|Native to||United States|
|Ethnicity||2,500 Pawnee (2007) |
|10 (2007) |
Pre-contact distribution of Pawnee
The Pawnee language is a Caddoan language spoken by some Pawnee Native Americans who now live in north-central Oklahoma. Their traditional historic lands were along the Platte River in what is now Nebraska.
Once the language of thousands of Pawnees, today Pawnee is spoken by a shrinking number of elderly speakers. As more young people learn English as their first language, the status of Pawnee declines towards extinction. However, as of 2007, the Pawnee Nation is developing teaching materials for the local high school and for adult language classes. Now, there are extensive documentary materials in the language archived at the American Indian Studies Research Institute. 
The following describes the South Band dialect.
- /ʔ/ is predictable when it occurs in the middle of words. However, since /ʔ/ is not completely predictable at the end of words, it may also need to be considered as a (phonemic) consonant.
|Spelling||Sound ( IPA)||English equivalents|
|c||ʃ ~ ts||shell, push ~ pants|
|′||ʔ||The "-" in uh-oh|
|Spelling||Sound (IPA)||English equivalents|
- American Indian Studies Research Institute. (2008). Dictionary Database: Pawnee (Skiri and Southband dialects).
- American Indian Studies Research Institute. (2001). Pawnee Alphabet Book.
- Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
- Parks, Douglas R. (1976). A grammar of Pawnee. New York: Garland.
- Taylor, Allan R. (1978). [Review of A grammar of Pawnee by D. Parks]. Language, 54 (4), 969-972.
|Pawnee language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- Pawnee Language Program, sponsored by the Pawnee Nation and Indiana University