|Sumter County, Alabama|
Sumter County Courthouse in Livingston
Location in the U.S. state of Alabama
Alabama's location in the U.S.
|Founded||December 18, 1832 |
|Named for||Thomas Sumter|
|• Total||913 sq mi (2,365 km2)|
|• Land||904 sq mi (2,341 km2)|
|• Water||9.4 sq mi (24 km2), 1.0%|
|• ( 2017)||12,687|
|• Density||15/sq mi (6/km2)|
|Time zone||Central: UTC−6/ −5|
Sumter County is a county of the U.S. state of Alabama.  As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,763.  Its county seat is Livingston.  Its name is in honor of General Thomas Sumter of South Carolina. 
Sumter County was established on December 18, 1832. From 1797 to 1832, Sumter County was part of the Choctaw Nation, which was made up of four main villages.  The first settlers in Sumter County were French explorers who had come north from Mobile. They built and settled at Fort Tombecbee, near the modern-day town of Epes. In 1830, with the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, the Choctaw Indians ceded the land that is now Sumter County to the government.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 913 square miles (2,360 km2), of which 904 square miles (2,340 km2) is land and 9.4 square miles (24 km2) (1.0%) is water.  It is intersected by the Noxubee River. 
- Interstate 20
- Interstate 59
- U.S. Route 11
- U.S. Route 80
- State Route 17
- State Route 28
- State Route 39
- State Route 116
- Pickens County (north)
- Greene County (northeast)
- Marengo County (southeast)
- Choctaw County (south)
- Lauderdale County, Mississippi (southwest)
- Kemper County, Mississippi (west)
- Noxubee County, Mississippi (northwest)
|U.S. Decennial Census
1790–1960  1900–1990 
1990–2000  2010–2017 
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,763 people residing in the county. 75.0% were Black or African American, 24.2% White, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% of some other race and 0.3% of two or more races. 0.6% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).
As of the census  of 2000, there were 14,798 people, 5,708 households, and 3,664 families residing in the county. The population density was 16 people per square mile (6/km2). There were 6,953 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile (3/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 25.92% White, 73.17% Black or African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, and 0.52% from two or more races. Nearly 1.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,708 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.70% were married couples living together, 23.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.80% were non-families. Nearly 31.20% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55, and the average family size was 3.26.
In the county, the population was spread out with 29.10% under the age of 18, 12.20% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 19.50% from 45 to 64, and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.20 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $18,911, and the median income for a family was $23,176. Males had a median income of $28,059 versus $17,574 for females. The per capita income for the county was $11,491. About 32.90% of families and 38.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 47.40% of those under age 18 and 36.10% of those age 65 or over.
Sumter County is part of the so-called Black Belt region of central Alabama. The region has suffered significant economic depression in recent years. But in April 2008, United States Steel announced plans to build at $150 million alloy plant near the community of Epes about 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The plant will require 250 workers to construct in a town of only 206. Up to 235 full-time jobs will be created when completed with jobs paying about $50 thousand annually. The state of Alabama offered $28 million in incentives to get the plant located in Sumter County.  The plant will make use of a new technology that produces a carbon alloy for use in steel making at the U.S. Steel plant in Fairfield, Alabama near Birmingham.  At the time of the announcement, the unemployment rate in Sumter County was 6.1 percent. 
From 2009 to 2013, the county had a median household income of just $22,186 compared to a state figure of $45,253 making it the poorest county in the state.  By 2015, Sumter County remained the poorest county in Alabama, with a median household income of $19,501 in comparison to the state median household income of $43,623. 
Sumter has long been solidly Democratic, having voted for a Republican only once this past century.
Sumter County is home to the University of West Alabama Outdoor Sculpture Exhibition and the Coleman Center for the Arts. The historic Alamuchee-Bellamy Covered Bridge is also located on the University of West Alabama campus.
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Sumter County, Alabama
- Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Sumter County, Alabama
- "ACES Winston County Office" (links/history), Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES), 2007, webpage: ACES-Sumter.
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
- Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). " Sumter, the name of four counties in the United States. IV. A W. county of Alabama". The American Cyclopædia.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
- Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 24, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- Johnson, Bob (2008-04-19). "U.S. Steel announces plant for Alabama's Black Belt region". Press-Register (Mobile). pp. 6B.
- Kent, Dawn. "U.S. Steel to invest in Alabama Black Belt with first-of-its-kind coke alternative plant". The Birmingham News. The Birmingham News. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
- Frohlich, Thomas C. (7 January 2015). "The Poorest County in Each State". 247wallst.com. 24/7 Wall St., LLC. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- Stebbins, Samuel; Frohlich, Thomas C.; Sauter, Michael B. (5 January 2017). "The Poorest County in Every State". 247wallst.com. 24/7 Wall St., LLC. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved November 21, 2016.
- 2007 map of Sumter County showing roads and settlements by University of Alabama Department of Geography.