Ohio History Connection is a non-profit organization incorporated in 1885 as The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society "to promote a knowledge of archaeology and history, especially in Ohio".  Until May 24, 2014, the organization was known as the Ohio Historical Society.  Ohio History Connection exists to interpret, preserve, collect, and make available evidence of the past, and to provide leadership on furthering knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of the prehistory and history of Ohio and of the broader cultural and natural environments of which Ohio is a part. Its predecessor was founded by Brig. Gen. Roeliff Brinkerhoff in 1875. That society became dormant, and was revived at the urging of Governor George Hoadly in 1885. 
Ohio History Connection operates dozens of state historic sites across Ohio. Its headquarters is the 250,000-square-foot (23,000 m²) Ohio History Center in Columbus, Ohio, a Brutalist concrete structure.   Extensive exhibits cover Ohio's history from the Ice Age to the present. The Center includes state archives and library spaces, a gift shop, and administrative and educational facilities. The 1989 Smithsonian Guide to Historic America described the Center as "probably the finest museum in America devoted to pre-European history."
The Ohio History Connection has appointed a Curator of Archaeology, to oversee the museum's archaeological collection, since 1894: 
- Warren K. Moorehead,1894–1897
- Clarence Loveberry, 1897–1898
- Lucy Allen, 1898
- William Corless Mills, 1898–1921
- Henry C. Shetrone, 1921–1928
- Emerson Greenman, 1928–1935
- Richard G. Morgan, 1936–1948
- Raymond S. Baby, 1948–1979
- Martha Potter Otto, 1974–2009
Ohio Village, a reconstructed 1890s-era town, is a living museum on the grounds of the Ohio History Center.  In 2002, budget cuts forced the Ohio Village to close except for special events, school and tour groups. Since 2012, it is open to visitors from Memorial Day to Labor Day and for special events such as the Country Living Fair, All Hallows Eve, and Dickens of a Christmas.
The village houses the renowned Ohio Village Muffins, a vintage baseball club. Since 1981, the Muffins have promoted the preservation of the game as it was played in 1860. Competitions are played every year.
Ohio History Connection also provides educators with resources for the state's schools. Field trips, outreach programs, and educational kit trunks are available to assist teachers with supplemental learning in their classrooms. Also offered are distance learning courses. Affiliated with the Ohio History Connection is the Ohio Educational Resources Center, which loans materials to assist teachers with their lessons. The society also provides public programs that include speakers, theatrical productions, conferences, workshops, holiday gatherings, and presentations. The topics of these programs range from the Underground Railroad to the role of the state in other historical events.
Ohio History Connection publishes Ohio History Central, an extensive online encyclopedia of Ohio history. Ohio History Central consists of over 3,000 entries about Ohio's natural history, prehistory, and history. The entries are complemented by nearly 2,000 images. The site is fully searchable, and users may browse entries by category, topic, media, time period, or geographic region within the state. Special features include image galleries, Ohio Quick Facts, Ohio Across Time (a time line of events that occurred in Ohio or that impacted Ohio’s history), and Useful Links (to Ohio History Connection websites; Ohio county and local history websites; and other state, municipal, and regional encyclopedias). Registered users can also create personal scrapbooks using any of the encyclopedia's entries and images.
Ohio History Connection operates a statewide network of historical, archaeological and natural history sites. Admission is free for members. In some cases, Ohio History Connection has contracted with other organizations for management (viz. Serpent Mound)
- Custer Memorial, New Rumley
- Fort Laurens, Bolivar
- McCook House, Carrollton
- Museum of Ceramics, East Liverpool
- Quaker Meeting House, Mount Pleasant
- Schoenbrunn Village, New Philadelphia
- Shaker Historical Museum, Shaker Heights
- Tallmadge Church, Tallmadge
- Youngstown Historical Center, Youngstown
- Zoar Village, Zoar
- Neil Armstrong Air and Space Museum, Wapakoneta
- Cedar Bog, Urbana
- Cooke House, Sandusky
- Fallen Timbers, Toledo
- Fort Amanda, Lima
- Fort Meigs, Perrysburg
- Fort Recovery
- Glacial Grooves State Memorial, Kelleys Island
- Hayes Presidential Center, Fremont
- Indian Mill Museum, Upper Sandusky
- Inscription Rock, Kelleys Island
- Lockington Locks
- Piqua Historical Area
- Flint Ridge State Memorial
- Hanby House
- Harding Home
- Harding Tomb
- Logan Elm
- Newark Earthworks: Great Circle Earthworks
- Newark Earthworks: Octagon Earthworks
- Newark Earthworks: Wright Earthworks
- Ohio History Center
- Ohio Village
- Shrum Mound
- Wahkeena Preserve
- Adena Mansion
- Davis Memorial
- Dunbar House
- Fort Ancient
- Fort Jefferson
- Fort Hill State Memorial
- Grant Birthplace
- Grant Boyhood Home
- Grant Schoolhouse
- Harrison Tomb
- Miamisburg Mound
- National Afro-American Museum & Cultural Center
- Rankin House
- Serpent Mound
- Story Mound
- Stowe House
- Big Bottom, Stockport
- Buckeye Furnace, Wellston
- Buffington Island
- Campus Martius, Marietta
- Leo Petroglyph
- McCook Monument
- National Road/Zane Grey Museum, New Concord
- Ohio River Museum, Marietta
- Our House
- Ephraim C. Dawes, Civil War veteran and trustee of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society
- History of Ohio
- Ohio in the American Civil War
- History of Cleveland, Ohio
- "Articles of Incorporation: March 13, 1885". Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications. VI: ix. 1898.
- Thomas, Shannon (2014-04-21). "Ohio Historical Society Changes Its Name To Ohio History Connection". Ohio History Connection.
- "History of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society". Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications. VI: vii. 1898.
- "An Ode to Brutal Architecture". Ohio Historical Society. 7 June 2010. Retrieved 2011-06-16.
- Jeff Regenburger (7 June 2010). "The Ohio Historical Center: A Defense". OnSummit.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2011-06-16.
- Lepper, Brad (2014-10-03). "Lucy Allen – The Ohio History Connection's First Female Curator of Archaeology". Ohio History Connection Archaeology Blog. Ohio History Connection. Retrieved 2016-07-31.
- "Ohio Village". Ohio History Connection. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Online archive of past volumes of Ohio History
|Wikisource has the text of a 1905 New International Encyclopedia article about Ohio History Connection.|