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Springfield, Ohio Information (Place with Zip Code(s))

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Springfield,_Ohio

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Springfield, Ohio
City of Springfield
Skyline view of downtown Springfield showing the EF Hutton Tower, Clark County Heritage Center, Tecumseh Building, and the greater area.
Skyline view of downtown Springfield showing the EF Hutton Tower, Clark County Heritage Center, Tecumseh Building, and the greater area.
Official seal of Springfield, Ohio
Seal
Nickname(s): 
The Home City, The Rose City (City of Roses), The Champion City, The Field
Location within the state of Ohio
Location within the state of Ohio
Location of Springfield in Clark County
Location of Springfield in Clark County
Coordinates: 39°55′37″N 83°48′15″W / 39.92694°N 83.80417°W / 39.92694; -83.80417
SPRINGFIELD OHIO Latitude and Longitude:

39°55′37″N 83°48′15″W / 39.92694°N 83.80417°W / 39.92694; -83.80417
CountryUnited States
State Ohio
County Clark
Founded1801
Incorporated1827 (village)
1850 (city)
Government
 •  MayorWarren R. Copeland (D)
Area
 •  City 25.50 sq mi (66.04 km2)
 • Land25.29 sq mi (65.50 km2)
 • Water0.21 sq mi (0.54 km2)
Elevation
978 ft (298 m)
Population
 ( 2010) [2]
 •  City60,608
 • Estimate 
(2018 [3])
59,282
 • Density2,396.5/sq mi (925.3/km2)
 •  Metro
138,333
Time zone UTC−5 ( EST)
 • Summer ( DST) UTC−4 ( EDT)
ZIP Codes
45501–45506
Area code(s) 937
FIPS code39-74118 [4]
GNIS feature ID1065370 [5]
Website www.ci.springfield.oh.us

Springfield is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Clark County. [6] The municipality is located in west central Ohio and is situated on the Mad River, Buck Creek, and Beaver Creek, approximately 45 miles (72 km) west of Columbus and 25 miles (40 km) northeast of Dayton. Springfield is home to Wittenberg University, a liberal arts college.

As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 60,608, [7] The Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 138,333 residents. [8] and the Dayton-Springfield-Greenville, OH Combined Statistical Area had 1,072,891 residents. [9] The Little Miami Scenic Trail, a paved rail-trail which is almost 80 miles long, goes from the Buck Creek Scenic Trail head in Springfield south to Newtown, Ohio (near Cincinnati), and is popular with hikers and cyclists.

In 1983, Newsweek featured Springfield in its 50th-anniversary issue, entitled, "The American Dream." It chronicled the impact of the past 50 years on five local families. In 2004, Springfield was chosen as an " All-America City." In the 2010s, Springfield was one of the lowest-ranking cities in the state and nation for indicators such as health, happiness, and well-being. [10] [11] [12] [13]

History

The villages of Peckuwe and Piqua were located near today's Springfield, Ohio, at 39° 54.5′ N, 83° 54.68′ W, and 39° 54.501′ N, 83° 54.682′ W respectively, and were home to the Peckuwe and Kispoko Divisions of the Shawnee Tribe until the Battle of Piqua, August 8, 1780. The Piqua Sept of Ohio Shawnee Tribe has placed a traditional cedar pole in commemoration, located "on the southern edge of the George Rogers Clark Historical Park, in the lowlands in front of the park's 'Hertzler House'." [14] [15]

Springfield was founded by James Demint, a former teamster from Kentucky, in 1801. When Clark County was created from parts of Champaign, Madison, and Greene counties, Springfield, named for Springfield, Massachusetts—which, at the time, was important for hosting the U.S. Federal Springfield Armory; enduring the Attack on Springfield during King Philip's War in 1675; and Shays' Rebellion in 1787—beat out the village of New Boston as the county seat in 1818 [16] by two votes in the state legislature.

Springfield traces its early growth to the National Road, which ended in Springfield for approximately 10 years as politicians wrangled over the path it would continue. Dayton and Eaton wanted the road to veer south after Springfield, but President Andrew Jackson made the final decision to have the road continue straight west to Richmond, Indiana. [17]

During the mid-and-late 19th century, Springfield was dominated by industrialists including Oliver S. Kelly, Asa S. Bushnell, James Leffel, P. P. Mast, and Benjamin H. Warder. Asa S. Bushnell built the Springfield, Ohio Bushnell Building [18] where the patent attorney to the Wright Brothers, Harry Aubrey Toulmin, Sr., wrote the 1904 patent to cover the invention of the airplane. To promote the products of his agricultural equipment company, P. P. Mast started Farm & Fireside magazine. Mast’s publishing company – Mast, Crowell, and Kirkpatrick – grew to become Crowell-Collier Publishing Company best known for Collier's Weekly. In 1894, The Kelly Springfield Tire Company was founded.

At the turn of the 20th century, Springfield became known as the "Home City." Several lodges including the Masonic Lodge, Knights of Pythias, and Odd Fellows built homes for orphans and aged members of their order. Springfield also became known as "The Champion City," a reference to the Champion Farm Equipment brand manufactured by the Warder, Bushnell & Glessner Company, which was later absorbed into International Harvester in 1902. International remains in Springfield as Navistar International, a producer of medium to large trucks.

In 1902 A.B. Graham, then the superintendent of schools for Springfield Township in Clark County, established a "Boys' and Girls' Agricultural Club." Approximately 85 children from 10 to 15 years of age attended the first meeting on January 15, 1902, in Springfield, Ohio, in the basement of the Clark County Courthouse. This was the start of what would be called the " 4-H Club" within a few years, quickly growing to a nationwide organization. (4-H stands for "Head, Heart, Hands, and Health"). [19] The first "projects" included food preservation, gardening, and elementary agriculture. Today, the Courthouse still bears a large 4H symbol under the flag pole at the front of the building to commemorate its part in founding the organization. The Clark County Fair is the second largest fair in the state (only the Ohio State Fair is larger) in large part to 4H remaining very popular in the area.

On March 7, 1904, over a thousand residents formed a lynch mob, stormed the jail, and removed prisoner Richard Dixon, a black man accused of murdering police officer Charles B. Collis. Richard Dixon was shot to death and then hung from a pole on the corner of Fountain and Main Street, where the mob continued to shoot his lifeless body. The mob then proceeded to burn much of the black area of town. [20] In February 1906, another mob formed and again burned the black section of town known as "the levee". [21] Sixty years later, Springfield was the first city in Ohio to have a black mayor, Robert Henry. [22]

From 1916 to 1926, 10 automobile companies operated in Springfield. Among them: The Bramwell, Brenning, Foos, Frayer-Miller, Kelly Steam, Russell-Springfield, and Westcott. The Westcott, known as the car built to last, was a six-cylinder four-door sedan manufactured by Burton J. Westcott of the Westcott Motor Car Company. Burton and Orpha Westcott however, are better known for having contracted the world-renowned architect Frank Lloyd Wright to design their home in 1908 at 1340 East High Street. The Westcott House, a sprawling two-story stucco and concrete house has all the features of Wright's prairie style including horizontal lines, low-pitched roof, and broad eaves. It is the only Frank Lloyd Wright prairie style house in the state of Ohio. The property was purchased in 2000 by the Frank Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy (Chicago, IL), and as part of a prearranged plan, the house was then sold to a newly formed local Westcott House Foundation. The Westcott House Foundation managed the extensive 5-year, $5.3 million restorations, the house was fully restored to its original glory in October 2005, when it officially opened to the public for guided tours.

International Harvester (now Navistar International), a manufacturer of farm machinery and later trucks, became the leading local industry after Springfield native William Whiteley invented the self-raking reaper and mower, in 1856. It held that position, along with Crowell-Collier Publishing, throughout most of the next century. Crowell-Collier closed its magazines in 1957 and sold its Springfield printing plant. [23]

The decline in manufacturing and other blue-collar industries in the late 20th and early 21st centuries created significant economic and population losses in Springfield. A 27% decline in median income between 1999 and 2014 was the largest of any metropolitan area in the country. [24] Topping out over 82,000 in the 1960 census, the city population was estimated under 60,000 in 2017 [25]. Despite efforts by local politicians and business organizations, an economic recovery enjoyed by larger cities since the Great Recession has not included Springfield or other small cities in Ohio [26].

In recent years, Springfield has been trying to revitalize the downtown area with several projects, hoping that it will attract more tourists and benefit the local economy. In 2019, the city began development on 34 new townhomes in downtown along Center Street, which will be named Center Street Townes. [27] The City of Springfield also voted to approve $50,000 towards a new parking garage in downtown Springfield. [28] [29]

Geography

Springfield is located at 39°55′37″N 83°48′15″W / 39.92694°N 83.80417°W / 39.92694; -83.80417 (39.927067, −83.804131). [30]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.50 square miles (66.04 km2), of which, 25.29 square miles (65.50 km2) is land and 0.21 square miles (0.54 km2) is water. [1] The Clarence J. Brown Reservoir is located on the northeast outskirts of Springfield.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1810593
18201,868215.0%
18301,080−42.2%
18402,06290.9%
18505,108147.7%
18607,00237.1%
187012,65280.7%
188020,73063.8%
189031,89553.9%
190038,25319.9%
191046,92122.7%
192060,84029.7%
193068,74313.0%
194070,6622.8%
195078,50811.1%
196082,7235.4%
197081,926−1.0%
198072,563−11.4%
199070,487−2.9%
200065,358−7.3%
201060,608−7.3%
Est. 201859,282 [3]−2.2%
[4] [31] [32] [33] [34]

As of the 2000 census, [4] the median income for a household in the city was $32,193, and the median income for a family was $39,890. Males had a median income of $32,027 versus $23,155 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,660. 16.9% of the population and 13.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 23.9% of those under the age of 18 and 9.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, [7] there were 60,608 people, 24,459 households, and 14,399 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,693.7 people per square mile (1,039.6/km²). There were 28,437 housing units at an average density of 1,263.9 per square mile (487.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 75.2% White, 18.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, and 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.0% of the population.

There are 24,459 households of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.4% are married couples living together, 18.6% have a female householder with no spouse present, 5.9% have a male householder with no spouse present, and 41.1% are non-families. Of all households, 34.1% are made up of individuals and 13.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.38, and the average family size is 3.01.

In the population is spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 36 years. For every 100 females, there are 90.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 86.2 males.

Crime

From 2012 through 2014, the city experienced a 21% increase in violent crime; from 618 per 100,000 persons to 750. Also during those years, occurrences of murder and non-negligent manslaughter steadily increased; from 5 to 7. [35] [36] [37] In 2015, Springfield's violent crime reached a 14-year high. [38] [39]

Education

Springfield Public Schools enroll 8,604 students in public primary and secondary schools. [40] The district operates 16 public schools including ten elementary schools, three middle schools, one high school, and one alternative school.

Springfield is also home to Nightingale Montessori, a small private school using the methods from Dr. Montessori. The school was founded over thirty years ago and has been educating many from Springfield, Clark County, and other surrounding counties such as Greene, Clinton, Champaign, Franklin, Madison, and Logan. The school accepts the Ed Choice scholarship, The Jon Peterson Scholarship, and the Autism Scholarship. Students are admitted as early as 2 1/2 years old through high school.

Also located in Springfield is the Global Impact STEM Academy, an early-college middle school and high school certified in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics curriculum. [41] It was founded in 2013. [41]

Wittenberg University

Springfield is home to two institutions of higher learning, Wittenberg University, and Clark State Community College.

Wittenberg University is a Lutheran university that was founded in Springfield in 1845. It is a four-year private liberal arts university. It has approximately 1800 students and a faculty of approximately 140. It is situated on a campus of one hundred and fourteen rolling acres, shaded by many majestic trees. It is one of the most highly rated liberal arts universities in the nation, offering more than seventy majors, which include those in the sciences as well as in the arts. Wittenberg has more than one hundred fifty campus organizations, which include ten national fraternities and sororities. It has its own WUSO radio station and newspaper. The University is best known for its music department and its athletic endeavors. Wittenberg is also distinguished by its active interdisciplinary programs such as East Asian Studies and Russian Area Studies. Recently majors in Management, Communication, and Education are also becoming popular. The University made significant renovations to its science facilities with the opening of the Barbara Deer Kuss Science Center in 2003.

The city is also home to Clark State Community College. Clark State Community College was founded in 1962 under the name of the Springfield and Clark County Technical Education Program as a technical education college for Clark County, Ohio and the surrounding area. It changed its name in 1966 to Clark County Technical Institute. The Ohio Board of Regents accredited it as Ohio's first technical college. It is now called Clark State Community College and has more than one thousand students. It offers courses in business, health, public services, engineering technologies, agriculture, and general studies.

The Clark County Public Library operates three public libraries within the city of Springfield. [42]

Media

The city is served by one daily newspaper, the Springfield News-Sun. The Wittenberg Torch is the newspaper of Wittenberg University, and WUSO-FM "The Berg" is its radio station. WEEC-FM radio, featuring Christian-based programming, is also located in the city.

Notable people

The following are notable people born and/or raised in Springfield:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  2. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  7. ^ a b "American FactFinder2". Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  8. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
  9. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
  10. ^ "Springfield third worst in wellness survey". Springfield News-Sun. May 14, 2011.
  11. ^ Martin, Patrick (October 14, 2012). "Welcome to Springfield, Ohio, the 'unhappiest city' in the U.S." The Globe and Mail. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  12. ^ Michael Cooper. "Springfield ranked least healthy city in Ohio by national report". Springfield News-Sun. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  13. ^ "The Least Healthy City in Every State". 24/7 Wall St. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  14. ^ "Peckuwe Shawnee Memorial Marker". HNdb.org, The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
  15. ^ "The Battle of Piqua Marker". HMdb.org, The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
  16. ^ "History of Clark County: New Boston". Ghost Towns. The Network of Springfield, Ohio. 2008. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
  17. ^ Raitz, Karl B.; Thompson, George F. (1996). The National Road. JHU Press. p. 166. ISBN  978-0-8018-5155-1.
  18. ^ History of the Bushnell Building Archived April 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "4-H History." Available at: National4-hheadquarters.gov Archived October 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Mob in Ohio Shoots..." New York Times. March 8, 1904.
  21. ^ Ohiohistorycentral.org
  22. ^ Knepper, George W. (January 2003). Ohio and Its People. Kent State University Press. p. 392. ISBN  978-0-87338-791-0.
  23. ^ "COLLIER HOLDERS BACK PLANT SALE; Debts Put at $9,000,000-- '56 Net of Book Business Given as $5,000,000 $3,600,000 Needed COLLIER HOLDERS BACK PLANT SALE". The New York Times. March 21, 1957. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  24. ^ Berliner, Uri (September 19, 2016). "Springfield, Ohio: A Shrinking City Faces A Tough Economic Future". NPR. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  25. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  26. ^ Sanctis, Matt (June 10, 2018). "Springfield among the small cities economic recovery is bypassing, report says". Springfield News-Sun. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  27. ^ Staff, WDTN com (December 19, 2018). "Springfield to build new townhomes downtown". WDTN. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  28. ^ Lough, Valerie (December 19, 2018). "City Commission Approves New Housing, Parking Garage, and Appointed New City Manager in Sweeping Legislative Session". City of Springfield. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  29. ^ Riley Newton, Staff Writer. "Springfield could break ground on nearly $7M parking garage in July". springfieldnewssun. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  30. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  31. ^ "Population: Ohio" (PDF). 1930 US Census. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
  32. ^ "Number of Inhabitants: Ohio" (PDF). 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved November 22, 2013.[ permanent dead link]
  33. ^ "Ohio: Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
  34. ^ "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  35. ^ "Crime in the United States by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2012". FBI.
  36. ^ "Crime in the United States by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2013". FBI.
  37. ^ "Crime in the United States by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2014". FBI.
  38. ^ Wedell, Katie (March 22, 2016). "Violent crime in Springfield at 14-year high". Springfield News-Sun.
  39. ^ Wichie, Allison. "Springfield residents fed up with crime, ready to fight back". Springfield News-Sun. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  40. ^ Great Schools.com. "Springfield City School District Profile". Retrieved October 6, 2008.
  41. ^ a b "Global Impact STEM Academy".
  42. ^ "Library branches". Clark County Public Library. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  43. ^ "Clarke, Lewis Strong". Louisiana Historical Association, A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography (lahistory.com). Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2010.

External links