discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction towards, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong. These include
convictions for which a pardon has been granted or a record suspended,
sexual orientation. Discrimination consists of treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, "in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated". It involves the group's initial reaction or interaction going on to influence the individual's actual behavior towards the group leader or the group, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the
exclusion of the individual or entities based on illogical or irrational decision making.
Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices and laws exist in many countries and
institutions in every part of the world, including in territories where discrimination is generally looked down upon. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those who are believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but they have sometimes been called
Ketuanan Melayu (
Malay for "Malay supremacy") is the system of constitutionally guaranteed special rights to ethnic Malays, and other indigenous ethnic groups collectively known as
Malaysia. These special privileges are set out in
Article 153 of the
Constitution of Malaysia. This
quid pro quo arrangement is usually referred to as the
Malaysian social contract. The concept of ketuanan Melayu is usually referenced by politicians, particularly those from the
United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the most influential political party in Malaysia. Although the idea itself predates Malaysian independence, the phrase ketuanan Melayu did not come into vogue until the early 2000s.
The idea of Malay supremacy gained attention in the 1940s, when the Malays organized themselves to protest the
Malayan Union's establishment (and later fought for independence). The Union intended to grant Malaysian citizenship to all existing residents, which included a predominant number of recently-immigrated
Singaporeans who had gained significant wealth during Malaysia's
industrialization. The system of "special rights" were geared to ensure Malay influence over the country of Malaysia.
The portions of the Constitution related to ketuanan Melayu were "
entrenched" after the
racial riots of May 13, 1969. This period also saw the rise of "
ultras" who advocated a one-party government led by UMNO, and an increased emphasis on the Malays being the "definitive people" of Malaysia.
The most vocal opposition towards the concept has come from non-Malay-based parties, such as the
Democratic Action Party (DAP); although pre-independence, the
Straits Chinese also agitated against it. During the 2000s politicians began stressing ketuanan Melayu again, and publicly chastised government ministers who questioned the social contract.