|Governor-elect of Ohio|
January 14, 2019
|Lieutenant||Jon Husted (elect)|
|50th Attorney General of Ohio|
|Assumed office |
January 10, 2011
|Preceded by||Richard Cordray|
|Succeeded by||Dave Yost (Elect)|
United States Senator|
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2007
|Preceded by||Howard Metzenbaum|
|Succeeded by||Sherrod Brown|
|59th Lieutenant Governor of Ohio|
January 14, 1991 – November 12, 1994
|Preceded by||Paul Leonard|
|Succeeded by||Nancy Hollister|
|Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives|
from Ohio's 7th district
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1991
|Preceded by||Bud Brown|
|Succeeded by||Dave Hobson|
|Member of the
from the 10th district
January 2, 1981 – December 13, 1982
|Preceded by||John Mahoney|
|Succeeded by||Dave Hobson|
Richard Michael DeWine
January 5, 1947
Yellow Springs, Ohio, U.S.
|Children||8, including Pat|
Miami University (
Ohio Northern University ( JD)
Richard Michael DeWine (born January 5, 1947) is an American politician based in the state of Ohio currently serving as the state's 50th Attorney General, and is also the state's Governor-elect, having been elected to the position during the 2018 midterm elections, and will officially take office as Ohio's 70th Governor in January 2019.
A member of the Republican Party, DeWine is a former United States Senator, elected in 1994 and reelected in 2000. He served alongside Democrat John Glenn as the junior U.S. Senator from Ohio from 1995 until 1999, when the swearing-in of fellow Republican and former Ohio Governor George Voinovich gave him seniority status. DeWine had served as Lieutenant Governor of Ohio under Voinovich from 1991 until 1994. In 2006, DeWine ran for reelection to a third term, but lost to the Democratic nominee, U.S. Representative Sherrod Brown. In 2010, DeWine was elected Ohio Attorney General, defeating Democratic incumbent Richard Cordray, and was reelected for a second term in 2014. In the 2018 gubernatorial election, DeWine was elected Governor of Ohio, defeating Cordray in a rematch of their 2010 race. 
Prior to his being nominated as Voinovich's running mate in the 1990 election, DeWine served as the U.S. Representative for Ohio's 7th congressional district for four consecutive terms beginning in 1983. He also served as an Ohio State Senator for one term.
- 1 Personal life
- 2 Political career
- 3 Political positions
- 4 Electoral history
- 5 References
- 6 External links
DeWine was born in Yellow Springs, Ohio,  the son of Jean Ruth (Liddle) and Richard Lee DeWine.   He lives in Cedarville, Ohio, but grew up in neighboring Yellow Springs, Ohio. Of Irish descent, he was raised and identifies as a Roman Catholic.    DeWine earned his Bachelor of Science degree in education from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio in 1969 and a Juris Doctor from Ohio Northern University College of Law in 1972.
He and his wife Frances have been married since June 3, 1967  and have had eight children, one of whom died in an automobile accident in 1993.  Current Ohio Supreme Court Justice R. Patrick DeWine is Mike DeWine's son. Former Ohio Republican Party Chairman Kevin DeWine (R-Fairborn) is DeWine's second cousin. DeWine and his family own Minor League Baseball's Asheville Tourists. 
At age 25, DeWine started working as an Assistant Prosecuting Attorney for Greene County, Ohio, and in 1976 was elected County Prosecutor, serving for four years.   In 1980 he was elected to the Ohio State Senate and served one two-year term. 
Two years later, U.S. Representative Bud Brown of Ohio's 7th congressional district retired after 26 years in Congress; his father, Clarence Brown, Sr., had held the seat for 26 years before that. DeWine won the Republican nomination, assuring him of election in November. He was reelected three more times from this district, which stretches from his home in Springfield to the Columbus suburbs. He ran unopposed in 1986 during what is regarded as a bad year for Republicans nationally. DeWine gave up his seat in 1990 to run for Lieutenant Governor of Ohio as the running mate of George Voinovich. The Voinovich-DeWine ticket was easily elected.
In 1994, DeWine ran for the United States Senate, defeating prominent attorney Joel Hyatt (the son-in-law of the then-incumbent U.S. Sen. Howard Metzenbaum) by a solid 14-point margin. DeWine was reelected in 2000, defeating gunshow promoter Ronald Dickson (161,185 votes, or 12.44%) and former U.S. Rep. Frank Cremeans (104,219 votes, or 8.05%) in the primary  and Ted Celeste (brother of former Ohio Gov. Dick Celeste) in the general election. DeWine was defeated in the 2006 midterm elections by Democrat Sherrod Brown, receiving 905,644 fewer votes in 2006 than he received in 2000.  
DeWine accepted positions teaching government courses at Cedarville University, Ohio Northern University and Miami University. In 2007, he joined the law firm Keating Muething & Klekamp as corporate investigations group co-chair.  He also advised the Ohio campaign of John McCain's 2008 presidential bid. 
On July 22, 2009, DeWine announced his intention to run for Attorney General of the State of Ohio.[ citation needed] On November 2, 2010, DeWine was elected Attorney General of the state of Ohio, defeating incumbent Richard Cordray (D) 48–46%.  As attorney general of Ohio, DeWine sent letters to drugstore chains, encouraging them to discontinue the sale of tobacco products. 
In the 2012 Republican presidential primary, DeWine endorsed Tim Pawlenty, then endorsed Mitt Romney after Pawlenty dropped out of the race. On February 17, 2012, DeWine announced he was retracting his endorsement of Mitt Romney and endorsed Rick Santorum. DeWine said, "To be elected president, you have to do more than tear down your opponents. You have to give the American people a reason to vote for you, a reason to hope, a reason to believe that under your leadership, America will be better. Rick Santorum has done that. Sadly, Governor Romney has not." 
In 2015, as Attorney General of Ohio, DeWine filed a lawsuit in federal court in Ohio against a part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA).   In the suit, DeWine alleged that the ACA's Transitional Reinsurance Program (which imposed a fee "paid by all employers who provide group health insurance in the workplace," which in 2014 was $63 per covered person and in 2015 was $44 per covered person) was unconstitutional as applied to state and local governments.  When he filed the suit, DeWine claimed that the fee was "an unprecedented attempt to destroy the balance of authority between the federal government and the states." 
In January 2016, the federal court dismissed DeWine's suit, with U.S. District Judge Algenon L. Marbley holding that the Transitional Reinsurance Program did not violate the Constitution.  The State of Ohio appealed, but the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit affirmed Judge Marbley's dismissal of the suit. 
DeWine’s stated goal has been “Protecting Ohio Families.”  To that effect, Attorney General DeWine made it a priority to significantly reduce DNA testing turnaround times in connection with open criminal investigations. Under his predecessor, DNA testing at the Ohio Attorney General’s Bureau of Criminal Investigation (BCI) took approximately four months in cases such as murders, rapes, and assaults. Under the DeWine administration, DNA test results are now returned to local law enforcement in less than a month, leading to faster apprehension of dangerous suspects. 
Upon taking office in 2011, Attorney General DeWine launched a special Sexual Assault Kit (SAK) Testing Initiative after learning that hundreds of police departments across Ohio had thousands of untested rape kits on their evidence room shelves. DeWine invested resources to test the 13,931 previously untested rape kits over the course of his administration, which led to more than 5,000 DNA hits in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS).  These DNA matches led to the indictments of approximately 700 alleged rapists, many of whom were serial attackers, connected to cases that would never have been solved if not for the DeWine initiative. 
DeWine also launched the Crimes Against Children Initiative, which paired BCI criminal investigators with seasoned prosecuting attorneys to investigate and prosecute child predators. DeWine’s Crimes Against Children Initiative focuses on holding accountable those who sexually and physically abuse children, those who share and view child pornography, and those who target children online.  DeWine’s office also developed several task forces for the investigation and prosecutions of human trafficking throughout the state. 
As attorney general, DeWine took steps to close down "pill mills" in Ohio that fueled the opioid epidemic. By the end of his first year in office, DeWine had worked to close all 12 pill mills in Scioto County , considered by many to have been the national center of the prescription drug crisis.  DeWine's efforts also led to more than 100 doctors and pharmacists losing their licenses for improper prescription practices.  In 2013, DeWine formed a new Heroin Unit to provide Ohio communities with law enforcement, legal, and outreach assistance to combat the state’s heroin problem. The Heroin Unit draws from new and existing office resources, including: BCI investigative and laboratory services, Ohio Organized Crime Investigations Commission assistance, prosecutorial support, and outreach and education services.  In October 2017, DeWine announced a 12-pronged plan to combat the opioid epidemic, drawing from his experience breaking up pill mills, prosecuting traffickers, supporting recovery, and advocating the importance of drug-use prevention education.  In addition, Attorney General DeWine has gone after the pharmaceutical industry, suing opioid manufacturers  and distributors  for their alleged roles in fraudulent marketing and unsafe distribution of opioids that fueled the epidemic in Ohio and across the country.
In October 2017, news reports surfaced that Anthony Precourt, the investor/operator of the Columbus Crew, was exploring the option of moving the team out of state.  After the move of the Cleveland Browns to Baltimore in the late 1990s, the Ohio General Assembly passed a law requiring professional sports teams that had accepted tax-payer assistance to provide an opportunity for local owners to purchase the team before initiating a move.  In December 2017, DeWine sent a letter to Mr. Precourt reminding him of his obligations under Ohio law.  After Precourt failed to respond, DeWine filed a lawsuit in March 2018 against Precourt and Major League Soccer to enforce Ohio law and insist upon a reasonable opportunity for local investors to buy the team.  ] As the lawsuit played out in court, an investor group including Dee and Jimmy Haslam, owners of the Cleveland Browns, and the Columbus-based Edwards Family announced in October 2018 they were working out the details of a deal to keep the Crew in Columbus. 
On May 26, 2016, DeWine announced that he would run for Governor of Ohio in 2018.  He reconfirmed this on June 25, 2017 at the annual ice cream social held at his home in Cedarville, Ohio. On December 1, 2017, DeWine officially chose Ohio Secretary of State Jon Husted as his running mate. On May 8, 2018, DeWine successfully won the Republican Primary, defeating incumbent Lieutenant Governor Mary Taylor, with 59.8% of the vote. He faced Democratic nominee and former Ohio Attorney General Richard Cordray in the general election, their second election against each other, defeating him by a margin of about 4%.
As U.S. Senator, DeWine joined a bipartisan effort to lower the national maximum blood-alcohol limit from 0.10% to 0.08%, and to require reporting of vehicle-related deaths on private property like parking lots and driveways.  He sponsored legislation on determining when aging tires become unsafe. 
As Attorney General of Ohio, DeWine did not join the lawsuits that over 22 states filed in the months following FCC Commissioner Ajit Pai's proposal to rollback online consumer protections, and net neutrality regulations. 
DeWine opposes same-sex marriage  and sponsored the Federal Marriage Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which would have prevented same-sex marriage.  DeWine argued in the Supreme Court in favor of prohibitions on same-sex marriage, saying that prohibitions on same-sex marriage infringes on "no fundamental right."   He argued that states should not have to recognize same-sex couples who married in other states.  DeWine opposed State Issue 1, Ohio's constitutional amendment defining marriage as one man and one woman, arguing that the prohibitions against employee benefits for domestic partners would hurt Ohio businesses. 
In 2004 DeWine co-sponsored an amendment to renew the Federal Assault Weapons Ban. He has repeatedly received an "F" rating from the National Rifle Association.  He was one of only two Republican Senators to vote against the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act,  which banned lawsuits against gun manufacturers, distributors and dealers for criminal misuse of their products. In the 2006 election cycle, DeWine was the first senatorial candidate to be endorsed by the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence and displayed that endorsement on his campaign webpage. 
After President George W. Bush nominated White House Counsel Harriet Miers on October 3, 2005, for a seat on the U.S. Supreme Court, DeWine said "I think the fact she doesn't have judicial experience will add to the diversity of the Supreme Court. There is no reason everyone has to have that same [judicial] background." 
|Primary election results|
|1992||U.S. Senator||Primary||Mike DeWine||Republican||583,805||70.30%||George Rhodes||Republican||246,625||29.70%|
|1994||U.S. Senator||Primary||Mike DeWine||Republican||422,367||52.04%||Bernadine Healy||Republican||263,560||32.47%||Gene Watts||Republican||83,103||10.24%||George Rhodes||Republican||42,633||5.25%|
|2000||U.S. Senator||Primary||Mike DeWine||Republican||1,029,860||79.51%||Ronald Richard Dickson||Republican||161,185||12.44%||Frank Cremeans||Republican||104,219||8.05%|
|2006||U.S. Senator||Primary||Mike DeWine||Republican||565,580||71.71%||David Smith||Republican||114,186||14.48%||William Pierce||Republican||108,978||13.82%|
|General election results  |
|1982||U.S. Representative||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||87,842||56.26%||Roger D. Tackett||Democratic||65,543||41.97%||John B. Winer||Libertarian||2,761||1.77%|
|1984||U.S. Representative||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||147,885||76.68%||Donald E. Scott||Democratic||40,621||21.06%||N/A||Independent||4,352||2.26%|
|1986||U.S. Representative||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||119,238||100%|
|1988||U.S. Representative||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||142,597||73.88%||Jack Schira||Democratic||50,423||26.12%|
|1990||Lieutenant Governor of Ohio||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||1,938,103||55.73%||Eugene Branstool||Democratic||1,539,416||44.27%|
|1992||U.S. Senator||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||2,028,300||42.31%||John Glenn||Democratic||2,444,419||50.99%||Martha Grevatt||Workers World Party||321,234||6.70%|
|1994||U.S. Senator||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||1,836,556||53.44%||Joel Hyatt||Democratic||1,348,213||39.23%||Joseph J. Slovenec||Independent||252,031||7.33%|
|2000||U.S. Senator||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||2,666,736||60.0%||Ted Celeste||Democratic||1,597,122||35.9%||John McAlister||Libertarian||117,466||2.4%||John Eastman||Natural Law||70,738||1.6%||*|
|2006||U.S. Senator||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||1,761,092||43.82%||Sherrod Brown||Democratic||2,257,485||56.16%||Richard Duncan||Write-in||830||0.02%|
|2010||Attorney General of Ohio||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||1,821,414||47.54%||Richard Cordray||Democratic||1,772,728||46.26%||Robert Owens||Constitution||130,065||3.39%||Marc Feldman||Libertarian||107,521||2.81%|
|2014||Attorney General of Ohio||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||1,882,048||61.50%||David Pepper||Democratic||1,178,426||38.50%|
|2018||Governor of Ohio||General||Mike DeWine||Republican||2,187,619||50.66%||Richard Cordray||Democratic||2,005,627||46.45||Travis Irvine||Libertarian||77,184||1.79%||Constance Gadell-Newton||Green||47,664||1.10%|
*Write-in candidates Michael Fitzsimmons received 45 votes (< 1%) and Patrick Flower received 29 votes (< 1%)
- "The Latest: GOP retains control of Ohio House, Senate". AP NEWS. 2018-11-07. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
https://ysnews.com/news/2018/11/hometown-candidate-dewine-aims-for-top-state-office. Retrieved November 10, 2018. Missing or empty
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- "US Senator Mike DeWine: Pro-life, Pro-children, Pro-family". Franciscan Media. 2016-08-31. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
- "Contact your Legislators - Catholic Conference of Ohio". 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
- "Mike DeWine takes a rare political misstep". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
- Laviola, Erin (October 11, 2018). "Frances Struewing DeWine, Mike DeWine's Wife: 5 Fast Facts".
"Patrol say DeWine's daughter driving too fast" (PDF). The BG News September 7, 1993 - ScholarWorks@BGSU (Vol 76, Issue 10). September 7, 1993. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
Lt. Gov. Michael DeWine's daughter was driving too fast for the wet road conditions when she was killed in a collision, the State Highway Patrol said Monday. Trooper D.T. Heard at the Xenia post said the patrol determined that Rebecca A. DeWine was driving 55 mph on Aug. 4 when her car went across the center line on a curve. The car hit a pickup truck going 39 mph on U.S. 42 north of Xenia, Heard said Monday. The speed recommended on the curve is 25 mph, he said.
- "DeWine group to purchase Tourists". MiLB.com. January 5, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Gomez, Henry J. (October 14, 2014). "Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine looks back on first term and ahead to possible run for governor: Q&A". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- Johnson, Alan (September 21, 2014). "Attorney general candidates DeWine, Pepper are vastly different". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- Clifford Krauss Krauss, Clifford (October 15, 1992). "In Big Re-election Fight, Glenn Tests Hero Image". New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2008.
- "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. Senate Results". fec.gov. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- "About the Office". state.oh.us. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- "About the Office". state.oh.us. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- "Drug-Free Century Act (1999; 106th Congress S. 5) - GovTrack.us". GovTrack.us. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- Eaton, Sabrina (May 5, 2007). "Mike DeWine joins Cincinnati law firm". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- Riskind, Jonathan (January 10, 2007). "DeWine to start teaching two courses on politics". Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
- "Mike DeWine defeats Richard Cordray to win Ohio's attorney general race". cleveland.com. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- Harris, Elizabeth (March 16, 2014). "States Urge Retail Giants With Pharmacies to Stop Selling Tobacco Products". New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- Ohio AG Mike DeWine switches backing from Romney to Santorum before GOP presidential primary
- "Ohio, Warren Co. sue feds over Obamacare fee". Cincinnati.com. January 26, 2015. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- Mary Wisniewski, Ohio sues over Obamacare taxes on state, local governments, Reuters (January 26, 2015).
- Stephen Koff, Ohio loses its latest challenge to Obamacare, Cleveland.com (January 6, 2016).
- John Kennedy, ACA Program Isn't An Improper Tax On States, 6th Circ. Says, Law360 (February 17, 2017).
- "DeWine vows to work 'to protect Ohio families' in second term as attorney general". KentWired.com. November 4, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- "Ohio drops DNA evidence testing turnaround time; decreased from 125 days to 20 days". News5Clevealnd.com. January 4, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- "DNA tests of old rape kits identify up to 277 suspects locally". Dispatch.com. February 23, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- "Completed testing of 13,931 rape kits signals progress, unfinished business and investigations remain". Cleveland.com. February 23, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- "Ohio AG launches Bold New "Crimes Against Children Initiative"". Fox19.com. November 18, 2011. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- "Ohio Attorney General's task force focuses on helping victims of human trafficking". News5Cleveland.com. January 9, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- "Arrests made in statewide crackdown on 'pill mills'". SpringfieldNewsSun.com. December 20, 2011. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- "How Heroin Made Its Way From Rural Mexico To Small-Town America". NPR. May 19, 2015. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- "Ohio governor candidates on the issues: Opioid crisis". Dayton Daily News. September 18, 2018. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- "Attorney General Mike DeWine launches heroin unit to help address rising addiction numbers, death toll". Cleveland.com. November 18, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- "Ohio Attorney General outlines opioid recovery plan". ToledoBlade.com. October 31, 2017. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- "Ohio Sues Drug Makers, Saying They Aided Opioid Epidemic". New York Times. May 31, 2017. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- "Ohio suing drug distributors over opioid epidemic". Dispatch.com. February 26, 2018. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- "Columbus Crew SC reportedly set to move barring new downtown stadium". MassiveReport.com. October 16, 2018. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- "Restrictions on owner of professional sports team that uses a tax-supported facility.". Ohio Revised Code § No. 9.67 of June 20, 1996.
- "Ohio attorney general threatens to invoke law that would keep Crew SC in Columbus". SBNation.com\accessdate=October 29, 2018. December 7, 2018.
- "Ohio sues MLS, Columbus Crew owners to stop the team from relocating". SBNation.com. March 5, 2018. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- "The Columbus Crew has been saved - by the Haslams and the Art Modell Law". Cleveland.com. October 13, 2018. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- Garbe, Will (May 26, 2016). "Mike DeWine confirms run for Ohio governor in 2018". WHIO. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
"Ohio senator makes his mark on highway safety". August 9, 2005. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
...drunken driving [is] a central focus of DeWine's highway-safety attention. He was behind the move to make 0.08% the national maximum blood-alcohol limit, which it became this month when Minnesota was the final state to adopt it... DeWine says his years in politics helped persuade him to do something about the injuries and deaths that don't occur on public property, which is what regulators previously focused on. He wanted data about incidents in parking lots and driveways to be routinely collected, too.
"Sen. DeWine introduces tire aging bill". January 23, 2004. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
WASHINGTON (Jan. 23, 2004) — Sen. Mike DeWine, R-Ohio, has introduced a package of five highway safety bills, including one requiring tire retailers to disclose the month and year in which the tires they sell are produced. Mr. DeWine's bill also would require the National Academy of Sciences to do a definitive study of how both used and unused tires age—with an eye toward discovering the point at which an aged tire becomes unsafe.
- Schladen, Marty (December 18, 2017). "DeWine: No Ohio suit over net neutrality". Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- See S. 1019 (Unborn Victims of Violence Act), introduced May 7, 2003; S. 146 (Unborn Victims of Violence Act of 2003), introduced January 13, 2003; S.480 (Unborn Victims of Violence Act of 2001), introduced January 7, 2001. See also Karen MacPherson, " Senate votes to outlaw harming the unborn; abortion activists fear women's rights eroded" (March 26, 2004), Toldeo Blade; Carl Hulse, " Senate Outlaws Injury to Fetus During a Crime" (March 26, 2004), New York Times; Sheryl Gay Stolberg, " Washington Talk: From CNN to Congress, Legislation by Anecdote" (May 8, 2003), New York Times.
- "How gay-marriage case was born of a divided Ohio". Cincinnati.com. April 25, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
- "Ohio is pivotal to Democratic hopes to reclaim the Senate". mcclatchydc. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
- "Attorney General Mike DeWine, Gov. John Kasich acknowledge gay marriage ruling is law in Ohio". cleveland.com. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
- Torry, Jack (March 27, 2015). "DeWine defends state's ban on same-sex marriage". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
- Dao, James (November 26, 2004). "After Victory, Crusader Against Same-Sex Marriage Thinks Big". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
- "Senate considers protecting gunmakers". Associated Press. February 25, 2004. Archived from the original on March 26, 2005. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 109th Congress — 1st Session — Vote Summary on Passage of S. 397, As Amended". U.S. Senate. July 29, 2005. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- "Brady Campaign Endorses DeWine". Archived from the original on November 10, 2010. Retrieved June 23, 2006.
- "GOP: Judicial experience matters, unless it doesn't". Salon. 2010-05-10. Retrieved 2018-10-15.
- "General election Results". Ohio Secretary of State. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- "Election Statistics". United States House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
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