|IBA official cocktail|
|Primary alcohol by volume|
|Served||On the rocks; poured over ice|
|Standard drinkware||Old Fashioned glass|
|Preparation||Place sugar cube in old fashioned glass and saturate with bitters, add a dash of plain water.
Muddle until dissolved.
|Old Fashioned recipe at International Bartenders Association|
The Old Fashioned is a cocktail made by muddling sugar with bitters, then adding alcohol, originally whiskey but now sometimes brandy and finally a twist of citrus rind. It is traditionally served in a short, round, tumbler-like glass, which is called an Old Fashioned glass, after the drink.
The Old Fashioned, developed during the 19th century and given its name in the 1880s, is an IBA Official Cocktail.  It is also one of six basic drinks listed in David A. Embury's The Fine Art of Mixing Drinks.
The first documented definition of the word "cocktail" was in response to a reader's letter asking to define the word in the May 6, 1806 issue of The Balance and Columbian Repository in Hudson, New York. In the May 13, 1806 issue, the paper's editor wrote that it was a potent concoction of spirits, bitters, water, and sugar; it was also referred to at the time as a bittered sling.   J.E. Alexander describes the cocktail similarly in 1833, as he encountered it in New York City, as being rum, gin, or brandy, significant water, bitters, and sugar, though he includes a nutmeg garnish as well. 
By the 1860s, it was common for orange curaçao, absinthe, and other liqueurs to be added to the cocktail. The original concoction, albeit in different proportions, came back into vogue, and was referred to as "old-fashioned".   The most popular of the in-vogue "old-fashioned" cocktails were made with whiskey, according to a Chicago barman, quoted in the Chicago Daily Tribune in 1882, with rye being more popular than Bourbon. The recipe he describes is a similar combination of spirits, bitters, water and sugar of seventy-six years earlier. 
The first use of the name "Old Fashioned" for a Bourbon whiskey cocktail was said to have been at the Pendennis Club, a gentlemen's club founded in 1881 in Louisville, Kentucky. The recipe was said to have been invented by a bartender at that club in honor of Colonel James E. Pepper, a prominent bourbon distiller, who brought it to the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel bar in New York City. 
With its conception rooted in the city's history, in 2015 the city of Louisville named the Old Fashioned as its official cocktail. Each year, during the first two weeks of June, Louisville celebrates "Old Fashioned Fortnight" which encompasses bourbon events, cocktail specials and National Bourbon Day which is always celebrated on June 14. 
George Kappeler provides several of the earliest published recipes for Old Fashioned cocktails in his 1895 book. Recipes are given for Whiskey, Brandy, Holland gin, and Old Tom gin. The Whiskey Old Fashioned recipe specifies the following (with a jigger being 2 US fluid ounces (59 ml)): 
By the 1860s, as illustrated by Jerry Thomas' 1862 book, basic cocktail recipes included Curaçao, or other liqueurs. These liqueurs were not mentioned in the early 19th century descriptions, nor the Chicago Daily Tribune descriptions of the "Old Fashioned" cocktails of the early 1880s; they were absent from Kappeler's Old Fashioned recipes as well. The differences of the Old Fashioned cocktail recipes from the cocktail recipes of the late 19th Century are mainly preparation method, the use of sugar and water in lieu of simple or gomme syrup, and the absence of additional liqueurs. These Old Fashioned cocktail recipes are literally for cocktails done the old-fashioned way. 
Use small bar glass
3 or 4 dashes of gum syrup
2 do [dashes] bitters Bogart's
1 wine glass of gin
1 or 2 dashes of Curaçao
1 small piece lemon peel
fill one third full of fine ice shake well and strain in a glass 
Old Fashioned Holland Gin Cocktail
Crush a small lump of sugar in a whiskey glass containing a little water,
add a lump of ice,
two dashes of Angostura bitters,
a small piece of lemon peel,
one jigger Holland gin.
Mix with small bar spoon.
A book by David Embury published in 1948 provides a slight variation,  specifying 12 parts American whiskey, 1 part simple syrup, 1-3 dashes Angostura bitters, a twist of lemon peel over the top, and serve garnished with the lemon peel.
Two additional recipes from the 1900s vary in the precise ingredients, but omit the cherry which was introduced after 1930 as well as the soda water which the occasional recipe calls for. Orange bitters were a popular ingredient in the late 19th century. 
The original Old Fashioned recipe would have showcased the whiskey available in America in the 19th century: Irish, Bourbon or rye whiskey.  But in some regions, especially Wisconsin, brandy is substituted for whiskey (sometimes called a Brandy Old Fashioned).    Eventually the use of other spirits became common, such as a gin recipe becoming popularized in the late 1940s. 
Common garnishes for an Old Fashioned include an orange slice or a maraschino cherry or both,  although these modifications came around 1930, some time after the original recipe was invented.  While some recipes began making sparse use of the orange zest for flavor, the practice of muddling orange and other fruit gained prevalence as late as the 1990s. 
The Old Fashioned is the cocktail of choice of Don Draper, the lead character on the Mad Men television series, set in the 1960s.  The use of the drink in the series coincided with a renewed interest in this and other classic cocktails in the 2000s. 
In the movie It's a Mad Mad Mad Mad World (1963), pilot Tyler Fitzgerald ( Jim Backus) directs passenger Dingy Bell ( Mickey Rooney) to the aircraft's bar to "make us some Old Fashioneds." Annoyed by suggestions that he should limit drinking while piloting an airplane, and finding Bell's Old Fashioneds too sweet, Fitzgerald turns the controls over to Bell's sidekick Benjy Benjamin ( Buddy Hackett) and retires to the back of the plane to "make some Old Fashioneds the Old Fashioned way, the way dear old dad used to." When Benjamin asks what if something happens, Fitzgerald replies, "What could happen to an Old Fashioned?"
In the television series M*A*S*H, character Margaret Houlihan frequently orders an Old Fashioned, "without the fruit", while in the Officers Club.
In the television series Grey's Anatomy, in the fourth episode of the ninth season, Dr. Christina Yang and Dr. Thomas order two Old Fashioned in a bar after duty hours at The Clinic.
In the movie Crazy, Stupid, Love, the Old Fashioned is the preferred cocktail of pickup artist Jacob Palmer, and he is shown drinking it both in the bar and at home.
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- Simonson, Robert (2014). The Old-Fashioned: The Story of the World's First Classic Cocktail, with Recipes and Lore. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1607745358.