Pulp and paper industry Article

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International Paper is the world’s largest pulp and paper maker.
Paper mill Mondi in Ružomberok, Slovakia.

The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products.

The manufacturing process

Paper

Diagram showing the sections of the Fourdrinier machine.

The pulp is fed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying.

Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, which is not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water. Whereas, when making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead.

Drying involves using air or heat to remove water from the paper sheets. In the earliest days of paper making, this was done by hanging the sheets like laundry. In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam heated can dryer.

Pulp

History of the paper industry

The commercial planting of domesticated mulberry trees to make pulp for papermaking is attested as early as the 6th century. [1] Due to advances in printing technology, the Chinese paper industry continued to grow under the Song dynasty to meet the rising demand for printed books. Demand for paper was also stimulated by the Song government, which needed a large supply of paper for printing paper money and exchange certificates. [2] The first mechanised paper machine was installed at Frogmore Paper Mill, Apsley, Hertfordshire in 1803, followed by another in 1804. [3] The site operates currently as a museum. [4]

Environmental effects

The pulp and paper industry has been criticized by environmental groups like the Natural Resources Defense Council for unsustainable deforestation and clearcutting of old-growth forest. [5] The industry trend is to expand globally to countries like Russia, China and Indonesia with low wages and low environmental oversight. [6] According to Greenpeace, farmers in Central America illegally rip up vast tracts of native forest for cattle and soybean production without any consequences, [7] and companies who buy timber from private land owners contribute to massive deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest. [8] On the other hand the situation is quite different where forest growth has been on the increase for a number of years. It is estimated for instance that since 1990 forests have grown in Europe by a size equivalent to that of Switzerland (44,160 KM) which has been supported through the practice of sustainable forest management by the industry. In Sweden, for every tree that is felled, two are planted. [9]

Current production volumes and sales

The industry is dominated by North American ( United States and Canada), northern European ( Finland, Sweden, and North-West Russia) and East Asian countries (such as East Siberian Russia, China, Japan, and South Korea). Australasia and Brazil also have significant pulp and paper enterprises. The industry also has a significant presence in a number of European countries including Germany, Portugal, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. The United States had been the world's leading producer of paper until it was overtaken by China in 2009. [10]

List of main countries by production quantity

According to statistic data by RISI, main producing countries of paper and paperboard, not including pulp, in the world are as follows: [11]

Rank
2011
Country Production in 2011
(1,000 ton)
Share
2011
Rank
2010
Production in 2010
(1,000 ton)
1   China 99,300 24.9% 1 92,599
2   United States 75,083 18.8% 2 75,849
3   Japan 26,627 6.7% 3 27,288
4   Germany 22,698 5.7% 4 23,122
5   Canada 12,112 3.0% 5 12,787
6   South Korea 11,492 2.9% 8 11,120
7   Finland 11,329 2.8% 6 11,789
8   Sweden 11,298 2.8% 7 11,410
9   Brazil 10,159 2.5% 10 9,796
10   Indonesia 10,035 2.5% 9 9,951
  World Total 398,975 100.0%   394,244

List of main company groups by production quantity

The world's main paper and paperboard company groups are as follows. (Some figures are estimates.): [12]

Rank Company Group Country Production in 2015
(1,000 ton)
Rank by Sales
1 International Paper   United States 23315 1
2 Nine Dragon Paper Holdings   China 12630 18
3 WestRock   United States 12487 4
4 UPM   Finland 9771 5
5 Stora Enso   Finland 9188 8
6 Oji Paper Company   Japan 9115 3
7 Sappi   South Africa 7306 15
8 Smurfit Kappa   Ireland 7000 9
9 DS Smith   United Kingdom 6802 13
10 Nippon Paper   Japan 6542 11

List by net sales

In 2008, the top 10 forest, paper and packaging products companies were, according to a report by PricewaterhouseCoopers: [13]

Rank Company Country 2008 Net Sales
(US$M)
2008 Net Income (Loss)
(US$M)
1 International Paper   United States 24,829 (1,282)
2 Kimberly-Clark   United States 19,415 1,690
3 SCA   Sweden 16,965 (SEK) 857
4 Stora Enso   Finland 16,227 (991)
5 UPM   Finland 13,920 (263)
6 Oji Paper   Japan 12,788 114
7 Nippon Unipac   Japan 11,753 55
8 Smurfit Kappa   Ireland 10,390 (73)
9 Metsä Group   Finland 9,335 (313)
10 Mondi Group   UK/  South Africa 9,466 (310)

Manufacturers and suppliers for the industry

Leading manufacturers of capital equipment with over $1 billion in annual revenue for the pulp and paper industry include:

See also

References

  1. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985), Paper and Printing, Science and Civilisation in China: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vol. 5 Part 1, Cambridge University Press, p. 58
  2. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985), Paper and Printing, Science and Civilisation in China: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vol. 5 Part 1, Cambridge University Press, p. 48
  3. ^ Hills, Richard, "Papermaking in Britain 1488–1988", Athlone Press, 1988.
  4. ^ "The Paper Trail at Frogmore Mill". Apsley Paper Trail charity. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  5. ^ "NRDC: Paper Industry Laying Waste to North American Forests". www.nrdc.org. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  6. ^ "A crumpling paper industry". Oregon Local News. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  7. ^ "Amazon draught speeds up destruction The WE News Archives". www.thewe.cc. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  8. ^ Phillips, Tom (20 May 2011). "Brazil forms 'crisis cabinet' following unexpected deforestation surge". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  9. ^ "Will the EU turn the tide on forest growth and torpedo its bioeconomy agenda?". euractiv.com.
  10. ^ De Sisti, Mike (12 December 2012). "China's Paper Operation". Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  11. ^ "Japan in the World (according to the figure in Annual Review of Global Pulp and Paper Statistics by RISI)" (in Japanese). Japan Paper Association. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  12. ^ "The PPI Top 100". RISI. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  13. ^ "Global Forest, Paper & Packaging Industry Survey: 2009 Edition - Survey of 2008 Results" (pdf). PricewaterhouseCoopers. p. 12. Retrieved 24 February 2011.

External links