties" in response to subsidized imports through mandating the Commerce Department investigate in order to determine if currency manipulation counts as a form of subsidization. The bill also contained a provision mandating the Treasury Department designate countries with "fundamentally misaligned currencies" and was sponsored at a time of a recent rise in the Chinese currency to the highest level since 2005. [103]

In June 2018, Collins cosponsored a bipartisan bill that would reinstate penalties on ZTE for export control violations in addition to barring American government agencies from either purchasing or leasing equipment or services from ZTE or Huawei. The bill was offered as an amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act and was in direct contrast to the Trump administration's announced intent to ease sanctions on ZTE. [104]

In January 2019, Collins was a cosponsor of legislation unveiled by Marco Rubio and Mark Warner intended to "combat tech-specific threats to national security posed by foreign actors like China and ensure U.S. technological supremacy by improving interagency coordination across the U.S. government" through the formation of a White House Office of Critical Technologies and Security. The proposed office would be responsible for coordinating across agencies and with developing a strategy that was long-term and having to do with the entire government with the aim of protecting "against state-sponsored technology theft and risks to critical supply chains." [105]

In February 2019, amid a report by the Commerce Department that ZTE had been caught illegally shipping goods of American origin to Iran and North Korea, Collins was one of seven senators to sponsor a bill reimposing sanctions on ZTE in the event that ZTE did not honor both American laws and its agreement with the Trump administration. [106]

In February 2019, Collins signed a letter to President Trump noting that China "has not opened their market to fresh potatoes from the United States and has left U.S. potato growers without a clear path forward on how to resolve concerns that are standing in the way of opening this important market" and requesting that the administration treat the issue with high priority in its talks with China regarding a trade deal. [107]

In February 2019, during ongoing disputes between the United States and China on trade, Collins was one of ten senators to sign a bipartisan letter to Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen and Energy Secretary Rick Perry asserting that the American government "should consider a ban on the use of Huawei inverters in the United States and work with state and local regulators to raise awareness and mitigate potential threats" and urged them "to work with all federal, state and local regulators, as well as the hundreds of independent power producers and electricity distributors nation-wide to ensure our systems are protected." [108]

Iran

Collins was one of seven Senate Republicans who did not sign a March 2015 letter to the leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran attempting to cast doubt on the Obama administration's authority to engage in nuclear-proliferation negotiations with Iran. In reference to the letter, Collins told reporters, "I don't think that the ayatollah is going to be particularly convinced by a letter from members of the Senate, even one signed by a number of my distinguished and high-ranking colleagues." [109] A deal between the United States and other world powers with the stated aim of keeping Iran from being able to produce an atomic weapon for at least 10 years was announced in July 2015. Collins was reluctant to evaluate the effectiveness of the agreement as described: "A verifiable diplomatic agreement that prevents Iran’s pursuit of nuclear weapons and dismantles its nuclear infrastructure is the desired outcome; however, it is far from clear that this agreement will accomplish those goals." [110] In September 2015, Collins announced her opposition to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action in a Senate floor speech, stating that the agreement was "fundamentally flawed because it leaves Iran as capable of building a nuclear weapon at the expiration of the agreement as it is today" and predicted that following the agreement's expiration, Iran "will be a more dangerous and stronger nuclear threshold state – exactly the opposite of what this negotiation should have produced." [111]

In September 2016, Collins was one of thirty-four senators to sign a letter to United States Secretary of State John Kerry advocating for the United States using "all available tools to dissuade Russia from continuing its airstrikes in Syria" from an Iranian airbase near Hamadan "that are clearly not in our interest" and stating that there should be clear enforcement by the US of the airstrikes violating "a legally binding Security Council Resolution" on Iran. [112]

In June 2017, Collins voted for legislation that imposed new sanctions on Russia targeting the country's mining, metals, shipping and railways in response to Russian meddling in the 2016 Presidential election and implemented new sanctions on Iran regarding its ballistic missile program as well as other activities that were not related to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. [113]

In August 2018, after President Trump imposed sanctions on Iran while remaining "open to reaching a more comprehensive deal that addresses the full range of the regime's malign activities, including its ballistic missile program and its support for terrorism", [114] Collins opined that it was likely unilateral sanctions would make Iran "less likely to come back to the negotiating table." [115]

Social issues

Abortion laws

Collins is a pro-choice Republican. [116] [117] The Republican Majority for Choice, a pro-choice Republican PAC, supports Senator Collins. [118] By July 2018, Collins was one of three Republican Senators, the others being Shelley Moore Capito and Lisa Murkowski, who publicly supported the Roe v. Wade decision. [119] [120]

On October 21, 2003, with Senate Democrats, Collins was one of the three Republican Senators to oppose the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. She did however join the majority of Republicans in voting for Laci and Conner's Law to increase penalties for killing the fetus while committing a violent crime against the mother. On March 30, 2017, Collins would again join Senator Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) to break party lines on a vote; this time against a bill allowing states to defund Planned Parenthood. As in that case, Vice President Pence was forced to break a 50–50 tie in favor of the bill. [121] She was one of three Republicans, with Capito and Murkowski, who opposed a bill to repeal the Affordable Care Act that included a provision to defund Planned Parenthood. [122] [123] She was one of seven Republicans, including Capito and Murkowski, who voted against a bill to repeal the ACA without replacement that would have also defunded Planned Parenthood. [124] [125] [126] In 2018, Collins voted with the majority of Senate Democrats against a bill that would ban abortion after 20 weeks of pregnancy. [127] She was also one of two Republicans who voted against an amendment to ban federal funds for facilities that provide abortion services and family planning. [128] In 2019, Collins joined a majority of Republicans, and three Democrats, to vote for a bill that required doctors to provide care and medical intervention for infants born alive after a failed abortion. [129] [130] [131] Also in 2019, she announced that she is opposed to laws that ban abortions even in cases of rape or incest, specifically stating that such laws are against national Supreme Court rulings. [132] [133] [134] [135] Planned Parenthood, which rates politicians' support for pro-choice issues, has given Collins a lifetime rating of 70%. [65] In 2017, Planned Parenthood gave her a rating of 61%. [136] Also in 2017, Planned Parenthood gave Collins an award given to Republicans who vote closely in line with their positions. [137] [138] [139] NARAL Pro-Choice America, which also provides ratings, gave her a score of 90% in 2014 and a 45% in 2017. [140] [141] Conversely, National Right to Life, which opposes abortion and rates support for pro-life issues, gave Collins a rating of 25% during the 114th Congress and a 40% in 2018. [142] [141]

Agriculture

In September 2017, Collins was one of four senators to introduce the Cultivating Revitalization by Expanding American Agricultural Trade and Exports Act (CREEATE Act), legislation that would increase funding for both the Market Access Program (MAP) and the Foreign Market Development Program (FMDP) of the Agriculture Department. The National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) stated that the CREAATE Act would double annual MAP funding from $200 million to $400 million, and increase annual FMDP funding from $34.5 million to $69 million over a five year period. [143]

In November 2017, following an announcement of the Agriculture Department's National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) awarding a grant of $388,000 to the University of Maine at Orono, Collins and fellow Maine Senator Angus King said the funding would "support the University of Maine's cutting-edge research into potato breeding and help the state build on our strong agricultural traditions so we can make Maine potato products more economically resilient." [144]

In February 2018, Collins and Democrat Bob Casey introduced the Organic Agriculture Research Act of 2018, a bill reauthorizing increased funding for the Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative (OREI) of the USDA as part of an assurance of organic agricultural research having continued investment. The bill also reauthorized OREI for five more years and increased funding from $30 million in fiscal year 2019 to $50 million in fiscal year 2023. Collins commented that the legislation would "provide some funding for research into organic farming methods and help offset part of the cost that the state uses to certify farms as complying with USDA standards for organic farming." [145]

In March 2019, Collins was one of thirty-eight senators to sign a letter to United States Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue warning that dairy farmers "have continued to face market instability and are struggling to survive the fourth year of sustained low prices" and urging his department to "strongly encourage these farmers to consider the Dairy Margin Coverage program." [146]

Elections

On December 21, 2017, Collins was one of six senators to introduce the Secure Elections Act, legislation authorizing block grants for states that would update outdated voting technology as well as form a program for an independent panel of experts that would work toward the development of cybersecurity guidelines for election systems which would then be implemented by states if they choose along with offering states resources to install the recommendations. [147]

In October 2018 Collins cosponsored, together with Chris Van Hollen and Ben Cardin, a bipartisan bill that if passed would block "any persons from foreign adversaries from owning or having control over vendors administering U.S. elections." Protect Our Elections Act would make companies involved in administering elections reveal foreign owners, and informing local, state and federal authorities if said ownership changes. Companies failing to comply would face fined of $100,000. [148] [149]

In May 2019, Collins and Democrat Amy Klobuchar introduced the Invest in Our Democracy Act of 2019, legislation that would direct the Election Assistance Commission to provide grants supporting education being continued in election administration or cybersecurity for both election officials and employees, Klobuchar stating that the bill "would ensure that election officials have the training and resources to improve cyber-defenses ahead of future elections." [150]

LGBT issues

In 2004, Susan Collins was one of six Republicans who voted against the Federal Marriage Amendment which was an amendment intended to ban same-sex marriage. [151] In June 2006, she voted against the Federal Marriage Amendment for a second time. [152] Collins joined six other Republicans, including Olympia Snowe and John McCain, in voting against the effort to ban gay marriage. [153]

On December 18, 2010, Collins voted in favor of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010 and was the primary Republican sponsor of the repeal effort. [154] [155] [156] [157] [158]

In May 2012, in their capacity as members of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, Collins and Joe Lieberman sponsored a bill intended to extend benefits to same-sex partners of American government workers and stated that the legislation was meant to make the government compete with the private sector for top employees along with provide assurance of fair treatment for those in same-sex relationships rather than address the issue of same-sex marriage. The bill cleared the committee on a voice vote. [159]

Collins stated her support on same-sex marriage on June 25, 2014, after previously declining to publicly state her views, citing a policy to not discuss state-level issues, as well as a belief that each state's voters should decide the issue. [160] When she won reelection in 2014, she became the first Republican senator to be reelected while supporting same-sex marriage. [161]

Collins voted for the Employment Non-Discrimination Act to prevent job discrimination based on sexuality and gender identity. [162] In 2015, she was one of 11 Republican Senators who voted to give social security benefits to same-sex couples in states where same-sex marriage was not yet recognized. [163] The Human Rights Campaign, which rates politicians' support for LGBT issues, gave Collins a score of 85% during the 114th Congress. [164] She received a 33% during the 115th Congress. [165]

In 2017, Collins and New York Senator Kirsten Gillibrand "introduced a bipartisan amendment to protect transgender service members from President Trump's plan to ban them from the military." [166] Collins and Gillibrand were joined by Jack Reed in reintroducing the legislation in February 2019, after the Supreme Court upheld the Trump administration's ban on transgender individuals serving in the military. In a statement, Collins said that "if individuals are willing to put on the uniform of our country and risk their lives for our freedoms, then we should be expressing our gratitude to them, not trying to kick them out of the military." [167] In 2019, Collins co-sponsored legislation with Jeff Merkley (D-Oregon) to extend the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to people regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. [168] In May 2019, she also introduced legislation, co-sponsoring the bill with Independent Senator Angus King (Maine) and Democratic Senator Tim Kaine (Virginia), to prohibit housing discrimination against LGBT people. [169] [170] [171]

Opioids

In December 2017, Collins was one of nine senators to sign a letter to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer describing opioid use as a non-partisan issue presently "ravaging communities in every state and preys upon individuals and families regardless of party affiliation" and requesting the pair "make every effort to ensure that new, substantial and sustained funding for the opioid epidemic is included in any legislative package." [172]

In September 2018, Collins authored two bills as part of the "Opioid Crisis Response Act", a bipartisan package of 70 Senate bills that would alter programs across multiple agencies in an effort to prevent opioids from being shipped through the U.S. Postal Service and grant doctors the ability to prescribe medications designed to wean opioid addictions. The bills passed 99 to 1. [173] [174]

Judicial appointments

In May 2005, Collins was one of fourteen senators (seven Democrats and seven Republicans) to forge a compromise on the Democrats' use of the judicial filibuster, thus allowing the Republican leadership to end debate without having to exercise the nuclear option. Under the agreement, the minority party agreed that it would filibuster President George W. Bush's judicial nominees only in "extraordinary circumstances"; three Bush appellate court nominees ( Janice Rogers Brown, Priscilla Owen, and William Pryor) would receive a vote by the full Senate; and two others, Henry Saad and William Myers, were expressly denied such protection (both eventually withdrew their names from consideration). [175] [176]

Collins voted for the confirmation of George W. Bush Supreme Court nominees Samuel Alito and John G. Roberts, [177] [178] as well Barack Obama Supreme Court nominees Elena Kagan and Sonia Sotomayor. [179] [180]

After President Obama nominated Merrick Garland to the Supreme Court, Collins publicly opposed the Senate Republican leadership's decision to refuse to consider the nomination, and urged her Republican colleagues to "follow regular order" and give Garland a confirmation hearing and a vote in the Senate Judiciary Committee in the normal fashion. [181] [182] [183]

In 2017, Collins voted for the confirmation of President Trump's nomination of John K. Bush for Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. During his confirmation hearings it was disclosed that he had authored pseudonymous blog posts in which he disparaged gay rights, compared abortion to slavery, and linked to articles on right-wing conspiracy theory websites. [184]

In 2017 and 2018, Collins was one of two Senate Republicans (the other being Lisa Murkowski) who were opposed to efforts by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and the rest of the Senate Republican leadership to change the Senate's rules in order to speed up Senate confirmation of President Donald Trump's judicial nominees. [185]

Also in 2018, Collins was one of three Republican Senators, along with Jeff Flake (Arizona) and Murkowski, who supported an FBI investigation into sexual assault allegations made against Trump's second Supreme Court nominee, Brett Kavanaugh. [186] She later announced her decision to vote in favor of his confirmation, stating that the "presumption of innocence" should be retained regarding Kavanaugh's sexual assault allegations and that she did not believe he would overturn Roe v. Wade. [187] [188] Her vote sparked opposition, including fundraising for her next hypothetical opponent, and increased speculation about possible Democratic challengers in 2020. [189] Collins stated that she felt "vindication" in December 2018 when Kavanaugh voted with the court's liberal justices to decline to hear two cases against Planned Parenthood, thus allowing lower court rulings in favor of Planned Parenthood to stand. [190] [191] However, in February 2019, Kavanaugh voted to uphold a Louisiana abortion law which effectively shuttered most of the state's abortion clinics (the law was blocked by the Court's majority). [188] [192]

Collins endorsed another controversial judicial nominee in 2018: Thomas Farr, whose federal court nomination by President Trump was controversial due to his support for North Carolina laws that were ruled to be discriminatory toward African-American voters. [193] [194]

In March 2019, Collins became the first Republican to announce opposition to Chad Readler's nomination for the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, citing his "role in the government's failure to defend provisions under current law that protect individuals with pre-existing conditions". [195] In May 2019, she was the only Republican to vote against the confirmation of Wendy Vitter as a federal judge citing controversial statements that Vitter had made about abortion as well as her declining to say whether Brown v. Board was rightly decided. [196] [197] [198] She also opposed the nomination of Matthew Kacsmaryk as a district judge over his opposition to LGBTQ rights and his comments against abortion rights. [199] [200] [201] She was the only Republican to vote against advancing the nomination of Kacsmryk. [202]

By June 2019, Collins, who has stated that she is pro-choice, had supported more than 90% of President Trump's judicial nominees. 32 of these judges had indicated that they opposed abortion rights, according to the abortion rights organization NARAL. A spokeswoman for Collins said that Collins has voted for 90% of both Democratic and Republican nominees and that she ignores the personal beliefs of judicial nominees, but considers if they "can set aside these beliefs and rule fairly and impartially." [203]

Immigration and trade

Collins has voted against free-trade agreements including the Dominican Republic – Central America Free Trade Agreement. In 1999 she was one of four Republicans (along with her colleague Olympia Snowe) to vote for a Wellstone amendment to the Trade and Development Act of 2000 which would have conditioned trade benefits for Caribbean countries on "compliance with internationally recognized labor rights". [204]

Collins coauthored, along with Senator Joe Lieberman (D-CT/I-CT), the Collins-Lieberman Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. This law implemented many of the recommendations of the 9-11 Commission, modernizing and improving America's intelligence systems. In October 2006, President George W. Bush signed into law major port security legislation coauthored by Collins and Washington Senator Patty Murray. The new law includes major provisions to significantly strengthen security at US ports.[ citation needed]

As ranking member of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, Collins and committee Chairman Joe Lieberman voiced concerns about budget, outside contractors, privacy and civil liberties relating to the National Cybersecurity Center, the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative and United States Department of Homeland Security plans to enhance Einstein, the program which protects federal networks. [205] Citing improved security and the benefits of information sharing, as of mid-2008, Collins was satisfied with the response the committee received from Secretary Michael Chertoff. [206]

In 2007, she voted against the McCain-Kennedy proposal which would have given amnesty to undocumented immigrants. [207] In 2010, Collins voted against the DREAM Act. [208] However, in 2013, Collins was one of fourteen Republicans who voted in favor of a comprehensive immigration bill that included border security and a pathway to citizenship for undocumented immigrants. [209]

In November 2014, following President Obama's decision to achieve immigration reform through executive action with a plan to give deportation relief to as many as 5 million undocumented immigrants, Collins stated that the president was "a huge mistake from both the political and policy perspective" and that members of his own party agreed with her. [210]

In 2016, Collins cosponsored a bill requiring the Department of Homeland Security evaluate security threats at the northern border and said that it would mandate the federal government to consider tools border security officials would need in the prevention of drug and human trafficking. [211]

Collins criticized President Donald Trump's 2017 executive order to ban entry to the U.S. to citizens of seven Muslim-majority countries, stating: "The worldwide refugee ban set forth in the executive order is overly broad and implementing it will be immediately problematic." [212] In 2018, Susan Collins co-sponsored bipartisan comprehensive immigration reform which would have granted a pathway to citizenship to 1.8 million Dreamers while also giving $25 billion to border security; at the same time, Collins voted against the McCain/Coons proposal for a pathway to citizenship without funding for a border wall as well as against the Republican proposal backed by Trump to reduce and restrict legal immigration. [213]

When President Trump and Jeff Sessions announced a 'zero-tolerance' policy on migrants at the border and separated children from parents, Susan Collins opposed the move and urged Trump to "put an end" to the separation of families. [214] She said that separating children from parents at the border is "inconsistent with American values." [215] However, she said that she did not support the Democratic bill to stop the separation of families and said that she instead supports the bipartisan bill she proposed in February to give a pathway to citizenship for 2 million undocumented immigrants and provide $25 billion in border security. [216] In 2019, she introduced bipartisan legislation to oppose Trump's declaration emergency at the southern border in order to build a wall. [217] She was one of a dozen Republicans who broke with their party, joining all Democrats, to vote for the resolution rejecting the emergency declaration. [218]

Economic issues

Susan Collins had a mixed record on the Bush tax cuts. In 2004, she joined other "Senate moderates -- John McCain of Arizona, Olympia J. Snowe...of Maine, and Lincoln Chafee of Rhode Island" in opposing how the Bush administration wanted to implement the tax cuts. [219] The four Republicans cited deficit concerns as a reason for opposing the tax cut plans. [219] Collins voted in favor of and for the extension of the Bush tax cuts in 2003 and 2006. [220] [221] [222]

She offered an amendment to the original bill that allowed for tax credits to school teachers who purchase classroom materials. [223]

Ultimately, Collins was one of just three Republican lawmakers to vote for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, [224] earning heated criticism from the right for crossing party lines on the bill.

In mid-December 2009, she was again one of three Republican senators to back a $1.1 trillion appropriations bill for the fiscal year beginning in 2010, joining Thad Cochran (R- Mississippi) and Kit Bond (R- Missouri) in compensating for three Democratic "nay" votes to pass the bill over a threatened GOP filibuster. [225]

In May 2011, Collins was one of seventeen senators to sign a letter to Commodity Futures Trading Commission Chairman Gary Gensler requesting a regulatory crackdown on speculative Wall Street trading in oil contracts, asserting that they had entered "a time of economic emergency for many American families" while noting that the average retail price of regular grade gasoline was $3.95 nationwide. The senators requested that the CFTC adopt speculation limits in regard to markets where contracts for future delivery of oil are traded. [226]

In April 2014, the United States Senate debated the Minimum Wage Fairness Act (S. 1737; 113th Congress). The bill would amend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) to increase the federal minimum wage for employees to $10.10 per hour over the course of a two-year period. [227] The bill was strongly supported by President Barack Obama and many of the Democratic Senators, but strongly opposed by Republicans in the Senate and House. [228] [229] [230] Collins tried to negotiate a compromise bill that centrist Republicans could agree to, but was unable to do so. [230]

Collins tried to argue that the Congressional Budget Office report predicting 500,000 jobs lost if the minimum wage was increased to $10.10 also said that an increase to $9.00 would only lead to 100,000 jobs lost, but the argument did not seem to persuade her fellow centrists. She said, "I'm confident that the votes are not there to pass a minimum wage increase up to $10.10 therefore it seems to me to make sense for senators on both sides of the aisle to get together and see if we can come up with a package that would help low-income families with causing the kind of job loss that the Congressional Budget Office has warned against." [230]

Collins announced that she's opposed to cutting the tax rate for income earners making more than $1 million a year and opposed to eliminating the estate tax. [231] She stated that she does not see a need to eliminate the estate tax. [232] She was also one of two Republicans to vote with Democrats against budget cuts. [233]

Collins at the 2018 Small Business Expo in Phoenix, Arizona

In December 2017, Collins voted to pass the 2017 Republican tax plan. [234] The bill would greatly reduce corporate taxes, reduce taxes for some individuals but increase them for other individuals by removing some popular deductions, and increase the deficit. [234] The bill also repeals the individual mandate of the Affordable Care Act, which would leave 13 million Americans uninsured and raise premiums by an estimated additional 10% per year. [235] [236] After the vote, Collins said that she received assurances from congressional leaders that they would pass legislation intended to mitigate some of the adverse effects of the repeal of the individual mandate. [236] When asked how she could vote for a bill that would raise the deficit by an estimated $1 trillion (over ten years) after having railed against the deficit during the Obama administration, Collins insisted that the tax plan would not raise the deficit. She said she had been advised in this determination by economists Glenn Hubbard, Larry Lindsey, and Douglas Holtz-Eakin, [237] [234] but Hubbard and Holtz-Eakin later denied stating that the plan would not increase the deficit. [238] [239]

In May 2018, Collins was one of twelve senators to sign a letter to Chairman of the Federal Labor Relations Authority Colleen Kiko urging the FLRA to end efforts to close its Boston regional office until Congress debated the matter, furthering that the FLRA closing down its seven regional offices would cause staff to be placed farther away from the federal employees they protect the rights of. [240]

On December 6, 2018, Senator Collins cast the deciding vote to make Kathy Kraninger the Director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which cleared the United States Senate by a margin of 50-49, with all 50 present Republicans voting in support and all 49 Democrats voting in opposition. [241]

In January 2019, Collins voted for both Republican and Democratic bills to end a government shutdown. [242] She was one of six Republicans to break with their party and vote for the Democratic proposal. [243] Later that month, after President Trump signed a bill reopening the government for three weeks, Collins stated that the shutdown had not accomplished anything and advocated for Congress to pass a spending measure funding the government for the remainder of the fiscal year. She further stated that they "cannot have the threat of a government shutdown hanging over our people and our economy." [244]

In 2019, Collins worked with Democrat Kyrsten Sinema on the Senior Security Act, legislation intended to form a task force at the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) that would "examine and identify challenges facing senior investors" and report its findings to Congress along with recommended regulatory or statutory changes every two years. [245]

In 2019, while President Trump and top aides met with Republican leadership for discussions about avoiding a budget debacle that fall, Collins observed, "A lot of the cuts that they made in the president's budget were arbitrary and made without any consultation at all. An example would be zeroing out the Community Development Block Grant fund." She added that the aforementioned fund was the one most requested by members of the Appropriations panel to fund. [246]

Education

In February 2019, Collins was one of twenty senators to sponsor the Employer Participation in Repayment Act, enabling employers to contribute up to $5,250 to the student loans of their employees as a means of granting employees relief and incentivizing applicants to apply to jobs with employers who implement the policy. [247]

Healthcare

In April 1997, Collins was one of seven Republicans cosponsoring legislation introduced by Ted Kennedy and Orrin Hatch that would provide children's health insurance by raising the cigarette tax. Along with Ted Stevens and Ben Nighthorse Campbell, Collins stated her disapproval for the component increasing taxes on cigarettes and a spokesman of hers said she would find other ways to raise funds for the insurance. [248]

On January 29, 2009, Collins voted in favor of the State Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (H.R. 2). [249]

Collins opposed President Barack Obama's health reform legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and voted against it in December 2009. [250] She voted against the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. [251] Senate Republicans made an effort to delay or kill the health care legislation through a filibuster of the defense spending bill, however the filibuster was defeated and Collins was one of three Republicans who voted with Democrats to end the filibuster. [252]

With the passage of the Obama administration-supported 21st Century Cures Act in December 2016, legislation increasing funding for disease research while addressing flaws in the American mental health systems and altering drugs and medical devices' regulatory system, Collins stated, "I doubt that there is a family in America who will not be touched by this important legislation." [253]

In January 2017, at the beginning of the Congress, Collins voted in favor of a bill to begin the repeal of the Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare"). However, with four other Republican senators, Collins is leading an effort to slow down the ACA repeal in the Senate. [254] Collins and fellow Republican Senator Bill Cassidy of Louisiana have proposed legislation that permits states to either keep the ACA or move to a replacement program to be funded in part by the federal government. [255] In January 2017, Collins "was the only Republican to vote for a defeated amendment...that would have prevented the Senate from adopting legislation cutting Social Security, Medicare or Medicaid." [256]

In March 2017, Collins said that she could not support the American Health Care Act, the House Republicans' plan to repeal and replace the ACA. [257] Collins announced she would vote against the Senate version of the Republican bill to repeal Obamacare. [258] Collins has also clarified that she is against repealing the Affordable Care Act without a replacement proposal. [259]

On July 26, 2017, Collins was one of seven Republicans in voting against repealing the ACA without a suitable replacement. [260] On July 27 the following day, Collins joined two other Republicans in voting 'No' to the 'Skinny' repeal of the ACA. [261]

In August 2017, Collins and Democrat Jeanne Shaheen sent a letter to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Administrator Seema Verma requesting CMS offer Medicare coverage for clinically appropriate treatment, opining that the effectiveness of diabetes management was "crucial to holding down health care costs and helping seniors manage their diabetes successfully to allow them to continue to live healthy and productive lives" and urged the CMS to conduct a "careful review of Medicare coverage policies for patch pumps and other life-saving therapies for diabetes, in accordance with applicable laws and regulations, and to review the procedures at CMS that have resulted in these disparities in coverage." [262]

In October 2017, Collins called for President Trump to support a bipartisan Congressional effort led by Lamar Alexander and Patty Murray to reinstate insurer payments, stating that what Trump was doing was "affecting people's access and the cost of health care right now". [263]

In December 2017, Collins voted for a tax bill that repealed the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate, which the CBO estimates would increase the number of uninsured Americans by 13 million while causing higher health care premiums for those who remain insured. [264] Collins made a deal with Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, trading her opposition to repealing the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate provision, in exchange for legislation that would financially stabilize the remaining health insurance program. "But after Collins voted for the tax reform package, McConnell reneged and never brought the stabilization bill up for a vote. In 2018, she was the only Republican who voted with Democrats on a resolution, that ultimately did not pass, against the "low cost, low coverage" insurance plans allowed by an executive order of President Trump. [265]

In June 2018, Collins and fellow Maine Senator Angus King released a statement endorsing a proposal by FCC Chairman Ajit Pai intended to boost funding for the Rural Health Care Program of the Universal Service Fund. stating that "with demand for RHC funding continuing to rise, any further inaction would risk leaving rural healthcare practitioners without lifesaving telemedicine services. This long-overdue funding increase would be a boon to both healthcare providers and patients in rural communities across our country." [266]

In December 2018, Collins criticized the decision by a judge to overturn the Affordable Care Act. Asked if she regretted voting for the Republican tax reform of 2017 which zeroed out the individual mandate of the ACA and was used as a justification for the judge's ruling, Collins said she did not regret it. [267]

In March 2019, Collins, Shelly Moore Capito, and Debbie Stabenow introduced the Improving Health Outcomes, Planning, and Education (HOPE) for Alzheimer's Act, legislation mandating the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) conduct outreach to health care practitioners regarding several Alzheimer's disease care services and benefits and would be followed by HHS reporting on the rates of utilization of the services and barriers to access. [268]

In April 2019, in response to the Justice Department announcing that it would side with a ruling by U.S. District Judge Reed O'Connor of the position that the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate was unconstitutional and the rest of law was thereby invalid, Collins sent a letter to United States Attorney General William Barr expressing her disappointment with the decision and that the department's support for the ruling put "critical consumer provisions" of the ACA at risk. She opined that the Trump administration "should not attempt to use the courts to bypass Congress." [269]

In a May 2019 letter to Attorney General Barr, Collins and Democrat Joe Manchin wrote that the Affordable Care Act "is quite simply the law of the land, and it is the Administration's and your Department's duty to defend it" and asserted that Congress could "work together to fix legislatively the parts of the law that aren't working" without letting the position of a federal court "stand and devastate millions of seniors, young adults, women, children and working families." [270]

Environmental issues

In September 2008, Collins joined the Gang of 20, a bipartisan group seeking a comprehensive energy reform bill. The group is pushing for a bill that would encourage state-by-state decisions on offshore drilling and authorize billions of dollars for conservation and alternative energy. [271]

In September 2010, Collins backed a bill introduced by Senate Energy Committee Chair Jeff Bingaman and Sam Brownback that would establish a Renewable Electricity Standard (RES) requiring the generation of 15 percent renewable power through utilities by 2021. The legislation was said by President of the United Steelworkers union Leo Gerard to "protect and create hundreds of thousands of good-paying jobs and keep America in the clean energy race." [272]

The Carbon Limits and Energy for America's Renewal (CLEAR) Act (S. 2877), also called the Cantwell-Collins bill, would have directed the Secretary of the Treasury "to establish a program to regulate the entry of fossil carbon into commerce in the United States to promote renewable energy, jobs and economic growth." [273] [274] [274] [275]

In February 2017, Collins was the only Republican to vote against the Congressional Review Act (CRA) challenge undoing the Stream Protection Rule of the Interior Department. It was the first attempt by the Trump administration to undo an environmental regulation imposed by the Obama administration. [276]

In February 2017, Collins was the only Senate Republican to vote against confirmation of Scott Pruitt to lead the Environmental Protection Agency. [277] Fourteen months later, on CNN's "State of the Union," she said regarding his actions as the EPA head, "whether it's trying to undermine the Clean Power Plan or weaken the restrictions on lead or undermine the methane rules," his behavior has validated her "no" vote. [278]

In May 2017, Collins was one of three Republicans who joined Democrats in voting against a repeal of Obama's regulations for drilling on public lands; the repeal effort was rejected by a 49-51 margin. [279]

In September 2017, along with Lamar Alexander, Collins was one of two Republican senators on the Senate Appropriations Committee to vote for an amendment by Jeff Merkley restoring funding for the U.N.'s Framework Convention on Climate Change in the appropriations bill of the State Department that had been given annually by the US since 1992 and that President Trump had advocated for ending in his first budget proposal earlier that year. [280]

On February 28, 2019, Collins was the only Republican senator to vote against the confirmation of Andrew Wheeler as EPA administrator, Collins in a statement saying she believed Wheeler was qualified for the position but she also had "too many concerns with the actions he has taken during his tenure as Acting Administrator to be able to support his promotion." [281]

In March 2019, in response to the EPA releasing a proposal that would revoke findings asserting the necessity of mercury emissions regulations the previous December, Collins was one of six senators to send a letter to EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler criticizing the proposal and expressing the position that evidence showed the effectiveness of the Mercury Rule. [282]

In March 2019 Collins joined all Senate Republicans, three Democrats, and Angus King in voting against the Green New Deal resolution, a proposal that strove for net-zero greenhouse gas emissions in the US and the creation of millions of high wage jobs. [283]

In April 2019, Collins was one of four senators to sponsor a bill granting a $7,000 tax credit to the next 400,000 buyers after an initial cap on vehicles from an automaker that exceeds 200,000 sales is hit. Collins argued in a statement that the legislation "would continue the momentum towards cleaner transportation and help tackle harmful transportation emissions." [284]

In May 2019, Collins was one of six senators to sponsor a bill authorizing "the use of biomass from certain federal lands needing ecological restoration in the making of renewable fuels to promote healthier forests, more carbon sequestration, cleaner transportation fuels and strong protections for old-growth forests." [285]

In June 2019, Collins was a sponsor of the Financing Our Energy Future Act, legislation that would make "biomass; renewable fuels; biorefineries; fuel cells; combined-heat-and-power (CHP); carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS); solar; wind, marine and hydrokinetic energy; energy storage; waste heat-to-power; and energy efficient buildings" eligible for master limited partnerships. [286]

Gun policy

Collins voted for the ManchinToomey bill to amend federal law to expand background checks for gun purchases. [287] She did vote against a ban of high-capacity magazines over 10 bullets. [288] She has received a C+ grade on gun rights from the NRA, and D- from Gun Owners of America. [289]

In 2018, Collins was a cosponsor of the NICS Denial Notification Act, [290] legislation developed in the aftermath of the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting that would require federal authorities to inform states within a day of a prohibited person attempting to buy a firearm failing the National Instant Criminal Background Check System. Collins noted Maine as one of thirty-seven states where a prohibited person attempting to buy a firearm is not subject to law enforcement being required to be notified of the attempted purchase and promoted the bill as aiding the prevention of "dangerous people" obtaining illegal firearms while preserving the rights of law abiding gun owners. [291]

In February 2019, Collins supported the Terrorist Firearms Prevention Act, legislation enabling the attorney general to deny the sale of a firearm to individuals on the no-fly list or selectee list that subject airline passengers to more screening. Collins stated, "If you are considered to be too dangerous to fly on an airplane, you should not be able to buy a firearm. This bill is a sensible step we can take right now to reform our nation's gun laws while protecting the Second Amendment rights of law-abiding Americans." [292]

Other issues

In June 2004, Collins voted for a proposal increasing the maximum penalty the Federal Communications Commission could issue in response to decency violations on television and radio from 27,500 to 275,000 and setting a limit of $3 million for a violation either receiving or producing multiple complaints. [293]

In April 2014, the United States Senate debated the Paycheck Fairness Act (S. 2199; 113th Congress). It was a bill that "punishes employers for retaliating against workers who share wage information, puts the justification burden on employers as to why someone is paid less and allows workers to sue for punitive damages of wage discrimination." [294] Collins voted against ending debate on the bill, saying that one of her reasons for doing so was that Majority Leader Harry Reid had refused to allow votes on any of the amendments that Republicans had suggested for the bill. [294]

In September 2016, Collins and Democrat Mark Warner unveiled a bill that directed the Departments of Labor and Treasury to authorize employers and sole-proprietors to file one form for the satisfaction of reporting requirements as opposed to forms for each individual plan. Collins stated in a press release that Americans were not "saving enough to be able to afford a comfortable retirement" and cited an estimate by the Center for Retirement Research that there was roughly a $7.7 trillion gap between the funds Americans have saved for retirement and what they actually need. [295]

In January 2017, both Collins and Senator Lisa Murkowski voted for Donald Trump's selection for Secretary of Education, Betsy DeVos, within the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, passing DeVos' nomination by a vote of 12–11 to allow the full Senate to vote on the nominee. Collins justified her support vote due to her belief that "Presidents are entitled to considerable deference in the selection of Cabinet members". [296] [297] [298] Later, Collins and Murkowski became the only Republicans to break party lines and vote against the nominee. [299] [300] This caused a 50–50 tie that was broken by Senate President Mike Pence to successfully confirm DeVos' appointment. [301]

Another noted involvement in the Trump Cabinet confirmation process for Collins was her formal introduction of Sen. Jeff Sessions (R-AL) to the Judiciary Committee for its hearings on Sessions' nomination to be Attorney General. [302]

On December 14, 2017, the same day that the FCC was set to hold a vote on net neutrality, Collins, along with Angus King, sent a letter to the FCC asking that the vote be postponed so as to allow for public hearings on the merits of repealing net neutrality. [303] Collins and King expressed concerns that repealing net neutrality could adversely affect the US economy. [303] As part of this drive, Collins is reported to support using the authority under the Congressional Review Act to nullify the FCC's repeal vote. [304] In 2018, Collins was one of three Republicans voting with Democrats to repeal rule changes enacted by the Republican-controlled FCC. [305] The measure was meant to restore Obama-era net neutrality rules. [306]

In June 2019, Collins was one of thirty-three senators to cosponsor legislation that would establish a "National Post-Traumatic Stress Awareness Day" on June 27 in addition to designating the month of June as "National Post-Traumatic Stress Awareness Month." Kevin Cramer, a cosponsor of the bill, said June being designated as "National Post-Traumatic Stress Awareness Month shines a light on the resources available to veterans and reaffirms our commitment to ensuring they receive the care and assistance they need." [307]

Notable legislation

Collins introduced a bill in June 2013 that would define a "full-time employee" as someone who works for 40 hours per week (instead of 30 hours). [308] The Affordable Care Act (ACA) defined a full-time worker as someone who works 30 hours per week. [309] Collins is cited as saying that her bill would help avoid employers reducing workers' hours to below 30 per week in order to comply with the ACA. [310]

In September 2013, Collins introduced a bill aimed at preventing Sudden Unexpected Infant Death Syndrome (SUIDS). The bill, dubbed The Child Care Infant Mortality Prevention Act, aims to raise the amount of provider training in infant wards as well as enhanced CPR and first aid training. Backers of this bill hope this will make a dent in the 4,000 children killed every year due to SUIDS. This would require the Health and Human Services Department to update their materials as well as improve their training resources to primary providers. [310]

In May 2019, Collins introduced the TICK Act with Democrat Tina Smith, legislation devoting over a $100 million in new federal spending to address Lyme and other tick-borne diseases. Collins noted in a Senate floor speech that tick-borne diseases had become a larger public health issue in the last 15 years and presented a "grave risks to our public health and serious harm to our families and communities". [311]

Committee assignments

Caucus memberships

Awards and honors

On September 19, 2012, Collins received the Navy League's Congressional Sea Services Award "for her outstanding contributions in Congress to advance the mission of our nation's maritime services". [313]

Collins was awarded the U.S. Chamber of Commerce's 2013 Spirit of Enterprise Award for her support of the Chamber's positions in the Senate. [314]

On December 12, 2013, Collins received the "Legislator of the Year Award" from the Congressional Fire Services Institute (CFSI). CFSI, a nonprofit, nonpartisan policy institute established in 1989 which seeks to promote Congress' awareness of the needs of first responders, presented the award to Collins in the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. The Award is given to a member of Congress who the organization deems to have made a "significant contribution to the fire service." [315]

On February 24, 2014, Collins received the "Thought Leader Award" from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. The award recognizes and honors American leaders who "affirm the essential services that public media provides to citizens in areas of education, journalism, and the arts." [316]

On May 7, 2014, National Journal recognized Collins as the senator with "perfect attendance", noting that Collins hadn't missed a single vote since her election to the Senate in 1997. [317]

Collins was a recipient of the Publius Award from the Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress on March 12, 2014. [318]

On March 26, 2014, Elle Magazine honored Collins, with others, at the Italian Embassy in the United States during its annual "Women in Washington Power List." [319]

The Veterans of Foreign Wars gave Collins its 2017 Congressional Award, which is annually given to one member of Congress for their significant legislative contributions on behalf of military veterans. [320]

On May 28, 2017, Bates College honored Collins as an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters for her bipartisan work in the Senate. [321]

Donors

For the period 2013 to 2018, Collins's top three donors (in descending order) are General Dynamics (defense/weapons industry), Cohen Group (business advisory firm providing corporate leadership with strategic advice and assistance in business development, regulatory affairs, deal sourcing, and capital raising activities), and Elliott Management (financial industry: investment management firm ... the largest activist fund in the world) [322]

Personal life

Collins is married to Thomas Daffron, a lobbyist at Jefferson Consulting Group, a lobbying and consulting firm in Washington D.C. They were married on August 11, 2012, at the Gray Memorial United Methodist Church in Caribou, Maine. [323] [324] She identifies as a member of the Catholic Church. [325]

Electoral history

Maine gubernatorial election, 1994
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Angus King 180,829 35%
Democratic Joseph E. Brennan 172,951 34%
Republican Susan Collins 117,990 23%
Green Jonathan Carter 32,695 6% N/A
Write-In Ed Finks 6,576 1% N/A
United States Senate election in Maine, 1996
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Susan Collins 298,422 49.2%
Democratic Joseph E. Brennan 266,226 43.9%
Green John Rensenbrink 23,441 3.9%
Taxpayers William P. Clarke 18,618 3.1%
United States Senate election in Maine, 2002
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Susan Collins (incumbent) 299,266 58.4%
Democratic Chellie Pingree 205,901 41.6%
United States Senate election in Maine, 2008
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Susan Collins (incumbent) 444,587 61.5%
Democratic Tom Allen 278,651 38.5%
United States Senate election in Maine, 2014
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Susan Collins (incumbent) 411,211 68.4% +6.9%
Democratic Shenna Bellows 189,653 31.6% -6.9%

See also

References

  1. ^ "History - Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs Committee". hsgac.senate.gov. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
  2. ^ a b Barrett, Ted (September 17, 2015). "The Senate's Iron Lady: Susan Collins casts 6,000th consecutive vote". CNN. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  3. ^ Pathé, Simone; Pathé, Simone (November 15, 2018). "Poliquin Loss Wipes Out New England Republicans in the House". Roll Call. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  4. ^ Writer, Colin WoodardStaff (February 5, 2017). "Sen. Susan Collins develops pivotal, but uncomfortable, role as check on Trump". Press Herald. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  5. ^ "Can the center hold? Susan Collins and the high wire act of being a moderate". Christian Science Monitor. July 23, 2018. ISSN  0882-7729. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d "About Susan Collins". Susan Collins for Senate. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010.
  7. ^ Burns, Christopher (March 11, 2018). "Donald Collins, father of Sen. Susan Collins, dies at 92". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c Rettig, Jessica (February 10, 2010). "10 Things You Didn't Know About Susan Collins". U.S. News & World Report.
  9. ^ "Susan Margaret Collins – Genealogy". geni_family_tree.
  10. ^ a b c "How Maine's GOP Senators Are Key to Obama's Agenda". Time. February 12, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  11. ^ a b "Outstanding Maine Students Selected for Senate Youth Program". United States Senator Susan M. Collins. January 22, 2010.
  12. ^ a b c d "COLLINS, Susan Margaret". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  13. ^ "General Election Tabulations". Secretary of State of Maine. November 8, 1994. Archived from the original on September 17, 2013.
  14. ^ Cummings, Jeanne (October 27, 2009). "In Maine, being bipartisan pays off". politico.com. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  15. ^ Connolly, Ceci (October 22, 2009). "New focus on Maine's other centrist Republican senator". The Washington Post. p. A03. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  16. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (October 26, 2008). "While Some Republicans Feel the Weight of Bush's Image, a Senator in Maine Soars". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  17. ^ "The Lugar Center - McCourt School Bipartisan Index" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: The Lugar Center. April 24, 2018. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
  18. ^ "Collins ranked most bipartisan U.S. Senator". Presque Isle, Maine: WAGM-TV. April 24, 2018. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
  19. ^ "State by State returns for HRC endorsed candidates". HRC.org. Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on October 7, 2013.
  20. ^ Schmitt, Eric (March 12, 1997). "SENATORS ENDORSE CAMPAIGN INQUIRY WITH WIDER SCOPE". New York Times.
  21. ^ "Senate Is Lacking Veto-Proof Vote for Ban on an Abortion Method". New York Times. May 13, 1997.
  22. ^ "Senate OKs intelligence overhaul bill". CNN. December 10, 2004.
  23. ^ "Bush Signs Bill to Revamp U.S. Intelligence Community". New York Times. December 17, 2004.
  24. ^ "Senators disappointed by response to Fort Hood subpoena". mcclatchydc.com. April 27, 2010.
  25. ^ Liberto, Jennifer (May 19, 2010). "Wall Street reform fails test". CNN.
  26. ^ Camia, Catalina (February 13, 2013). "Senate gets ready for Chuck Hagel showdown". USA Today.
  27. ^ "Senate Allows Nomination Of Chuck Hagel To Move Forward". NPR.
  28. ^ "Chuck Hagel confirmed as US defence secretary by Senate". BBC. February 27, 2013.
  29. ^ "Collins says IRS revelations will fuel government distrust". CNN. May 12, 2013.
  30. ^ Timmons, Sheila (March 19, 2014). "Elle' unveils its '10 Most Powerful Women in D.C.'". The Hill. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  31. ^ "The Senate's Iron Lady: Susan Collins casts 6,000th consecutive vote". CNN. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  32. ^ Wilson, Reid (November 24, 2015). "Bernie Sanders is the Most Popular Senator in America". Morning Consult. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  33. ^ Easley, Cameron (July 25, 2018). "America's Most and Least Popular Senators". Morning Consult. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  34. ^ "Maine Voters Want Senator Collins to Reject Kavanaugh's Supreme Court Nomination". Public Policy Polling. August 21, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  35. ^ "America's Most and Least Popular Senators". Morning Consult. January 10, 2019.
  36. ^ "Senate passes broad spending bill with $1.1B in Zika funds". The Hill. May 19, 2016.
  37. ^ "Texas senator introduces bill to produce $1 coin honoring Bushes". The Hill. February 19, 2019.
  38. ^ Al-awsat, Asharq (July 29, 2017). "Susan Collins: Last of the New England Liberal Republicans - ASHARQ AL-AWSAT English Archive". ASHARQ AL-AWSAT English Archive. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  39. ^ Elisberg, Robert J. (May 12, 2009). "Yes, Virginia, There are Liberal Republicans". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  40. ^ for "Townhall", Marcus Hawkins Marcus Hawkins is a freelance journalist who has written; News.", "Breitbart. "Meet the 5 Women Representing Republicans in the US Senate". ThoughtCo. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  41. ^ Barnes, James A.; Keating, Holland; Charlie, Cook; Michael, Barone; Louis, Jacobson; Louis, Peck. The almanac of American politics 2016: members of Congress and governors: their profiles and election results, their states and districts. ISBN  978-1-938518-31-7. OCLC  927103599.
  42. ^ Parlapiano, Alicia. "Where Senators Stand on the Health Care Bill". Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  43. ^ Parlapiano, Alicia. "How Each Senator Voted on Obamacare Repeal Proposals". Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  44. ^ "Susan Collins, Senator for Maine - GovTrack.us". GovTrack.us. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  45. ^ "Candidate Political Map". ontheissues.org. OnTheIssues.org & the SpeakOut Foundation.
  46. ^ "ACU Ratings". conservative.org. The American Conservative Union. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  47. ^ "ACU Ratings". ACU Ratings. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  48. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System". Vote Smart.
  49. ^ "2015 Voting Record" (PDF). adaction.org. 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  50. ^ Lesniewski, Niels; Lesniewski, Niels (February 4, 2014). "Collins, Murkowski Most Likely Republicans to Back Obama". Roll Call. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  51. ^ Bycoffe, Aaron (January 30, 2017). "Tracking Susan M. Collins In The Age Of Trump". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  52. ^ a b Enten, Harry (November 11, 2018). "Susan Collins was a more reliable vote for GOP in 2017 than any other year". CNN.
  53. ^ WAGM. "Collins ranked most bipartisan U.S. senator". Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  54. ^ CNN, Analysis by Harry Enten,. "Susan Collins was a more reliable vote for GOP in 2017 than any other year". CNN. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  55. ^ "Analysis: An autopsy of liberal Republicans". cnn.com. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  56. ^ Staff, Liz Goodwin Globe; July 9; 2018; Comments, 9:27 p m Email to a Friend Share on Facebook Share on TwitterPrint this Article View. "Susan Collins is no maverick with GOP judicial nominees". BostonGlobe.com.
  57. ^ Leonhardt, David (July 2, 2018). "Opinion - Susan Collins Tends to Her Image" – via NYTimes.com.
  58. ^ "How Republican Senators Voted on Sotomayor - Interactive Graphic - NYTimes.com". archive.nytimes.com. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  59. ^ Staff, The Hill (May 10, 2010). "Seven Republicans voted for Kagan in 2009". TheHill. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  60. ^ ""Pro-choice" Susan Collins has voted to confirm 32 anti-abortion Trump judges". Salon. June 6, 2019. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  61. ^ Miller, Hayley (June 5, 2019). "Sen. Susan Collins Keeps Voting For Trump's Anti-Abortion Judges". HuffPost. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  62. ^ "Angus King endorses Susan Collins". POLITICO. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  63. ^ Everett, Burgess. "Joe Manchin endorses Susan Collins for reelection". POLITICO. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
  64. ^ "Top 10 RINOs (Republicans in Name Only) | Human Events". Human Events. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  65. ^ a b "Susan Collins' Ratings and Endorsements". votesmart.org. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012.
  66. ^ "In Maine, Grizzled Moderates, Not Mama Grizzlies". Newsweek. October 1, 2010. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  67. ^ "Maine's Collins is suddenly the moderate in the middle". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  68. ^ Saxena, V (July 19, 2017). "Limbaugh Calls out 3 "Female Leftist" Republicans Who Betrayed GOP". Conservative Tribune. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  69. ^ "GOP senator Susan Collins: Why I cannot support Trump". The Washington Post. August 8, 2016.
  70. ^ "Echoing Romney, Susan Collins says she would vote for the Libertarian ticket if Bill Weld were the nominee". Boston.com. August 9, 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  71. ^ "Susan Collins considers Libertarian, write-in for president". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  72. ^ Swanson, Ian (May 9, 2017). "GOP senators split over Trump's decision to fire Comey". TheHill. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  73. ^ Collins, Steve (January 28, 2017). "Maine's senators denounce Trump's ban on immigration from 7 Muslim countries". Sun Journal (Lewiston, Maine).
  74. ^ a b "GOP senator says she's open to demanding Trump's tax returns as part of Russia probe". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  75. ^ Shelbourne, Mallory (July 23, 2017). "Collins: Trump should not comment on special counsel". The Hill.
  76. ^ Watkins, Eli (January 28, 2018). "Collins: 'Wouldn't hurt' for Congress to protect Mueller". CNN.
  77. ^ Viebeck, Elise (November 9, 2018). "GOP Sen. Collins calls for vote on bill to protect Mueller from being fired".
  78. ^ "Roll call for H.J.Res. 114". US Senate.
  79. ^ Crittenden, Michael R. (June 17, 2014). "U.S. Lawmakers Express Frustration With Iraq's Maliki". Wall Street Journal.
  80. ^ "Roll call for H.R. 1585/S.Amdt. 2022". US Senate.
  81. ^ "S. 680 – 110th Congress (2007): Accountability in Government Contracting Act of 2007". GovTrack.us. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  82. ^ "Kyl Amdt. No. 3017 as Modified, To express the sense of the Senate regarding Iran". US Senate. September 26, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  83. ^ "Lieberman-Kyl Amendment Seeks To Escalate Possibility Of Military Action Against Iran". Think Progress. September 25, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  84. ^ Hulse, Carl. "Bipartisan Group of Senators Bands Together on Terrorism Trials". New York Times.
  85. ^ Mark Memmott (December 22, 2010). "Senate Ratifies START". npr.org. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
  86. ^ Baker, Peter (December 22, 2010). "Senate Passes Arms Control Treaty With Russia, 71-26". New York Times.
  87. ^ "U.S. Congress approves arming Syrian rebels, funding government". Reuters. September 18, 2014.
  88. ^ "Sen. King to Trump: Tone things down on North Korea". pressherald.com. August 9, 2017.
  89. ^ Birnbaum, Emily (July 1, 2018). "GOP senator: Report that North Korea will not denuclearize 'very troubling'". The Hill.
  90. ^ Samuels, Brett (January 30, 2018). "Collins: WH decision to not implement Russian sanctions 'perplexing'". The Hill.
  91. ^ "Senate sides with Trump on providing Saudi military support". The Hill. March 20, 2018.
  92. ^ "Senators press Trump administration on Yemen civil war". The Hill. August 30, 2018.
  93. ^ "Senators demand answers on Trump administration backing of Saudi coalition in Yemen". The Hill. October 10, 2018.
  94. ^ Erickson, Bo. "Senate votes to end U.S. support for Saudi war in Yemen". CBS News.
  95. ^ "Senators reintroduce bill to punish Saudis for Khashoggi killing". The Hill. February 7, 2019.
  96. ^ "Norpac blasts bill to pause tariffs on Canadian newsprint". tdn.com. May 21, 2018.
  97. ^ "Senate advances measure bucking Trump on Russia sanctions". The Hill. January 15, 2019.
  98. ^ Kheel, Rebecca (January 17, 2019). "Bipartisan senators reintroduce bill to prevent Trump from withdrawing from NATO". The Hill.
  99. ^ Marcos, Cristina (April 2, 2019). "GOP, Dems balk at latest Trump foreign aid cuts". The Hill.
  100. ^ Levine, Marianne. "Senate fails to override Trump's veto on Yemen". POLITICO. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  101. ^ "Maine senators join push to grow US ag sales to Cuba". AP News. May 16, 2019.
  102. ^ "China suspected in massive breach of federal personnel data". Chicago Tribune. June 4, 2015.
  103. ^ Palmer, Doug (June 5, 2013). "Senators renew push against China currency 'manipulation' despite yuan's rise". Reuters.
  104. ^ Zengerle, Patricia (June 7, 2018). "U.S. lawmakers scramble for way to block Trump deal with China's ZTE". Reuters.
  105. ^ Derby, Kevin. "Marco Rubio's, Mark Warner's Push to Fight China Stealing American Technology Gaining Momentum on Capitol Hill". Sunshine State News.
  106. ^ "U.S. lawmakers target China's ZTE with sanctions bill". Reuters. February 5, 2019.
  107. ^ Teboe, Chloe (February 11, 2019). "Maine legislators promote potato industry in U.S. trade with China". newscentermaine.com.
  108. ^ Perticone, Joe (February 25, 2019). "A bipartisan group of senators want the Trump administration to deal another blow to Chinese tech giant Huawei".
  109. ^ "Who are the seven Republicans who didn't sign the Iran letter?". Washington Post. March 10, 2015.
  110. ^ "Maine delegation split on Iran nuclear deal". centralmaine.com. July 14, 2015.
  111. ^ Russell, Eric (September 8, 2015). "Maine's Sen. Susan Collins says no to Iran nuclear deal".
  112. ^ Kheel, Rebecca (September 19, 2016). "GOP pressures Kerry on Russia's use of Iranian airbase". The Hill.
  113. ^ "U.S. Senate votes near unanimously for Russia, Iran sanctions". Reuters. June 15, 2017.
  114. ^ "Donald Trump reimposes economic sanctions on Iran". USA Today. August 6, 2018.
  115. ^ Leary, Mal (August 7, 2018). "Collins, Pingree React To Trump Imposing Sanctions On Iran". mainepublic.org.
  116. ^ "Susan Collins announces she'll stay in Senate, skip governor run". NBC News. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  117. ^ ABC News (January 3, 2013), 20 Female Senators Sworn in on Capitol Hill, retrieved April 11, 2019
  118. ^ Lett, Phoebe (December 24, 2015). "The Endangered Pro-Choice Republican". The New York Times. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  119. ^ "Trump's Supreme Court Pick May Turn on Outliers in Both Parties". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  120. ^ News, Bloomberg. "Both parties' outliers crucial to high court vote – Minnesota Lawyer". minnlawyer.com. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  121. ^ "Murkowski splits with party on Planned Parenthood vote, forces Pence tie-breaker". Alaska Dispatch News. March 30, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  122. ^ "The Republican senators who are against a healthcare repeal bill are facing a vicious misogynist backlash — Quartz". qz.com. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  123. ^ "The 3 Republicans Who Doomed a Senate Repeal of the Health Law". Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  124. ^ Chamberlain, Samuel (July 26, 2017). "Republicans who voted against ObamaCare 'straight repeal'". Fox News. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  125. ^ Berman, Russell (July 26, 2017). "Republicans Reject Another Obamacare Repeal Plan". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  126. ^ Zuckerman, Jake. "Capito votes against straight repeal of ACA". Charleston Gazette-Mail. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  127. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (2018). "Senate Rejects Measure to Ban Abortion After 20 Weeks of Pregnancy". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  128. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System". Vote Smart. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  129. ^ "U.S. Senate: U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 116th Congress - 1st Session". www.senate.gov. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  130. ^ "Born-Alive Abortion Survivors bill fails to beat Senate filibuster". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  131. ^ "Vote Detail: 27". cqrcengage.com. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  132. ^ Gray, Sarah. "5 Republicans who have said the Alabama abortion ban goes 'too far'". Business Insider. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  133. ^ Byrnes, Jesse (May 16, 2019). "Collins: Alabama abortion law 'very extreme,' 'terrible'". TheHill. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  134. ^ "Susan Collins has faith Kavanaugh won't uphold Alabama abortion law". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  135. ^ "Alabama abortion law draws some criticism, mostly silence from..." Reuters. May 17, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  136. ^ "Rating Group: Planned Parenthood Action Fund 2015 Lifetime Score". VoteSmart.org. Project Vote Smart. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
  137. ^ "Planned Parenthood Honors U.S. Senator Susan Collins". www.plannedparenthood.org. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  138. ^ Bassett, Laura (August 31, 2018). "Don't Count On Susan Collins To Save Roe v. Wade". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  139. ^ Everett, Burgess. "Collins' warmth brightens Kavanaugh's prospects". POLITICO. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  140. ^ "2014 Congressional Record on Choice". NARAL Pro-Choice America. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
  141. ^ a b "The Voter's Self Defense System". Vote Smart. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  142. ^ "National Right to Life Scorecard". capwiz.com. National Right To Life. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
  143. ^ Desormeaux, Hailey (September 25, 2017). "Senators introduce bill to increase funding for agriculture export programs".
  144. ^ "Collins, King Announce $388,000 from USDA for University of Maine's Potato Breeding Research". wagmtv.com. November 20, 2017.
  145. ^ "Legislation introduced to help strengthen organic farming". wagmtv.com. February 13, 2018.
  146. ^ "U.S. Senator Tammy Baldwin Calls on Trump Administration to Implement Farm Bill Dairy Improvements for Wisconsin Dairy Farmers". urbamilwaukee.com. April 1, 2019.
  147. ^ "Bipartisan group of lawmakers backs new election security bill". The Hill. December 21, 2017.
  148. ^ Thomsen, Jacqueline. "Bipartisan bill would block foreign adversaries from owning US election vendors". The Hill. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  149. ^ Fleischer, Jodie; Leslie, Katie; Piper, Jeff. "Measure Seeks to Prevent Foreign Ownership of US Elections Firms After Russian Invests in Maryland Elections Vendor". NBC Washington. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  150. ^ "Klobuchar, Collins introduce bill boosting election cybersecurity education". Brainerd Dispatch. May 25, 2019.
  151. ^ "CNN.com - Same-sex marriage Senate battle over, war is not - Jul 15, 2004". www.cnn.com. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
  152. ^ Murray, Shailagh (June 8, 2006). "Gay Marriage Amendment Fails in Senate". ISSN  0190-8286. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
  153. ^ Hulse, Carl (June 7, 2006). "Gay Marriage Ban Fails in Senate Vote". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
  154. ^ Foley, Elise (December 18, 2010). "Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Passes Senate 65-31". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  155. ^ Keyes, Bob (December 18, 2010). "Snowe, Collins join majority in repeal of 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'". Kennebec Journal. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  156. ^ Toeplitz, Shira (December 18, 2010). "Eight Republicans back 'Don't Ask' repeal". Politico. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  157. ^ "Senate Vote On the Motion to Concur in the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment to H.R. 2965". Senate.gov. December 18, 2010. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  158. ^ "Senate Vote 281 – Repeals 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 27, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  159. ^ "Senate panel approves same-sex benefits". UPI. May 16, 2012.
  160. ^ Moretto, Mario (June 25, 2014). "Susan Collins: I support same-sex marriage [Susan Collins becomes fourth GOP senator to publicly support same-sex marriage]". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  161. ^ "In An Important First for Republicans, Maine's Susan Collins Wins Reelection". Advocate.com. Here Media Inc. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
  162. ^ Moretto, Mario (November 12, 2013). "Collins' support of workplace rights for gays earns scorn of conservative women's group". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
  163. ^ Dennis, Steven T.; Dennis, Steven T. (March 27, 2015). "Same-Sex Marriage Benefits Endorsed on Senate Floor (Updated)". Roll Call. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  164. ^ "114th Congressional Scorecard" (PDF). HRC.org. Human Rights Campaign. 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  165. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System". Vote Smart. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
  166. ^ Reilly, Katie. "Democrat and Republican Senators Move to Stop Trump's Transgender Military Ban". Time. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  167. ^ Kheel, Rebecca (February 7, 2019). "Gillibrand introduces bipartisan bill to allow transgender military service". The Hill.
  168. ^ "Congressional Democrats, GOP moderates look to enshrine LGBTQ legal protections". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  169. ^ "Senate bill seeks to expand LGBTI housing anti-discrimination protections". Gay Star News. May 12, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  170. ^ Phelps, Rob. "Maine's King and Collins introduce bill to add LGBT people to Fair Housing Act | Boston Spirit Magazine". Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  171. ^ Press, Associated (May 6, 2019). "Maine senators push to add LGBT people to Fair Housing Act". WPFO. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  172. ^ "U.S. Senator Tammy Baldwin Joins Bipartisan Group of Senators Urging Congressional Leadership to Commit Resources to Opioid Epidemic". urbanmilwaukee.com. December 15, 2017.
  173. ^ Itkowitz, Colby (September 17, 2018). "Senate passes sweeping opioids package". Washington Post.
  174. ^ "Collins, King vote to pass Opioid Crisis Response Act of 2018". wabi.tv. September 18, 2018.
  175. ^ Senators compromise on filibusters: Bipartisan group agrees to vote to end debate on 3 nominees, CNN (May 24, 2005).
  176. ^ Ken Rudin, Judging Alito: The Gang of 14 Factor, NPR.org, January 4, 2006.
  177. ^ "Confirmation Samuel A. Alito, Jr., of New Jersey, to be an Associate Justice". washingtonpost.com. January 31, 2006. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
  178. ^ "Confirmation of John G. Roberts, Jr., of Maryland, to be Chief Justice of the United States". washingtonpost.com. September 29, 2005. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
  179. ^ How Republican Senators Voted on Sotomayor, The New York Times (August 6, 2009).
  180. ^ David Jackson, Senate confirms Elena Kagan to Supreme Court, USA Today, August 5, 2010.
  181. ^ Mike DeBonis, GOP senator 'more convinced than ever' that Garland should get hearing, The Washington Post (April 5, 2016).
  182. ^ Kristina Peterson, Senator Susan Collins Urges Colleagues to Meet Judge Merrick Garland, The Wall Street Journal, April 5, 2016.
  183. ^ Susan Collins Urges Senate To 'Follow Regular Order' on Supreme Court Nominee, NPR.org, March 16, 2016.
  184. ^ Totenberg, Nina. "Conservative Political Blogger Confirmed For Seat On Federal Appeals Court". NPR. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  185. ^ Bolton, Alexander. "GOP faces internal battle over changing Senate rules". The Hill. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  186. ^ Haberkorn, Jennifer. "Flake and Murkowski join Democrats in calling for FBI inquiry of sex assault allegations against Kavanaugh - Los Angeles Times". latimes.com. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  187. ^ Fandos, Nicholas; Stolberg, Sheryl (October 5, 2018). "Collins and Manchin Will Vote for Kavanaugh, All but Ensuring His Confirmation". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  188. ^ a b "Democrats slam Collins for Kavanaugh vote in wake of Supreme Court ruling on Louisiana abortion law". The Washington Post. 2019.
  189. ^ Stuart, Emily (October 7, 2018). "Susan Collins's 2020 challenger already has a $3 million campaign fund, thanks to her vote on Kavanaugh". www.msn.com. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  190. ^ de Vogue, Ariane; Raju, Manu (December 10, 2018). "Republican senator feels 'vindication' after Kavanaugh votes in favor of Planned Parenthood". cnn.com.
  191. ^ CNN (December 11, 2018). "Susan Collins feels 'vindication' after Kavanaugh votes in favor of Planned Parenthood". 7NEWS. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  192. ^ "Susan Collins: Brett Kavanaugh's attackers 'haven't even read' dissent". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  193. ^ "Fate of divisive judicial nominee from North Carolina uncertain amid criticism". Washington Post. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  194. ^ "Sen. Susan Collins to endorse Farr, judicial nominee with a history of voter suppression: report". Salon. November 27, 2018. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  195. ^ "GOP senator to oppose Trump court pick". The Hill. March 5, 2019.
  196. ^ Writer, Kevin MillerStaff (May 16, 2019). "Sen. Collins casts lone Republican vote against controversial judicial nominee". Press Herald. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  197. ^ Carney, Jordain (May 15, 2019). "Collins votes against Trump judicial pick". TheHill. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  198. ^ "Susan Collins joins Democrats in opposing confirmation of judge who made anti-abortion statements". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  199. ^ "Susan Collins says she'll oppose Trump's federal judicial nominee because of 'alarming bias' against LGBTQ community". theweek.com. June 15, 2019. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  200. ^ CNN, Caroline Kelly and Ted Barrett. "Collins to oppose Trump judicial nominee over record opposing LGBTQ rights". CNN. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  201. ^ Fuchs, Hailey (June 14, 2019). "Sen. Collins to oppose Trump judicial nominee over record opposing gay rights". washingtonpost.com.
  202. ^ Bendery, Jennifer (June 18, 2019). "Senate Advances Trump Court Pick Opposed By Pretty Much Every LGBTQ Rights Group Ever". HuffPost. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  203. ^ "Sen. Susan Collins Keeps Voting For Trump's Anti-Abortion Judges". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  204. ^ "How Susan Collins voted on all votes". The Washington Post. p. 448. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  205. ^ Lieberman, Joe; Collins, Susan (May 2, 2008). "Lieberman and Collins Step Up Scrutiny of Cyber Security Initiative". U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee. Archived from the original on January 12, 2009. Retrieved May 14, 2008.
  206. ^ Condon, Stephanie; McCullagh, Declan (July 31, 2008). "DHS stays mum on new 'Cyber Security' center". CNET News. CBS. Retrieved September 2, 2008.
  207. ^ Radio, From Lisa Goddard CNN. "The Senate immigration vote: How they voted - CNN.com". www.cnn.com. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  208. ^ Willis, Derek. "Fails To Advance Dream Act - H.R.5281: Removal Clarification Act of 2010". ProPublica. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  209. ^ "Roll call: Republicans who voted for the bill". POLITICO. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  210. ^ Cornwell, Susan (November 19, 2014). "Some Senate Democrats balk at Obama's unilateral immigration approach". Reuters.
  211. ^ "Obama signs bill to strengthen U.S. security along Canadian border". centralmaine.com. December 15, 2016.
  212. ^ Blake, Aaron. "Coffman, Gardner join Republicans against President Trump's travel ban; here's where the rest stand". Denver Post. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
  213. ^ Schoen, John W. (February 16, 2018). "Here's how your senators voted on failed immigration proposals". CNBC. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  214. ^ Pramuk, Jacob (June 18, 2018). "Several GOP lawmakers push Trump to stop widely condemned separation of immigrant families". CNBC. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  215. ^ "Susan Collins says separating immigrant families 'inconsistent with American values'". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  216. ^ "Collins opposes family separations at border, but calls Democratic bill too broad". Press Herald. June 17, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  217. ^ News, A. B. C. (February 28, 2019). "Senate will soon consider resolution to terminate Trump's emergency declaration". ABC News. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  218. ^ Cochrane, Emily; Thrush, Glenn (March 14, 2019). "Senate Rejects Trump's Border Emergency Declaration, Setting Up First Veto". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  219. ^ a b Andrews, Edmund L. "Mutiny by 4 Republicans Over Bush's Tax Cutting Forces Delay on the Budget Vote". Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  220. ^ "On Passage of the Bill (H.R. 1836, as amended)". US Senate. May 23, 2001.
  221. ^ "On the Conference Report (H.R. 2 Conference Report)". US Senate. May 23, 2003.
  222. ^ "Motion to Invoke Cloture on the Motion to Proceed to Consider H.R.5970; Estate Tax and Extension of Tax Relief Act of 2006". washingtonpost.com. August 3, 2006. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
  223. ^ "S.AMDT.675 to H.R.1836". Library of Congress. May 17, 2001. Archived from the original on December 15, 2012.
  224. ^ Broder, David S. (February 18, 2009). "President Obama shouldn't give up on bipartisanship". The Seattle Times. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  225. ^ "Senate Vote on the Motion to Waive Rule XXVIII Re: Conference Report to Accompany H.R. 3288". Senate.gov. December 11, 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  226. ^ Hall, Kevin G. (May 11, 2011). "Senators call for crackdown on oil speculators". mcclatchydc.com.
  227. ^ "S. 1737 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
  228. ^ Sink, Justin (April 2, 2014). "Obama: Congress has 'clear choice' on minimum wage". The Hill. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  229. ^ Bolton, Alexander (April 8, 2014). "Reid punts on minimum-wage hike". The Hill. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  230. ^ a b c Bolton, Alexander (April 4, 2014). "Centrist Republicans cool to minimum wage hike compromise". The Hill. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  231. ^ "Susan Collins breaks with Republicans on two tax breaks for wealthy". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  232. ^ "Susan Collins doesn't back eliminating estate tax, lowering individual tax rate for wealthy". Washington Examiner. October 31, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  233. ^ "Senate rejects billions in Trump spending cuts as 2 Republicans, including Collins, vote 'no'". Press Herald. June 20, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  234. ^ a b c "Sen. Collins shares the promises she got for tax vote". NBC News. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  235. ^ Mangan, Dan (December 1, 2017). "The senators who saved Obamacare are supporting a bill that could cripple it". CNBC. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  236. ^ a b Hellmann, Jessie (December 4, 2017). "Collins doubles funding ask for ObamaCare bill". TheHill. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  237. ^ "Collins 'let the people of Maine down' with her vote to pass tax bill, protesters say". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  238. ^ "Republicans keep misrepresenting what they did on the debt". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  239. ^ Chait, Jonathan. "The Republican War on Economics". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  240. ^ "US senators oppose closing federal labor relations offices". apnews.com. May 1, 2018.
  241. ^ "On the Nomination (Confirmation Kathleen Laura Kraninger, of Ohio, to be Director of the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection )". Roll Call Vote 115th Congress - 2nd Session. United States Senate. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  242. ^ CNN, Eli Watkins. "These senators crossed the aisle to vote for plans to reopen government". CNN. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  243. ^ Homan, Timothy R. (January 24, 2019). "Six GOP senators vote to end shutdown without wall funding". TheHill. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  244. ^ Montoya-Galvez, Camilo (January 27, 2019). "Collins says shutdown accomplished "absolutely nothing"". CBS News.
  245. ^ "Senator Sinema introduces bill to protect seniors from scams". kvoa.com. June 5, 2019.
  246. ^ "Trump budget negotiators get Republican brushback". Politico. June 11, 2019.
  247. ^ Varnier, Julia (February 13, 2019). "Warner, Thune introduce legislation to address student debt crisis". wtkr.com.
  248. ^ "3 Senators Set To Oppose Tax For Health Bill". New York Times. April 10, 1997.
  249. ^ "Question: On Passage of the Bill (H.R. 2 as Amended): Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009". United State Senate. March 19, 2009.
  250. ^ "Question: On Passage of the Bill (H.R. 3590 as Amended): Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act". United States Senate. December 24, 2009.
  251. ^ "Question: On Passage of the Bill (H.R. 4872 as Amended) (Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010)". United States Senate. March 25, 2010.
  252. ^ "GOP Tries to Stall Bill to Fund Pentagon". Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  253. ^ "Sweeping Health Measure, Backed by Obama, Passes Senate". New York Times. December 7, 2016.
  254. ^ Joe Lawlor (January 10, 2017). "Collins leads effort to slow Senate push to repeal Affordable Care Act". Portland Press Herald.
  255. ^ Susan Cornwell (January 23, 2017). "Republicans propose giving U.S. states option to keep Obamacare". Reuters.
  256. ^ Daniel Marans (January 11, 2017). "Just One GOP Senator Voted To Block Legislation Cutting Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid". The Huffington Post.
  257. ^ Joe Lawlor (March 16, 2017). "Sen. Collins says she can't support House health care plan in current form". Portland Press Herald.
  258. ^ Goldstein, Amy; Post, Washington. "Collins, King won't support Senate bill to replace Obamacare". The Bangor Daily News. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  259. ^ Trunko, Leah DePiero, Matthew. "Lisa Murkowski, Shelley Moore Capito, Susan Collins take heat on Twitter for opposing Senate healthcare bill". Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  260. ^ Kaplan, Thomas; Sullivan, Eileen (July 26, 2017). "Health Care Vote: Senate Rejects Repeal Without Replace". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
  261. ^ Jacobs, Ben; Gambino, Lauren (July 28, 2017). "US Senate rejects bill to repeal Obamacare in huge blow for Trump – live". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
  262. ^ "Senators Collins, Shaheen Urge Medicare to Ensure Coverage for Critical Diabetes Therapies". wagmtv.com. August 31, 2017.
  263. ^ "GOP Senator Susan Collins urges Trump to back effort to resume health subsidy". New York Daily News. October 16, 2017.
  264. ^ "Sen. Collins says she will vote 'yes' on Republican tax reform bill". Portland Press Herald. December 18, 2017. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  265. ^ "Senate Democrats look to turn focus back to health care". NBC News. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  266. ^ "Maine Senators applaud draft proposal from FCC that could increase funding for rural healthcare program". wagmtv.com. June 7, 2018.
  267. ^ News, A. B. C. (December 16, 2018). "Susan Collins: Obamacare court decision 'far too sweeping,' law should be maintained". ABC News. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  268. ^ "Capito, Collins introduce bill to increase awareness of Alzheimer's services". riponadvance.com. April 22, 2019.
  269. ^ Anapol, Avery (April 1, 2019). "Collins tells Barr to reverse course, defend ObamaCare". The Hill.
  270. ^ Weixel, Nathaniel. "Bipartisan pair of senators urges Barr to defend ObamaCare in court". The Hill.
  271. ^ "Klobuchar joins bipartisan energy group". Star Tribune. September 12, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  272. ^ "US renewable energy bill faces battle in 2010". Reuters. September 21, 2010.
  273. ^ "Carbon Limits and Energy for America's Renewal (CLEAR) Act". GovTrack.us. December 11, 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  274. ^ a b "The Carbon Limits and Energy for America's Renewal (CLEAR) Act". cantwell.senate.gov. Maria Cantwell. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  275. ^ "Defending the Cantwell/Collins CLEAR Act". Grist.org. December 14, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  276. ^ Henry, Devin (February 2, 2017). "Senate votes to block Obama coal rule". The Hill.
  277. ^ "Senate votes for confirmation of Scott Pruitt as EPA administrator". CBS News. February 17, 2017. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  278. ^ Sullivan, Kate (April 8, 2018). "Sen. Collins: Pruitt 'the wrong person to head the EPA". CNN. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  279. ^ "Susan Collins votes with Dems to reject repeal of environmental regulation". Sun Journal. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  280. ^ Cama, Timothy (September 7, 2017). "Senate panel votes to fund UN climate agency". The Hill.
  281. ^ "Senate confirms Wheeler to lead EPA". The Hill. February 28, 2019.
  282. ^ "Collins among senators defending mercury emissions standards". AP News. March 20, 2019.
  283. ^ "Senate blocks Green New Deal". The Hill. March 26, 2019.
  284. ^ Beitsch, Rebecca (April 10, 2019). "Bipartisan senators offer bill to expand electric vehicle tax credit". The Hill.
  285. ^ "Wyden, Merkley bill would allow use of federal biomass". ktvz.com.
  286. ^ Voegele, Erin (June 13, 2019). "Bill aims to extend MLPs to bioenergy, biofuel projects". biomassmagazine.com.
  287. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 113th Congress – 1st Session". Legislation & Records. US Senate. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
  288. ^ "Susan Collins on Gun Control". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  289. ^ "Where the Senate stands on guns — in one chart". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  290. ^ Gaudiano, Nicole (March 5, 2018). "School safety bill introduced by bipartisan senators in response to Florida shooting". wfmynews2.com.
  291. ^ "Collins-backed push to keep criminals from guns progresses". seacoastonline.com. March 10, 2018.
  292. ^ "Senators introduce bill to block terrorists from buying guns". The Hill. February 27, 2018.
  293. ^ Strode, Tom (June 24, 2004). "Senate votes 99-1 to increase indecency fines". bpnews.net.
  294. ^ a b Cox, Ramsey; Bolton, Alexander (April 9, 2014). "Senate GOP blocks paycheck bill". The Hill. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  295. ^ Wheeler, Lydia (September 9, 2016). "Senators unveil bill to help small businesses offer retirement plans". The Hill.
  296. ^ Collins, Steve. "Despite committee vote, Collins says she has not made up mind on Betsy DeVos". Sun Journal (Lewiston, Maine). Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  297. ^ Martinson, Erica. "Murkowski on DeVos: 'This nomination is very difficult for me'". Alaska Dispatch News. Alaska Dispatch Publishing. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  298. ^ "Senator Collins Announces She Will Vote Against the Confirmation of Betsy DeVos to be Secretary of Education". collins.senate.gov (Press release). Washington, DC. February 1, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  299. ^ Strauss, Valerie (January 31, 2017). "Two Republican senators say they aren't committed to voting for Betsy DeVos on Senate floor". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  300. ^ Berman, Russell. "Will the Senate Block Betsy DeVos?". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  301. ^ Cowan, Richard. "Vice President Mike Pence breaks Senate tie to confirm Betsy DeVos as US education secretary". Reuters.com. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  302. ^ Zapotosky, Matt & Sari Horwitz, "Collins introduces Trump's AG pick in confirmation hearing", The Washington Post via Bangor Daily News, January 10, 2017.
  303. ^ a b "Republican Sen. Susan Collins is calling on the FCC to cancel the net neutrality vote". Business Insider. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  304. ^ Neidig, Harper. "GOP senator offers his own net neutrality bill". The Hill. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  305. ^ CNN, Ted Barrett and Daniella Diaz,. "Senate passes bill to repealing changes to net neutrality rules". CNN. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  306. ^ "Senate Democrats score net neutrality win in bid for midterm momentum". POLITICO. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  307. ^ "Senators push for PTSD recognition". Dunn County Herald. June 14, 2019.
  308. ^ Ripon Advance News Service (January 12, 2015). "Wicker backs Collins bill redefining full-time work week". RiponAdvance.com. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  309. ^ "Questions and Answers on Employer Shared Responsibility Provisions Under the Affordable Care Act". IRS.gov. Internal Revenue Service. January 18, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  310. ^ a b Ripon Advance Reports (September 3, 2013). "Collins fights for 40 hour work week". RiponAdvance.com. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  311. ^ Lawlor, Joe. "Sen. Collins calls for $100 million federal response to fight tick-borne diseases". Press Herald.
  312. ^ "Members". Afterschool Alliance. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  313. ^ "Senator Collins Receives Congressional Sea Services Award". collins.senate.gov. September 25, 2012. Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  314. ^ "Collins to get U.S. Chamber award, speak in Waterville Tuesday". Kennebec Journal. June 19, 2013. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
  315. ^ "Senator Collins Receives "Legislator of the Year Award" from Congressional Fire Services Institute". Susan Collins United States Senator for Maine.
  316. ^ "U.S. Senator Susan Collins to Receive Corporation for Public Broadcasting Thought Leader Award". Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  317. ^ "The Best and Worst Attendance Records in the Senate". NationalJournal. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  318. ^ "47th Annual Awards Dinner Honoring Senators Susan Collins and Joe Manchin". Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress.
  319. ^ Watters, Susan (March 26, 2014). "Gucci and Elle Honor Women in Washington Power List". WWD. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  320. ^ "Sen. Susan Collins receives prestigious veterans award". Portland Press Herald. March 1, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  321. ^ "Visionary educator Geoffrey Canada to deliver 2017 Commencement address, joining honorands Sen. Susan Collins, Wanda Corn, and Patrick Dempsey". Bates.edu. April 13, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  322. ^ < https://www.opensecrets.org/members-of-congress/summary?cid=N00000491
  323. ^ "Susan Collins and Thomas Daffron". The New York Times. August 12, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  324. ^ "Susan Collins weds longtime friend in small Caribou ceremony". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  325. ^ "Members of Congress: Religious Affiliations | Pew Research Center". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. January 5, 2015. Retrieved October 11, 2018.

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
John McKernan
Republican nominee for Governor of Maine
1994
Succeeded by
Jim Longley
Preceded by
Bill Cohen
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Maine
( Class 2)

1996, 2002, 2008, 2014
Most recent
Preceded by
Jennifer Dunn
Steve Largent
Response to the State of the Union address
2000
Served alongside: Bill Frist
Succeeded by
Tom Daschle
Dick Gephardt
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Bill Cohen
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Maine
1997–present
Served alongside: Olympia Snowe, Angus King
Incumbent
Preceded by
Joe Lieberman
Chair of the Senate Homeland Security Committee
2003–2007
Succeeded by
Joe Lieberman
Ranking Member of the Senate Homeland Security Committee
2007–2015
Succeeded by
Tom Carper
Preceded by
Bob Corker
Ranking Member of the Senate Aging Committee
2013–2015
Succeeded by
Claire McCaskill
Preceded by
Bill Nelson
Chair of the Senate Aging Committee
2015–present
Incumbent
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Jack Reed
United States Senators by seniority
12th
Succeeded by
Mike Enzi