Pennsylvania State Police Article

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Pennsylvania State Police
Pennsylvania State Police.png
AbbreviationPSP
Agency overview
FormedMay 2, 1905; 113 years ago (1905-05-02)
Preceding agencies
  • Pennsylvania State Constabulary (1905–1937)
  • State Highway Patrol (1923–1937)
  • Pennsylvania Motor Police (1937–1943)
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdiction Pennsylvania, USA
PA - State Police Troops.png
Pennsylvania State Police Troops
Size46,055 sq mi
Population12,823,989 (2018) [1]
General nature
Headquarters Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Troopers4,255 (as of 2018) [2]
Civilians1,850 (as of 2015) [2]
Agency executive
Areas4
Troops16
Facilities
Stations90
Helicopters8 Bell 407GX
Airplanes6 "High Wings"
Website
Pennsylvania State Police website

The Pennsylvania State Police (PSP) is the state police agency of Pennsylvania, responsible for statewide law enforcement. The Pennsylvania State Police was founded in 1905 by order of Governor Samuel Pennypacker, by signing Senate Bill 278 on May 2, 1905. The bill was signed in response to the Great Anthracite Strike of 1902. Leading up to the Anthracite Strike, private police forces (the coal and iron police), were used by mine and mill owners to stop worker strikes. The inability or refusal of local police or sheriffs offices to enforce the law, directly influenced the signing of Bill 278. The Anthracite Strike lasted from May 15, 1902 to October 23, 1902 and ended with the help of Theodore Roosevelt, the sitting president at the time. Roosevelt was outspoken in his admiration for the Pennsylvania State Police, having this to say, "The Pennsylvania State Police are a spirited force not to be bought, bent, confused, alarmed or exhausted", [4] and “I feel so strongly about them that the mere fact a man is honorably discharged from this force would make me at once, and without hesitation, employ him for any purpose needing courage, prowess, good judgment, loyalty, and entire trustworthiness.” [5]

PSP enlisted members are referred to as " Troopers." Up until 1963, married men were not allowed to apply to the state police, and active troopers had to seek permission from their superior officer to get married. As of October 2016, the state police has 4,233 state troopers, 5% of them being women, and more than 1,850 civilian support staff. [6]

The current State Police commissioner is Lt. Colonel Robert Evanchick. Lt. Colonel Evanchick replaced Colonel Tyree Blocker, who retired from service in 2018. Colonel Blocker replaced Marcus Brown, who failed to secure confirmation by the State's legislature. After resigning, former Colonel Brown was named to Governor Wolf's state office of Homeland Security as the new director.

Pennsylvania State Police Academy

In 1924, a State Police training academy was built in Hershey, Pennsylvania, on Cocoa Avenue. The site was located at the Hershey Inn and it remained at this location until 1960 when it was moved to 175 Hersheypark Drive, Hershey, Pennsylvania. The current location is fitted with kennels, stables and a range, among other facilities, and is located only a few miles from the original site. Once accepted into the Pennsylvania State Police Academy cadets endure a rigorous 27-week training period. [7] Cadets live at the academy in barracks style quarters and are only permitted to go home on designated weekends. Cadets who fail to complete physical training in required times or who show any other type of deficiencies may be restricted from going home. While attending training, cadets are put on an 18-month probationary period and can be dismissed at any point in their training by the commissioner under any form of incompetence, inefficiency, or general violation of rules and regulations. [8] The current drop out rate for new recruits in the academy is approximately 20% per class.

Facilities

The PSP owns and operates a myriad of facilities to conduct law enforcement operations across the Commonwealth. The following is the breakdown:

Pennsylvania State Police Troops

Troop A, Area II

  • Cambria, Indiana, Somerset, Westmoreland Counties; Troop HQ - Greensburg

Troop B, Area I

  • Allegheny, Fayette, Greene, Washington Counties; Troop HQ - Washington

Troop C, Area I

  • Clarion, Clearfield, Elk, Forest, Jefferson, McKean Counties; Troop HQ - Punxsutawney

Troop D, Area I

  • Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Lawrence, Mercer Counties; Troop HQ - Butler

Troop E, Area I

  • Crawford, Erie, Venango, Warren Counties; Troop HQ - Lawrence Park

Troop F, Area III

  • Cameron, Clinton, Lycoming, Montour, Northumberland, Potter, Snyder, Tioga,

Union Counties; Troop HQ - Montoursville

Troop G, Area II

  • Bedford, Blair, Centre, Fulton, Huntingdon, Juniata, Mifflin Counties; Troop HQ - Hollidaysburg

Troop H, Area II

  • Adams, Cumberland, Dauphin, Franklin, and Perry Counties; Troop and *Department HQ - Harrisburg

Troop J, Area IV

  • Chester, York and Lancaster Counties; Troop HQ - Lancaster

Troop K, Area IV

  • Delaware, Montgomery, Philadelphia Counties; Troop HQ - Philadelphia

Troop L, Area IV

  • Berks, Lebanon, Schuylkill Counties; Troop HQ - Reading

Troop M, Area IV

  • Bucks, Lehigh, Northampton Counties; Troop HQ - Bethlehem

Troop N, Area III

  • Carbon, Columbia, Lower Luzerne, Monroe Counties; Troop HQ - Hazleton

Troop P, Area III

  • Bradford, Upper Luzerne, Sullivan, Wyoming Counties; Troop HQ - Wyoming

Troop R, Area III

  • Lackawanna, Pike, Susquehanna, Wayne Counties; Troop HQ - Dunmore

Troop T

  • Turnpike; Troop HQ - Penna. Turnpike Commission HQ, Highspire

Barracks Listing by County

PSP Bureaus & Offices

The PSP also has many bureaus and subdivisions within the organization. [9] This is by no means a complete list, merely a sampling of the breakdown.

  • Bureau of Criminal Investigation
  • Bureau of Emergency and Special Operations
  • Bureau of Human Resources
  • Bureau of Liquor Control Enforcement
  • Bureau of Records and Identification
  • Bureau of Patrol
  • Bureau of Integrity and Professional Standards
  • Bureau of Communications and Information Services
  • Bureau of Staff Services
  • Bureau of Research & Development
  • Bureau of Training & Education
  • Bureau of Gaming Enforcement
  • Commonwealth Law Enforcement Assistance Network - C.L.E.A.N.
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Office
  • Public Information Office
  • Recruitment and Special Services Office
  • Member Assistance Office
  • Department Discipline Office
  • Municipal Police Officers' Education and Training Commission (MPOETC)
  • Domestic Security Office

PSP Units

  • Criminal Investigation Unit
  • Major Case Teams
  • Vice/Narcotic
  • Organized Crime
  • Intelligence Units
  • Criminal Profilers
  • Unsolved Crimes
  • Fugitive Units
  • Marine Unit
  • Aviation
  • Motorcycle Units
  • K-9 Units
  • Collision Analysis and Reconstruction Specialists
  • Vehicle Fraud Investigation
  • Mounted Units
  • Commercial Vehicle Enforcement
  • Auto Theft Units
  • Firearms Instructors
  • Public Information Officers
  • Recruiting Unit
  • Community Service Officer
  • Forensic Services Unit
  • Gaming Enforcement
  • Computer Crimes
  • PA Crime Stoppers
  • PA Criminal Intelligence Center
  • Fire Marshals
  • DNA Database
  • Polygraph Unit
  • Fingerprint Database
  • Megan's Law Unit
  • DUI Patrols
  • Patrol Unit
  • PA Instant Check System
  • Airport Interdiction
  • Ballistics Section
  • Clandestine Lab Units
  • Chemistry Labs
  • CLEAN Systems
  • State Police Crime Laboratories
  • Explosives/Bomb Section
  • Academy Instructors
  • Drug Recognition Experts
  • Criminal Interdiction (S.H.E.I.L.D)
  • Aerial Observers
  • Special Emergency Response Teams (SERT), to include Tactical Units and Negotiations Units

Demographics

Gender

  • Male: 95%
  • Female: 5% [10]

Ethnicity

  • White: 81%
  • African American/Black: 9%
  • Hispanic: 5%
  • Asian: <1%
  • Native American <1%[ citation needed]

Vehicles

The department currently operates a mixed fleet of vehicles including the new law enforcement specific Ford Taurus, Ford Explorer, Crown Victorias and Dodge Charger, which are only used by Pennsylvania Turnpike Troopers. The PSP also owns and operates numerous helicopters and fixed wing aircraft. [11] PSP operates watercraft mainly on the Delaware River and Lake Erie.

  
Pennsylvania State Police Ford Interceptor Utility.jpg    
White PA State Police Taurus.jpg     
Pennsylvania State Police Mobile Command Center.jpg

Aviation

Pennsylvania State Police Helicopter.jpg

The PSP Aviation Section consists of thirty-five trooper pilots and three full-time mechanics, using eight law enforcement specific Bell 407GX helicopters and six airplanes statewide. These aircraft are stationed in six aviation patrol units (APU).

Weapons

The department adopted the SIG Sauer P227 [12] [13] semiautomatic pistol chambered in .45 Auto as their new service pistol. It holds 10+1 rounds. PSP submitted a solicitation for bids on May 9, 2014 for 150 such firearms for the next PSP academy cadet class to train with and keep as their issue duty sidearm. [14] The SIG P227 (.45 ACP) replaced all of the department's Glock 21 Gen4 (.45 ACP) pistols which were acquired in 2013. [15] Those Glocks had replaced by trade-in 4,800 of the department's Glock 37 ( .45 GAP caliber) handguns, which had replaced their Beretta 96D (.40 S&W) double-action-only (DAO) handguns back in 2007/2008.

Other firearms include the Colt AR-15 (including the LE6920 AND LE6940), 12-gauge shotguns (including the Remington 870 pump), and gas grenade launcher. [16]

The current less-lethal weapons the PSP is utilizing consists of Taser technology, [17] Pepper spray (OC), and expandable ASP straight baton.

Accreditation

The Pennsylvania State Police is the largest internationally accredited law enforcement agency in the world. This distinction was awarded to the Pennsylvania State Police on July 31, 1993, by the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA), an independent, non-profit organization based in Fairfax, Virginia. [18]

Accreditation is a process used by professional law enforcement agencies to facilitate the creation, verification and maintenance of high-quality policies and procedures, via voluntary compliance with performance standards. CALEA's 446 standards address nine major law enforcement topics: role, responsibilities, and relationships with other agencies; organization, management, and administration; personnel structure; personnel process; operations; operational support; traffic operations; prisoner and court-related services; and auxiliary and technical services. [19]

Members killed in the line of duty

Key
  shaded rows with "SHP" in the Notes cell denotes the officer was a member of the Pennsylvania State Highway Patrol.

Name Rank Badge Number Tenure End of Watch Age Cause of Death Notes
Johnn F. Henry Private 8 months September 2, 1906 31 Gunfire
Francis A. Zehringer Private 8 months September 2, 1906 34 Gunfire
Timothy Kelleher Private 1 year, 8 months September 14, 1907 29 Stabbed
Mark A. Prynn Sergeant 3 years, 2 months February 9, 1909 29 Gunfire (Accidental)
John Garscia Private 3 years, 3 months February 21, 1909 35 Gunfire (Accidental)
John L. Williams Private 2 years August 22, 1909 29 Gunfire
John C. "Jack" Smith Private 7 months August 23, 1909 24 Gunfire
Robert V. Myers Private 1 year, 1 month March 28, 1913 22 Gunfire (Accidental)
Andrew W. Czap Private 8 months April 28, 1918 24 Gunfire
John F. Dargus Private 8 months May 31, 1918 21 Gunfire
Stanley W. Christ Private 1 month December 1, 1919 22 Animal related
Benjamin F. McEvoy Corporal 13 years, 3 months September 21, 1923 40 Struck by vehicle
William J. Omlor Private 4 years, 4 months October 25, 1923 29 Motorcycle accident
Francis L. Haley Private 2551 5 months October 14, 1924 25 Gunfire
Edwin F. Haas Sergeant 14 years October 17, 1924 35 Gunfire (Accidental)
Bernard S. C. McElroy Private 1 year, 11 months December 21, 1924 25 Motorcycle accident
Bertram Beech Private 1 year, 7 months December 10, 1925 28 Struck by train
Claude F. Keesey Private 1 year, 4 months January 4, 1927 23 Automobile accident
Martin A. Hanahoe Patrolman 1 year, 1 month February 27, 1927 24 Vehicular assault SHP
Thomas E. Lipka Private 1 year, 8 months April 3, 1927 25 Automobile accident
John M. Thomas Sergeant 1 month May 8, 1927 43 Automobile accident
John J. Downey Private 2853 3 years, 2 months August 22, 1927 31 Gunfire
Vincent A. Hassen Corporal 1 year December 27, 1927 24 Motorcycle accident SHP
Sharon C. Wible Patrolman 6 months February 6, 1928 22 Motorcycle accident SHP
Andrew W. Miller Patrolman 7 months April 1, 1928 21 Motorcycle accident SHP
James F. "Jay" Proof Patrolman 1 year, 6 months August 29, 1928 30 Vehicle pursuit SHP
Russell T. Swanson Patrolman 1 year, 6 months April 19, 1929 22 Gunfire SHP
Wells C. Hammond Patrolman 10 months October 14, 1929 24 Motorcycle accident SHP
Brady C. Paul Corporal 3 years, 11 months December 27, 1929 26 Gunfire SHP
Thomas E. Lawry Corporal 3 years, 4 months January 31, 1930 24 vehicular assault SHP
Arthur A. Koppenhaver Patrolman 1 year July 13, 1930 22 Motorcycle accident SHP
Charles L. Stewart Private 1 year, 1 month July 18, 1930 22 Gunfire
Thomas B. Elder Patrolman 2 years March 22, 1931 28 Vehicular assault SHP
Timothy G. McCarthy Sergeant 11 years, 8 months May 12, 1931 42 Gunfire
Orville A. Mohring Patrolman 2 years, 6 months December 11, 1931 24 Vehicular assault SHP
Joseph A. Conrad Patrolman 1 year, 11 months September 6, 1932 26 Motorcycle accident SHP
Charles E. Householder Patrolman 5 years, 3 months August 20, 1933 27 Vehicular assault SHP
Herbert P. Brantlinger Patrolman 1 year, 8 months September 3, 1933 27 Gunfire SHP
James A. Seerey First Sergeant 1760 14 years, 7 months September 10, 1934 42 Animal related
Floyd W. Maderia Private 4 years, 7 months December 11, 1934 34 Automobile accident
Joseph L. Fulton Corporal 7 years, 8 months June 4, 1936 32 Motorcycle accident SHP
Joe B. Champion Sergeant 11 years, 9 months July 15, 1936 36 Automobile accident SHP
J. Lee Clarke Patrolman 3 years, 1 month March 1, 1937 32 Motorcycle accident SHP
John E. Fessler Private 4 years, 1 month April 23, 1937 32 Gunfire
Joseph A. Hoffer Private 7 years, 7 months April 27, 1937 29 Gunfire
John J. Broski Private 1385 19 years, 7 months August 14, 1937 40 Gunfire
John D. Simoson Patrolman 1 year, 7 months December 1, 1937 23 Motorcycle accident
Joseph M. Williams Private 6 months October 8, 1938 26 Struck by vehicle
Charles H. Craven Private 8 years October 11, 1938 32 Struck by vehicle
George D. Naughton Corporal 12 years, 2 months January 30, 1939 40 Gunfire
Frederick J. Sutton Private 2 years, 4 months January 3, 1940 26 Gunfire
George J. Yashur Private 3 years, 2 months April 1, 1940 24 Struck by vehicle
Thomas P. Carey Private 6 years, 1 month June 17, 1941 31 Exposure to toxins
Dean N. Zeigler Private 1 year October 17, 1942 24 Automobile accident
John A. Ditkosky Private 3 years, 2 months July 24, 1950 27 Automobile accident
Floyd B. Clouse Private 7 years, 3 months November 2, 1953 29 Gunfire
Joseph F. McMillen Private 3 years, 11 months May 13, 1956 26 Automobile accident
Philip C. Melley Trooper 19 years, 11 months November 3, 1957 41 Gunfire
Charles S. Stanski Trooper 4 years January 17, 1958 29 Vehicle pursuit
Edward Mackiw Trooper 8 years, 7 months May 31, 1958 32 Struck by vehicle
Stephen R. Gyurke Trooper 606 3 years, 10 months August 24, 1958 29 Struck by vehicle
Francis M. Tessitore Trooper 6 years, 10 months August 5, 1960 28 Struck by vehicle
Anthony Bensch Trooper 20 years October 3, 1961 43 Automobile accident
Edward W. Gundel Sergeant 24 years, 6 months March 18, 1962 45 Gunfire
Richard G. Barnhart Trooper 12 years, 8 months August 8, 1964 37 Vehicle pursuit
Gary R. Rosenberger Trooper 1 year, 6 months December 12, 1970 26 Gunfire
John S. Valent Corporal 1003 25 years, 10 months December 9, 1971 49 Gunfire
Robert D. Lapp, Jr. Trooper 8 years, 1 month October 16, 1972 30 Gunfire
Bruce C. Rankin Trooper 2 years, 2 months April 25, 1973 25 Automobile accident
Ross E. Snowden Trooper 3 years, 9 months January 17, 1974 33 Aircraft accident
Leo M. Koscelnick Corporal 7 years, 3 months August 15, 1977 33 Vehicular assault
Joseph J. Welsch Trooper 4 years, 7 months September 13, 1977 26 Gunfire
Wayne C. Ebert Trooper 27 years, 9 months June 7, 1978 50 Stuck by vehicle
Albert J. Izzo Trooper 7 years, 11 months June 13, 1979 35 Gunfire
David D. Monahan Trooper 8 years, 11 months April 17, 1980 38 Vehicular assault
Herbert A. Wirfel Trooper 20 years, 5 months February 7, 1982 45 Automobile accident
William R. Evans Trooper 16 years, 3 months January 6, 1983 44 Vehicle pursuit
Frank J. Bowen Trooper 2 years, 10 months October 26, 1983 27 Automobile accident
Gary W. Fisher Trooper 4 years, 1 month February 3, 1985 26 Gunfire
John J. Brown Trooper 1290 14 years, 7 months February 14, 1985 37 Struck by vehicle
Roark H. Ross Trooper 4099 13 years, 3 months May 15, 1986 35 Automobile accident
Clinton W. Crawford Trooper 6 years, 6 months August 17, 1987 30 Struck by vehicle
John A. Andrulewicz Trooper 23 years, 7 months May 9, 1988 45 Automobile accident
Paul I. Almer Corporal 14 years, 1 month April 12, 1989 39 Aircraft accident
Wayne D. Bilheimer Trooper 21 years, 3 months April 12, 1989 44 Aircraft accident
Arthur L. Hershey Sergeant 27 years, 8 months January 3, 1999 51 Struck by vehicle
Matthew R. Bond Trooper 4 years, 3 months January 14, 2000 28 Automobile accident
Tod C. Kelly Trooper 16 years, 4 months November 7, 2001 43 Struck by vehicle
Joseph J. Sepp, Jr. Trooper 6672 10 years, 8 months November 10, 2002 34 Gunfire
Brian A. Patterson Trooper 7273 9 years, 4 months February 14, 2003 36 Electrocuted
Joseph R. Pokorny, Jr. Corporal 4648 22 years, 5 months December 12, 2005 45 Gunfire
Joshua D. Miller Trooper 8819 10 years, 9 months June 7, 2009 34 Gunfire
Paul G. Richey Trooper 7201 16 years, 7 months January 13, 2010 40 Gunfire
Blake T. Coble Trooper First Class 5504 24 years, 9 months October 4, 2012 47 Automobile accident
Bryon K. Dickson, II Corporal 10714 7 years, 3 months September 12, 2014 38 Gunfire
David Kedra Trooper 12115 2 years, 3 months September 30, 2014 26 Gunfire (Accidental)
Landon E. Weaver Trooper 13093 1 year, 16 days December 30, 2016 23 Gunfire
Michael P. Stewart III Trooper 12494 3 years, 6 months July 14, 2017 26 Automobile accident

Superintendents and Commissioners since 1905

The following is a chronological listings of Commissioners of the Pennsylvania State Police: [20]

Name Years of Service Notes
Groome, John C. 1905–1920 First Commissioner, appointed by Governor Pennypacker
Adams, Lynn G. 1920–1937
Foote, Percy W. 1937–1939
Adams, Lynn G. 1939–1943
Wilhelm, Cecil M. 1943–1955
Henry, E.J. 1955–1959
McCartney, Frank G. 1959–1963
Purdy, E. Wilson 1963–1966
Rittelman, Paul A. 1966–1967
McKetta, Frank 1967–1971 Appointed by Governor Shafer, previously led the Federal Protective Service
Urella, Rocco 1971–1973
Barger, James 1973–1977
Chylak, Paul 1977–1979
Dunn, Daniel 1979–1984
Laffey, Cyril 1984
Dellarciprete, Nicholas 1984–1985
Cochran, Jay, Jr. [21] 1985–1987
Schafer, John K. 1987
Sharpe, Ronald 1987–1991
Walp, Glenn 1991–1996
Evanko, Paul 1996–2003 Appointed by Governors Ridge and Schweiker
Miller, Jeffrey B. 2003–2008 Promoted from MAJ, appointed by Governor Rendell
Pawlowski, Frank 2008–2011 Promoted from LTC, appointed by Governor Rendell
Noonan, Frank 2011–2014 Former FBI Agent, appointed by Governor Corbett
Brown, Marcus 2014–2015 Former Superintendent, Maryland State Police
Blocker, Tyree C. 2015–2018 Former PSP Major, appointed by Governor Wolf
Evanchick, Robert 2018–Present Acting Commissioner, PSP Lieutenant Colonel

Traditions

  • PSP Troopers are widely recognized for wearing the strap of their winter campaign hats under their chins. A tradition that goes back to the early 1900s which was based off British and Irish Bobbies.
  • PSP is one of only a handful of state police agencies that do not wear badges on their uniforms.
  • The PSP was nationally recognized as the premiere state police agency in the early years of the 20th century. State troopers from North Carolina and Kentucky attended the training academy so they could start PSP-style state agencies in their respective states. NC trooper cadets at the academy in Raleigh and KY trooper cadets in Frankfort are frequently reminded they have a familial connection to the PSP through their training process history.[ citation needed]
  • The PSP was patterned after a military organization and PSP troopers have sometimes been referred to as "Soldiers of the Law."[ citation needed] Divisions of the force are called " troops," and officers are known as "troopers," a title usually reserved for members of the United States Cavalry, and reminiscent of the early beginnings of the department when officers patrolled on horseback. Regional headquarters, at which single troopers were once required to live, are referred to as " barracks". The original concept was that the troopers did not apply to join the PSP but "enlisted" for two-year periods, after which they could be honorably discharged or apply for reenlistment. The longstanding two-year enlistment periods were phased out in 1961.
  • Married men were initially barred from becoming state troopers. After 1927, troopers were allowed to marry after they had completed their first two-year enlistment if they had approval from the police superintendent. The PSP allowed married men to enlist in 1963. [22]
  • PSP does not allow ride-alongs. Even state police cadets cannot "ride-along" prior to graduating the academy. This is done for numerous safety and liability reasons. [23]

Misconduct

2000

Trooper Michael Evans pleaded guilty in October 2000 to sexual crimes committed against six women and teenage girls while on duty. He was sentenced to between five and ten years in custody. [24] [25]

2007

In September, 2007, Trooper Kevin Foley was arrested for the murder of a dentist, Dr. Yelenic, in Blairsville, Pennsylvania. [26]

2008

In July, 2008, Trooper Kevin Coleman was charged with protecting a prostitution ring based out of the Gables Truck Stop in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. [27]

2009

In May 2009, Trooper Shawn Dillard was found guilty by a federal court of using his position to protect an interstate prostitution ring based out of the Gables Truck Stop in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. This was the same investigation that led to the arrest of Trooper Coleman. [28]

2011

In early 2011, as a result of a lawsuit brought by the American Civil Liberties Union, the state police agreed to stop issuing tickets to people who swear. Press reports indicated the state police had issued as many as 700 such citations a year. [29]

2012

In January 2012, Lieutenant Barry Eugene Staub, the commander of the state police barracks in York was arrested for driving while drunk. He retired when charges were brought against him. [30]

2014

In March, 2014 Trooper Barry M Seafoss, Jr. pleaded guilty to killing a woman while driving drunk in 2012. He was sentenced to between six and 23 months confinement. [31]

In popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ http://worldpopulationreview.com/states/pennsylvania-population/
  2. ^ a b "Home".
  3. ^ "Wolf Nominates Pennsylvania State Police Commissioner". 3 August 2015.
  4. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=6SpJJmkNDFEC&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=The+Pennsylvania+State+Police+are+a+spirited+force+not+to+be+bought,+bent,+confused,+alarmed+or+exhausted&source=bl&ots=JoFfp6sRFg&sig=pfSzlxPE2Z-tOLymDl71AoWxALU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiExozmqKDdAhXBJt8KHZ7wA-YQ6AEwCXoECAMQAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20Pennsylvania%20State%20Police%20are%20a%20spirited%20force%20not%20to%20be%20bought%2C%20bent%2C%20confused%2C%20alarmed%20or%20exhausted&f=false
  5. ^ http://www.psta.org/troopers.php
  6. ^ About the Pennsylvania State Police Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 12-08-2014.
  7. ^ http://www.patrooper.com/what-to-expect.html
  8. ^ "PA Trooper".
  9. ^ The Pennsylvania State Police (2008), PSP Bureau and Office Website Listing, retrieved 2008-12-27
  10. ^ Pennsylvania: Feds bullying over state police test; by the Associated Press, 25 November 2014
  11. ^ "Aviation".
  12. ^ P227 (specifically the SIG Sauer P227R (rail), .45 ACP, Nitron, SLITE (SIGLITE Night Sights), DA/SA)
  13. ^ http://www.sigsauer.com/CatalogProductDetails/p227-nitron.aspx SIG Sauer, Catalog Product Details, P227 Nitron
  14. ^ "PA - eMarketplace".
  15. ^ http://www.emarketplace.state.pa.us/filedownload.aspx?file=6100025067/solicitation_3.pdf
  16. ^ NRA Staff. "Pennsylvania State Police Select Remington 870". American Rifleman. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  17. ^ "Home".
  18. ^ PA State Police Remains Largest Accredited Police Agency in the World PR Newswire. Retrieved 12-08-2014.
  19. ^ "Home".
  20. ^ Pennsylvania State Police Leadership, Superintendents and Commissioners since 1905, retrieved 2011-03-05
  21. ^ "PSP-HEMC: Pennsylvania State Police Leadership".
  22. ^ The Pennsylvania State Police (April 2003), PSP: PSP History 1900 to 1940, retrieved 2008-12-25
  23. ^ "The page 'faq.html' was not found".
  24. ^ Alleged trooper sex acts listed Accusations of sexual misconduct on the Pa. state police force are outlined in a court filing, by Chris Gray, Philadelphia Inquirer, 14 June 2003, INQUIRER
  25. ^ Trooper Pleads Guilty Michael Evans Gets 5-10 Years For Sexually Abusing 3 Girls, 3 Women, by Joseph P Ferry, 4 October 2000, The Morning Call
  26. ^ Trooper arrested in dentist's killing, by Jim McKinnon, 28 September 2007 Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
  27. ^ Officer 2nd charged in prostitution inquiry, by Pete Shellem, 4 July 2008 Patriot News
  28. ^ FBI press release "Former Pennsylvania State Trooper Convicted" dated 16 May 2009
  29. ^ What the .... It's not illegal to swear at a state police officer, by the Associated Press, January 04, 2011
  30. ^ Commander of York County state police barracks retires after DUI charge, by MIKE ARGENTO, 6 January 2012, Daily Record/Sunday News
  31. ^ Ex-Trooper get jail time for fatal Upper Dublin Crash, by Margret Gibbons, 4 March 2014, The Intelligencer

External links