Secondary poverty Article

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Secondary poverty is a description of poverty referring to those living below the poverty line whose income was sufficient for them to live above the line, but was spent on things other than the necessities of life. [1]

In 18th and 19th century Great Britain, the practice of temperance among Methodists, as well as their rejection of gambling, allowed them to eliminate secondary poverty and accumulate capital. [2]

The term was coined by Seebohm Rowntree after his investigations into poverty in York.

Factors contributing to secondary poverty

Alcohol use

The Bureau of Labor Statistics found that "the average American consumer dedicates 1 percent of all their spending to alcohol". [3]

In Scotland, households spent an average of £8.90 a week on alcohol. [4]

Gambling

In the United States, the average individual loses $400.00 USD to gambling each year. [3]

The National Anti-Gambling League, which was founded in 1890, condemned the lottery as a cause of secondary poverty. [5] More recently, sociologist Gerda Reith stated that the lottery exploited working classes who see it as one of the sole avenues for liberation from oppression. [5] Reith has stated that governments use the lottery as a means to increase their revenue, calling it an "extra form of taxation". [5]

Tobacco

In the United States, "14 percent of Americans' incomes are spent on cigarettes, rounding out to roughly one-seventh of their total income." [3]

In India, smokers spend ₹36,000 annually on smoking cigarettes. [6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Freeman, Mark (February 18, 2011). Seebohm Rowntree and secondary poverty, 1899–1954 Economic History Society.
  2. ^ Swatos, William H. (1998). Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Rowman Altamira. p. 385. ISBN  9780761989561.
  3. ^ a b c Muniz, Katherine (24 March 2014). "20 ways Americans are blowing their money". USA Today. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  4. ^ Milligan, Brian (16 February 2017). "ONS figures show UK spending less on alcohol and tobacco". BBC. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Casey, Emma (2016). Women, Pleasure and the Gambling Experience. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN  9781134779680.
  6. ^ Saravanan, P (21 June 2016). "Cigarettes & smoking: Here's how to save Rs 36,000". The Financial Express. Retrieved 16 October 2018.

Further reading