List of U.S. states' Poets Laureate Article

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Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Natasha Trethewey is the former U.S. Poet Laureate (2012–2014) and the Poet Laureate of Mississippi (2012–2016).

Many of the states in the United States have established the post of poet laureate to which a prominent poet residing in the respective state is appointed. The responsibilities of the state poets laureate are similar to those of the Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and the equivalent Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress in the United States, to make public appearances at poetry readings or literary events, and to promote awareness of poetry within their geographical region.

As of 2017, 46 states and the District of Columbia have poets laureate, although a few are presently vacant. The terms can vary in length from state to state. Most states appoint a poet laureate for a one- or two-year term, fewer to several years, and some states appoint a poet to a lifetime tenure. Two states, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, previously had such posts but abolished them in 2003. Michigan had a single poet laureate from 1952–1959. There has never been an official State Poet Laureate in Massachusetts or New Mexico. While Idaho does not have a post of "poet laureate", per se, the state appoints a "Writer in Residence", which can be held by a novelist or poet. The current occupant of the Idahoan post is novelist and short-story writer Diane Raptosh.

List of state poets laureate

The following lists of state poets laureate below are divided by state. The name of the current poet laureate is in bold.


Alabama has had an official poet laureate since 1930. The Alabama Writer's Conclave, described as "a voluntary organization of Alabama historians, playwrights, fiction writers, poets, and newspaper writers" first recommended Samuel Minturn Peck to Governor Bibb Graves. The state legislature approved a bill to create the office on March 5, 1931. [1] [2] After the death of Dr. Peck, the position was not filled and was revived in 1954 due to the efforts Mary B. Ward, the president of the Alabama Writer's Conclave, who became the state's second laureate. [2]

At present, a poet selected must have been Alabama residents for at least 15 years prior to the appointment, and when commissioned by the governor, is appointed to serve one four-year term. [2] Before 1983, neither the organization or the state statute provided for a specific term length. [2] The Alabama Writers' Conclave will recommend candidate who is elected by the organization's membership at its annual meeting. [2] The governor subsequently commissions the candidate. [2] A candidate for poet laureate need not be a member of the Alabama Writers' Conclave to be nominated or selected. [2]

# Poet laureate Term began Term ended Appointed by Notes
1 Samuel Minturn Peck
(died 1938)
12 June 1930 3 May 1938 (death) Gov. Bibb Graves [2]
2 Mary B. Ward 21 November 1954 1958 Gov. Gordon Persons [2]
3 Elbert Calvin Henderson
21 December 1959 15 September 1974 (death) Gov. John Patterson [2]
4 William Young Elliott
August 1975 1982 Gov. George Wallace [2]
5 Carl Patrick Morton
1983 1987 Lt. Gov. William Baxley [2]
6 Morton Dennison Prouty, Jr.
(died 1992)
1988 1991 Gov. H. Guy Hunt [2]
7 Ralph Hammond 1992 1995 Gov. H. Guy Hunt [2]
8 Helen Friedman Blackshear
1 January 1995 1999 Gov. Jim Folsom, Jr. [2]
9 Helen Norris 1999 2003 Gov. Don Siegelman [2]
10 Sue Walker August 2003 December 2012 Gov. Bob Riley [2]
11 Andrew Glaze 2013 7 February 2016 (death) Gov. Robert J. Bentley [2]


The current Alaska's State Writer Laureate is Frank Soos. Originally created as the position of Poet Laureate in 1963 (House Resolution 25). The official name was changed in 1996 to recognize and honor all genres of writing. The position is selected by the Alaska State Council on the Arts. [3]

# Poet laureate Term began Term ended Appointed by Notes
1 Margaret Mielke
1963 1965 [4]
2 Oliver Everette 1965 1967 [4]
3 John Haines 1969 [4]
4 Ruben Gaines 1973 [4]
5 Sheila Nickerson 1977 [4]
6 Richard Dauenhauer 1981 [4]
7 Joanne Townsend 1988 1994 [4] [5]
8 Tom Sexton 1995 [4]
9 Richard Nelson 2000 2002 [4]
10 Anne Hanley 2002 2004 [4]
11 Jerah Chadwick 2004 September 2006 [4]
12 John Straley October 2006 September 2008 [4]
13 Nancy Lord 1 October 2008 September 2010 [4]
14 Peggy Shumaker 1 October 2010 September 2012 [4]
15 Nora Marks Dauenhauer 10 October 2012 2014 [4]
16 Frank Soos 29 Jan 2015 [6] Present [4]


The current poet laureate of Arizona is Alberto Rios.


Charles T. Davis was the first until his death on December 21, 1945. The position was vacant from 1946 until 1953, when Rosa Zagnoni Marinoni was appointed. Upon Marinoni’s death in 1970, Governor Winthrop Rockefeller named Ercil Brown interim laureate. When legislature reconvened, three candidates had emerged: Anna Nash Yarborough, Lily Peter, and Brown. The legislature declined to decide and instead in 1971 passed Act 90, which assigned the responsibility to the governor. Governor Dale Bumpers announced Lily Peter’s appointment on October 6, 1971. Following Peter’s death, Verna Lee Hinegardner was appointed by Governor Bill Clinton on October 4, 1991, serving until 2003. In 2003, Governor Mike Huckabee appointed Peggy Vining. Before this time, the poet laureateship had been considered a life appointment and publicity ensued but in the end the appointment stood. Peggy Vining served as Poet Laureate from 2003 until her death in 2017. The Legislature changed the term for Arkansas Poet Laureate during 2017 to 4 years. The current Poet Laureate of Arkansas is Jo McDougall of Little Rock, Arkansas.


The current poet laureate is Dana Gioia, appointed in 2015. William Gregorian is the poet laureate of Slack, self-appointed in 2017.


The current poet laureate of Colorado is David Mason, appointed in 2010 by Governor Ritter [7]


The current poet laureate of Connecticut is Rennie McQulkin, appointed in 2016 and serving until 2021. [8]

Previous Connecticut poets laureate include Dick Allen, John Hollander, Marilyn Nelson, Leo Connelan, and James Merrill.


# Poet laureate Term Appointed by Notes
1 Edna Deemer Leach 1947–49 Bacon [9]
2 Jeannette Slocum Edwards 1950–53 Carvel [9]
3 Frances Shannon Flowers (McNeal) 1954 Boggs [9]
4 Katherine King Johnson 1955 Boggs [9]
5 David Hudson 1956–60 Boggs [9]
6 Alison Kimball Bradford 1961 Buckson [9]
7 Margaret Eleanor Weaver 1962 Carvel [9]
8 Mother Aloysius Peach 1963–64 Carvel [9]
9 Percival R. Roberts III 1965–66 Terry [9]
10 Joyce Carlson 1967–68 Terry [9]
11 Antonia Bissell Laird 1969–70 Peterson [9]
12 Harry Eisenberg 1971 Peterson [9]
13 David Hudson 1975–76 Tribbitt [9]
14 e. j. lanyon 1979–81 du Pont [9]
15 Fleda Brown 2001–07 Minner [9]
16 JoAnn Balingit 2008– Minner [9]

The current poet laureate of Delaware is JoAnn Balingit, appointed in 2008.

District of Columbia

The nation's capital, the District of Columbia (better known as Washington, DC, created the position of Poet Laureate of the District of Columbia in 1984 during the mayoralty of Marion Barry. [10] The position is filled by appointment from the mayor of the district the DC Commission on the Arts and Humanities. [10] Only two poet laureates have been appointed since the creation of the position.

# Poet laureate Term began Term ended Appointed by Notes
1 Sterling A. Brown
1984 1989 (death) Mayor Marion Barry [10]
2 Dolores Kendrick 14 May 1999 present Anthony A. Williams [10]


Franklin L. Wood was appointed in 1927 and died soon afterwards. Vivian Laramore Rader was appointed in 1931 and served until her death in 1975. Edmund Skellings was appointed in 1980. A stroke that impaired his speech and limited his ability to do all of his official duties. He died August 19, 2012, leaving the post vacant. [11] Peter Meinke currently holds this position and was appointed on June 15, 2015. [12]


The current poet laureate of Georgia is Judson Mitcham, appointed in 2012,


The current poet laureate of Hawaii is Kealoha, appointed in 2012 by Governor Neil Abercrombie. [13]


Illinois appointed its first poet laureate, Howard Austin, in 1936. It was a lifetime appointment. Following Austin for the rest of their lifetimes was Carl Sandburg (1962–1967), then Gwendolyn Brooks (1968–2000). The post is now a four-year renewable award. [14] The Illinois poet laureate since 2003 has been Kevin Stein. [15]


Indiana has the unique situation of having two posts: an official "state poet laureate", created in 2005, that is occupied by George Kalamaras, and the unofficial post of "premier poet" created in 1929 occupied by Cecil Tresslar.


The current poet laureate of Iowa is Mary Swander, appointed in 2009.


The current poet laureate of Kansas is Kevin Rabas, serving from 2017 to 2019.


From the creation of the poet laureate position in 1926 until 1990, the state legislature appointed poets to lifetime terms as poets laureate. [16] Several poets held the position at the same time. Since 1990, Kentucky state law provides for the appointment of a poet laureate or writer laureate to one two-year term selected by the governor. [17] The statute, Kentucky Revised Statutes Section 153.600 provides for two duties: (1) "Make a presentation on Kentucky Writers' Day" and (2) "Act as a writing consultant to the State Department of Education and Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives". [17] The position comes without salary, although the laureate "may be reimbursed for expenses". [17] According to the Kentucky Arts Council, the Kentucky poet laureate is charged with "promoting the literary arts and leading the state in literary activities, including Kentucky Writers’ Day"—a holiday held on 24 April "to commemorate the birthday of Kentuckian Robert Penn Warren, the first poet laureate of the United States". [16] The poet laureate is inducted on this date at the Writers' Day festivities every other year. [16]

# Poet laureate Term began Term ended Appointed by Notes
1 James Thomas "Cotton" Noe March 1926 9 November 1953 (death) legislature [16] [18]
2 Edward G. Hill 1 October 1928 8 November 1937 (death) legislature [16] [18]
3 Louise Scott Phillips 1945 1983 (death) legislature [16] [18]
4 Edwin Carlisle Litsey 1954 3 February 1970 (death) legislature [16] [18]
5 Jesse Hilton Stuart 1954 1984 (death) legislature [16] [18]
6 Lowell Allen Williams 1956 legislature [16] [18]
7 Lillie D. Chaffin 1974 legislature [16] [18]
8 Tom Mobley 1976 legislature [16] [18]
9 Agnes O'Rear 7 March 1978 1990 (death) legislature [16] [18]
10 Clarence "Soc" Clay 1984 legislature [16] [18]
11 Lee Pennington 1984 legislature [16] [18]
12 Paul Salyers 1984 legislature [16] [18]
13 Dale Faughn 1986 legislature [16] [18]
14 Jim Wayne Miller 1986 legislature [16] [18]
15 Henry E. Pilkenton 1986 legislature [16] [18]
16 James H. Patton, Jr. 1990 legislature [16] [18]
17 James Still 1995 1996 [16] [18]
18 Joy Bale Boone 1997 1998 [16] [18]
19 Richard Taylor 1999 2000 [16] [18]
20 James Baker Hall 2001 2002 [16] [18]
21 Joe Survant 2003 2004 [16] [18]
22 Sena Jeter Naslund 2005 2006 [16] [18]
23 Jane Gentry Vance 2007 2008 [16] [18]
24 Gurney Norman 2009 2010 [16] [18]
25 Maureen Morehead 2011 2012 [16] [18]
26 Frank X Walker January 2013 2014 [16] [18]

[19] [20]

27 George Ella Lyon 2015 2016 [16] [18]
28 Frederick Smock May 1, 2017


The current poet laureate of Louisiana is Ava Leavell Haymon, appointed for the 2013 – 2015 two-year term. Julie Kane served as poet laureate from 2011 – 2013 for a two-year term.


The current poet laureate of Maine is Wesley McNair, appointed in 2011 to a five-year term ending in 2016.


The current poet laureate of Maryland is Stanley Plumly, appointed in 2009.


Massachusetts has no poet laureate.


Edgar A. Guest was the first and only Michigan Poet Laureate, a title he held from 1952 until his death in 1959.


# Poet laureate Term began Term ended Appointed by Notes
1 Margarette Ball Dickson 1934 21 July 1963 Poet Laureates League (Washington, DC) [21]
2 Laurene Tibbetts-Larson 14 May 1974 6 December 1999 unofficial election [21]
3 Robert Bly 27 February 2008 22 August 2011 Gov. Tim Pawlenty [21]
4 Joyce Sutphen 23 August 2011 present Gov. Tim Pawlenty [21]


The current poet laureate of Mississippi is Beth Ann Fennelly.

# Poet laureate Term began Term ended Appointed by Notes
1 Maude Willard Leet Prenshaw 1963 1971 (death) Gov. Ross Barnett [22]
2 Louise Moss Montgomery 1973 January 1978 (death) Gov. William Waller [22]
3 Winifred Hamrick Farrar 31 July 1978 6 November 2010 (death) Gov. Cliff Finch [22]
4 Natasha Trethewey January 2012 2016 Gov. Haley Barbour [22]
5 Beth Ann Fennelly August 2016 present Gov. Phil Bryant [23]


Missouri's poet laureate was established by an executive order from the governor. The order outlined a post with a two-year term, to be filled by "a published poet, a resident of Missouri, be active in the poetry community, and be willing and able to promote poetry in the state of Missouri". [24] The order requires that the appointee "promote the arts in Missouri by making public appearances at public libraries and schools across the state" and "compose an original poem in honor of Missouri" [24] Missouri's poet laureate serves without compensation. [25]

# Poet laureate Term began Term ended Appointed by Notes
1 Walter Bargen 2008 2010 Gov. Jeremiah W. "Jay" Nixon [26]
2 David Clewell 3 March 2010 31 January 2012 Gov. Jeremiah W. "Jay" Nixon [25]
3 William Trowbridge 13 April 2012 31 January 2014 Gov. Jeremiah W. "Jay" Nixon [27] [28]


The current poet laureate of Montana is Michael Earl Craig appointed in October 2015.


The current Nebraska State Poet is Twyla Hansen. John Neihardt, who was appointed Nebraska poet laureate in 1921, retains that title "in perpetuity". [29]


This post is currently vacant. Mildred Breedlove (1904–1994) was named poet laureate in 1957, but disputed with officials over a commissioned work. Norman Kaye, a songwriter, was appointed in the 1960s although he had (and has) not published any poetry. He was named "laureate emeritus" in 2007 but no replacement was announced.

New Hampshire

The current poet laureate of New Hampshire is Alice Fogel, appointed Nov. 6, 2013.

New Jersey

Gerald Stern, shown here in 2011, was New Jersey's first poet laureate.

New Jersey no longer has a poet laureate position. It existed for less than four years and was abolished by the legislature effective 2 July 2003.

The state legislature created in 1999 the post as part of a biennial award called the New Jersey William Carlos Williams Citation of Merit. [30] The 1999 act, codified as N.J.S.A. 52:16A-26.9, provided for a panel of four poets from New Jersey selected by the New Jersey State Council on the Arts the New Jersey Council for the Humanities would convene to select candidates for the position for the consideration of the state's governor. [30] An incumbent poet laureate would be the fifth member of the panel that selected his successor. [30] The governor alone would appoint the poet laureate by presenting him or her with the New Jersey William Carlos Williams Citation of Merit. [30] The poet laureate, serving for a two-year term, was expected to "engage in activities to promote and encourage poetry within the State" and "give no fewer than two public readings within the State each year". [30]

The state legislature and governor abolished the post after the second poet laureate, Amiri Baraka incited a public controversy soon after his appointment with a public reading of his poem "Somebody Blew Up America" [31] [32] The poem was controversial and met with harsh criticism by literary critics, politicians, and the public. The poem was highly critical of racism in America, includes angry depictions of public figures, claimed Israel was involved in the World Trade Center attacks, and supported the theory that the United States government knew about the 9/11 attacks in advance. Critics accused Baraka of racism and anti-Semitism. [32] Baraka refused to resign, and because the statute did not allow the governor to remove him from the post, the state legislature and governor enacted legislation to abolish the position on 2 July 2003. [33]

# Poet laureate Term began Term ended Appointed by Notes
1 Gerald Stern
(b. 1925)
17 April 2000 July 2002 Gov. Christine Todd Whitman [34]
2 Amiri Baraka
28 August 2002 2 July 2003 (post abolished) Gov. James E. McGreevey [35] [36] [37]

New Mexico

New Mexico does not have a poet laureate position, [38] although as of 2013 a movement is underway to create such a position. [39] Several New Mexico cities, such as Albuquerque, [40] have appointed a laureate.

New York

The current New York State poet is Yusef Komunyakaa, appointed in 2014 to a two-year term ending in 2016.

The current poet laureate emeritus of New York State is Joseph Tusiani, appointed in 2014 to a two-year term ending in 2016.

North Carolina

The current poet laureate of North Carolina is Shelby Stephenson, appointed to a two-year term in December 2014 [41]

North Dakota

The current poet laureate of North Dakota is Larry Woiwode, appointed in 1995.


The current Ohio Poet Laureate is Dave Lucas, appointed to a two-year term beginning January 1, 2018. [42]


Jeanetta Calhoun Mish [43]is the 2017–2018 Poet Laureate of Oklahoma. Oklahoma has appointed poets laureate since 1923.


The current poet laureate of Oregon is Kim Stafford, appointed in 2018.


Pennsylvania appointed one poet, Samuel John Hazo, in 1993. He held the position for ten years before it was eliminated. [44]

Rhode Island

The current poet laureate of Rhode Island is Tina Cane [45], appointed in 2016.

South Carolina

The current poet laureate of South Carolina, generally a lifetime position, is Marjory Heath Wentworth appointed in 2003 by Governor Mark Sanford pursuant to SC Code, Sec. 1-3-230 [46]

South Dakota

The current poet laureate of South Dakota is Lee Ann Roripaugh, appointed in 2015.


The current poet laureate of Tennessee is Margaret Britton Vaughn, appointed in 1999.


The current poet laureate of Texas is Carol Coffee Reposa, appointed in 2018.


The current poet laureate of Utah is Paisley Rekdal, appointed in 2017.


The current poet laureate of Vermont is Chard deNiord, appointed in 2015.


The current poet laureate of is Virginia is Ron Smith, appointed in 2014 to a two-year term.


The current poet laureate of Washington is Tod Marshall, appointed in 2016 to a two-year term. Mr. Marshall is an English Professor at Gonzaga University. [47]

West Virginia

The current poet laureate of West Virginia is Marc Harshman, appointed in 2012. [48]


The current poet laureate of Wisconsin is Karla Huston appointed in 2017–2018. Past Poet Laureates of Wisconsin include: Kimberly Blaeser appointed in 2015–2016, Max Garland appointed in 2013–2014, Bruce Dethlefsen appointed in 2011–2012, Marilyn Taylor appointed in 2009–2010, Denise Sweet appointed in 2005–2008, and Ellen Kort appointed in 2001–2004. She was the first Poet Laureate of Wisconsin.



The current poet laureate of Wyoming is Patricia Frolander appointed in 2011.

Confederate States of America

  • Margaret Junkin Preston was spoken of widely as "Poet Laureate of the Confederacy". There is no evidence that it was a formal award or nomination.

See also


  1. ^ "Act No. 92", Acts of Alabama (1931).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Alabama Department of Archives and History. "Official Symbols and Emblems of Alabama: Poets Laureate of Alabama". Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  3. ^ Monday Muse:Alaska's State Writer Laureate
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Library of Congress. U.S. State Poets Laureate: Alaska. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  5. ^ Deb:Have you spotted these writers
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Press release of Gov. Ritter
  8. ^ [2]; CCT Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism; retrieved on December 27, 2010
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Collecting Delaware Books: Delaware's Poets Laureate. [3]. Retrieved 24 Feb 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d DC Commission on the Arts and Humanities. "History of the Office of the Poet Laureate". Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  11. ^ Florida Needs a Poet Laureate, But With Term Limits This Time by Olivia B. Waxman October 24, 2013 Time
  12. ^
  13. ^ [4]; Governor Abercrombie Proclaims Kealoha ‘Hawai'i Poet Laureate’
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Kentucky Arts Council. "Kentucky Poet Laureate History". Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  17. ^ a b c Commonwealth of Kentucky. 153.600 Appointment of Kentucky state poet laureate or writer laureate., Kentucky Revised Statutes. (1990 Ky. Acts ch.65, sec.1, effective July 13, 1990). Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Library of Congress. U.S. State Poets Laureate: Kentucky. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  19. ^ "Frank X Walker new Ky. poet laureate" Lexington Herald-Leader, 14 February 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  20. ^ Kramer, Elizabeth. "Frank X Walker named Kentucky's first African-American poet laureate", The Courier-Journal, 14 February 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  21. ^ a b c d Library of Congress. U.S. State Poets Laureate: Minnesota. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  22. ^ a b c d Library of Congress. U.S. State Poets Laureate: Mississippi. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  23. ^ Schnugg, Alyssa (10 August 2016). "Oxford's Beth Ann Fennelly named Mississippi poet laureate". Oxford Eagle. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  24. ^ a b Office of Missouri Governor Jay Nixon. "Executive Order 09-28", 24 December 2009. According to Order 09-28, it supersedes Executive Order 08-01.
  25. ^ a b Office of Missouri Governor Jay Nixon. "Gov. Nixon appoints David Clewell Poet Laureate of Missouri" Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. (press release), 3 March 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  26. ^ Office of Missouri Governor Jay Nixon. "Gov. Nixon establishes procedure for selecting new poet laureate, encourages Missourians to submit nominations" (press release), 24 December 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  27. ^ Office of Missouri Governor Jay Nixon. "Gov. Nixon appoints William Trowbridge as Missouri's new Poet Laureate" (press release), 13 April 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  28. ^ Henderson, Jane, "William Trowbridge is new Missouri poet laureate", 13 April 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  29. ^ "Lincoln's Twyla Hansen named Nebraska state poet". Omaha World Herald. 2013-11-14. Archived from the original on 2013-12-10. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  30. ^ a b c d e State of New Jersey. P.L. 1999, c. 228 "An Act establishing the New Jersey William Carlos Williams Citation of Merit, supplementing Title 52 of the Revised Statutes and making an appropriation" (1999). Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  31. ^ Baraka, Amiri (a.k.a. LeRoi Jones). Somebody Blew up America and Other Poems. (Philipsburg, St. Martin, DWI: House of Nehesi), 2003.
  32. ^ a b Pearce, Jeremy. "When Poetry Seems to Matter", The New York Times, 9 February 2003. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  33. ^ New Jersey State Legislature. "An Act concerning the State poet laureate and repealing P.L.1999, c.228". from Laws of the State of New Jersey (P.L.2003, c.123). Approved 2 July 2003. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  34. ^ John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. Fellows: Gerald Stern, 1980 – US & Canada Competition Creative Arts – Poetry. Biography Archived 2011-06-22 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  35. ^ Mansnerus, Laura. "McGreevey Could Fire Poet Under Proposed Legislation", The New York Times, 8 October 2002. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  36. ^ Purdy, Matthew. "New Jersey Laureate Refuses to Resign Over Poem", The New York Times, 28 September 2002. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  37. ^ Sullivan, Al. "McGreevey hails Baraka as a great artist", Hudson Reporter, 10 January 2014. Note: The original article stated "I’ve always had great personal affected (sic) for him"—rendered here under the assumption that "affected" was a typographical error and the intended word was "affection". Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  38. ^ [5]
  39. ^ [6]
  40. ^ [7]
  41. ^ McCrory, Pat (22 December 2014). "Shelby Stephenson Named Port Laureate of North Carolina". Office of the Governor of North Carolina. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  42. ^ "Ohio Poet Laureate". Retrieved 2017-04-20.
  43. ^
  44. ^ [8]
  45. ^ "Rhode Island State Poet". RI State Council on the Arts. November 3, 2016. Retrieved 2018-02-02.
  46. ^ State of South Carolina. "Section 1-3-230. Appointment of poet laureate", Title 1 – Administration of the Government, Chapter 3, Governor and Lieutenant Governor, Article 1, General Provisions Affecting Governor, South Carolina Code of Laws, Unannotated, Current through the end of the 2012 Session. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  47. ^ Kathleen Flenniken Named Washington State Poet Laureate for 2012–14 Archived 2012-08-09 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on March 2, 2012
  48. ^ [9]. Retrieved on October 22, 2013
  49. ^

External links