Military history of Vermont Article

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The military history of Vermont covers the military history of the American state of Vermont, as part of French colonial America; as part of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York during the British colonial period and during the French and Indian Wars; as the independent New Connecticut and later Vermont during the American Revolution; and as a state during the War of 1812 and the American Civil War.

In 1666, Fort Sainte Anne was established as the first permanent European settlement, by the French, at Isle La Motte, Vermont. This was done to protect Canada from the Iroquois.

Pre-revolutionary battles

At the time of the arrival of Europeans early in the 17th century, the territory of Vermont was not permanently settled. It was treated as a hunting ground by several Indian tribes including the Iroquois and Abenaki. These Indian nations regularly fought each other in this area. Zadock Thompson wrote several powerful tribes who were incessantly at war with each other, it became the bloody theatre of their battles. Then, when the English and French settled North America, the area became a battleground between these colonial powers and their Indian allies. [1] [2] In King William's War and Queen Anne's War raiding parties crossed the territory to attack targets in New England and New France. These notably included the 1704 Raid on Deerfield, Massachusetts, and the 1708 Raid on Haverhill, Massachusetts, both conducted by combined French and Indian forces departing from the Saint Lawrence River valley.

Father Rale's War

Father Rale's War (1722–1725) (the Fourth Indian War) took place in present-day Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Fort Dummer was established in Vermont. [3] [4] [5]

American Revolution

Battle of Hubbardton

The Battle of Hubbardton was fought on July 7, 1777, near Hubbardton, Vermont. An engagement between General Simon Fraser of Great Britain and American forces retreating following the Siege Fort Ticonderoga, it was the only battle properly fought on the soil of what would become the state of Vermont. The battle was a victory for the British, due to the arrival of Hessian forces under the command of General Friedrich Adolf Riedesel; however the cost of the victory was sufficient to discourage pursuit of the retreating American forces.

Battle of Bennington

The Battle of Bennington was fought August 16, 1777 in what is now Walloomsac, New York. The territory at the time disputed between New York and Vermont,[ citation needed] was fought over supplies and troops based in Bennington. Brigadier General John Stark's brigade of New Hampshire militia was based at Bennington, Vermont. [6]

The battle is commemorated by the Bennington Battle Monument, located in Bennington, Vermont; the monument is the tallest man-made structure in the state of Vermont. [7]

Royalton Raid

In October 1780 British commanders led an Indian raid against various towns along the White River Valley.

War of 1812

Although Vermont was not the scene of any major battles during the War of 1812, its position as a border state with British North America, and the demands by the federal government for the recruitment of troops dictated the state's involvement in the war. Several regiments of U. S. Army troops were raised, as were militia companies for the defense of the state's northern border areas. Vermont troops served primarily in the military campaigns in northern New York. [8]

American Civil War

St. Albans Raid

  • St. Albans Raid was the northernmost land action of the American Civil War, taking place in St. Albans, Vermont on October 19, 1864.

References

  1. ^ Zadock Thompson (1842), History of Vermont page 16
  2. ^ "Gathering and Interactions of Peoples, Cultures, and Ideas Native Americans in Vermont: the Abenaki by Elise A. Guyette Flow of History c/o Southeast Vermont Community Learning Collaborative". flowofhistory.org.
  3. ^ Bouton, Nathaniel; Hammond, Isaac Weare; Batchellor, Albert Stillman; Metcalf, Henry Harrison; Hammond, Otis Grant (28 March 1871). "Provincial and State Papers" – via Google Books.
  4. ^ HALL, HILDAN (28 March 1868). "THE HISTORY OF VERMONT FROM THE DISCOVERY TO ITS ADMISSION INTO THE UNION IN 1791". p. 477 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Vermont State Parks: Fort Dummer State Park Archived 17 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ "Battle of Bennington". www.britishbattles.com.
  7. ^ "Bennington Battle Monument". Vermont State Historic Sites. Vermont Department of Housing and Community Affairs. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
  8. ^ Wilbur, La Fayette (28 March 2018). "Early History of Vermont". Roscoe Printing House – via Google Books.

External links