List of animals by number of neurons Information

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_animals_by_number_of_neurons

Table of Contents ⇨
Brief comparisons of number of whole brain neurons (top) and cerebral cortex neurons (bottom) among six mammals.

These are two lists of animals ordered by the size of their nervous system. The first list shows number of neurons in their entire nervous system, indicating their overall neural complexity. The second list shows the number of neurons in their forebrain, a measure which has been found to be representative of animal intelligence. [1] In mammals, the forebrain is represented by the cerebrum, while in birds and reptiles it is represented by the pallium.

The human brain contains 86 billion neurons, with 16 billion neurons in the cerebrum. [2] [1]

Overview

Neurons are the cells that transmit information in an animal's nervous system so that it can sense stimuli from its environment and behave accordingly. Not all animals have neurons; Trichoplax and sponges lack nerve cells altogether.

Neurons may be packed to form structures such as the brain of vertebrates or the neural ganglions of insects.

The number of neurons and their relative abundance in different parts of the brain is a determinant of neural function and, consequently, of behavior.

Whole nervous system

All numbers for neurons (except Caenorhabditis and Ciona), and all numbers for synapses (except Ciona) are estimations.

Name Neurons in the brain/whole nervous system Synapses Details Image Source
Sponge 0
Sponge.JPG
[3]
Trichoplax 0 Despite no nerve system, it exhibite a coordinated feeding and response behaviors. [4]
Trichoplax mic.jpg
[5]
Asplanchna brightwellii ( rotifer) about 200 Brain only
Rotifera microscopic view.jpg
[6]
Ciona intestinalis larva ( sea squirt) 231 8,617 (central nervous system only)
Cionaintestinalis.jpg
[7]

[8]

Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm) 302 ~7,500 is the only organism to have its whole connectome (neuronal "wiring diagram") completed. [9] [10] [11]
Adult Caenorhabditis elegans.jpg
[12]
Jellyfish 5,600 Hydra vulgaris (H. attenuate)
Jelly cc11.jpg
[13]
Megaphragma mymaripenne 7,400
Megaphragma mymaripenne-SEM (cropped-B).tif
[14]
Box jellyfish 8,70017,500 adult Tripedalia cystophora (8 mm diameter) – does not include 1000 neurons in each of the four rhopalia
Tripedalia-cystophora.png
[15]
Medicinal leech 10,000
Svømmende blodigle.JPG
[16]
Pond snail 11,000
[17]
Sea slug 18,000
Aplysia californica.jpg
[18]
Amphioxus 20,000 central nervous system only
Branchiostoma lanceolatum.jpg
[19]

[20]

Larval zebrafish 100,000
Zebrafish embryos.png
[21]
Lobster 100,000
Lobster 04.jpg
[22]
Fruit fly 250,000 < 10,000,000 In 2020 a research group announced the most sophisticated connectome [23]
Drosophila melanogaster - side (aka).jpg
[24]

[25]

Ant 250,000 Varies per species
Ant head closeup.jpg
[26]

[27]

Honey bee 960,000 ~1×10^9
Bee Collecting Pollen 2004-08-14.jpg
[28]
Cockroach 1,000,000
Cockroachcloseup.jpg
[29]
Guppy 4,300,000
Guppy pho 0048.jpg
[30]
Adult zebrafish ~10,000,000 cells (neurons + other)
Zebrafisch.jpg
[31]
Frog 16,000,000
Australia green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) crop.jpg
[32]
Naked mole-rat 26,880,000
Naked Mole rat baby.jpg
[33]
Smoky shrew 36,000,000
SmokyShrew23.jpg
[34]
Short-tailed shrew 52,000,000 Blarina carolinensisPCSL20933B.jpg [34]
Hottentot golden mole 65,000,000
Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen (Plate 39) (8557402518).jpg
[35]
House mouse 71,000,000 ~1×10^12
Mouse white background.jpg
[36]
Nile crocodile 80,500,000
Nile Crocodile (17038929167).jpg
[37]
Golden hamster 90,000,000
Golden hamster front 1.jpg
[36]
Ansell's mole-rat 103,000,000
Graumull IMG 4042.jpg
[38]
Mashona mole-rat 113,000,000 [38]
Hairy-tailed mole 124,000,000
The quadrupeds of North America (Plate LXXIV) (7748318398).jpg
[35]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 129,000,000
Eastern Rock Elephant Shrew.jpg
[35]
Star-nosed mole 131,000,000
Condylura.jpg
[34]
Zebra finch 131,000,000 Brain only Taeniopygia guttata -Karratha, Pilbara, Western Australia, Australia -male-8 (2).jpg [39]
Silvery mole-rat 148,000,000
Silvery mole-rat.png
[38]
Four-toed elephant shrew 157,000,000
Petrodromus tetradactylus tordayi - Royal Museum for Central Africa - DSC06793.JPG
[35]
Eurasian blackcap 157,000,000
Sylvia atricapilla -Lullington Heath, East Sussex, England -male-8.jpg
[39]
Goldcrest 164,000,000
Goldcrest (10649615636).jpg
[39]
Cape mole-rat 170,000,000
Georychus capensis - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02826.JPG
[38]
Mechow's mole-rat 174,000,000
Cryptomys mechowi Plzen zoo 02.2011.jpg
[38]
Damaraland mole-rat 178,000,000
Damaraland mole-rat.jpg
[38]
Brown rat 200,000,000 ~4.48×10^11
Rattus norvegicus 1.jpg
[40]
Guyenne spiny rat 202,000,000 [35]
Eastern mole 204,000,000
ScalopusAquaticus.jpg
[34]
Red junglefowl 221,000,000
Red Junglefowl - Thailand.jpg
[39]
Great tit 226,000,000
Great tit side-on.jpg
[39]
Green-rumped parrotlet 227,000,000
Forpus passerinus -Venezuela-8.jpg
[39]
Guinea pig 240,000,000
Two adult Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).jpg
[36]
Gray mouse lemur 254,710,000
Gray Mouse Lemur 1.JPG
[41]
Common treeshrew 261,000,000
Stavenn Tupaia glis 00.jpg
[42]
Pigeon 310,000,000 Brain only
Paloma bravía (Columba livia), Palacio de Nymphenburg, Múnich, Alemania01.JPG
[39]
Budgerigar 322,000,000
Yellow budgerigar.jpg
[39]
Cape dune mole-rat 361,000,000
Bathyergus suillus - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02831.JPG
[38]
Common blackbird 379,000,000
Common Blackbird.jpg
[39]
Ferret 404,000,000
Black footed ferret whole.jpg
[43]
Cockatiel 453,000,000
Cockatiel Sleeping.jpg
[39]
Gray squirrel 453,660,000
Grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) 02.jpg
[33]
Banded mongoose 454,000,000
Banded Mongoose.jpg
[43]
Prairie dog 473,940,000
Black-Tailed Prairie Dog.jpg
[33]
Common starling 483,000,000
Common Starling in Wormwood Scrubs Park in spring 2013.JPG
[39]
European rabbit 494,200,000
Oryctolagus cuniculus Tasmania 2.jpg
[33]
Octopus 500,000,000
Octopus2.jpg
[44]
Western tree hyrax 505,000,000
Beecroft'sTreeHyrax.JPG
[35]
Common marmoset 636,000,000
Marmoset copy.jpg
[42]
Eastern rosella 642,000,000
Eastern Rosella at Hobart Domain upright.jpg
[39]
Barn owl 690,000,000
Barn Owl (9652234894).jpg
[39]
Monk parakeet 697,000,000
Monk Parakeet (4303100054).jpg
[39]
Azure-winged magpie 741,000,000
Azure-winged Magpie RWD2.jpg
[39]
Rock hyrax 756,000,000
Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis) (7042223567).jpg
[35]
Cat 760,000,000 ~1×10^13
Cat mouth closed.jpg
[45]
Black-rumped agouti 857,000,000
Dasyprocta punctata (Mexico).jpg
[36]
Magpie 897,000,000
Magpie.arp.750pix.jpg
[39]
Common hill myna 906,000,000
Common Hill Myna - Gracula religiosa - Ninoy Aquino Parks & Wildlife Center 02.jpg
[39]
Northern greater galago 936,000,000 [42]
Western jackdaw 968,000,000
Jackdaw arp 750pix.jpg
[39]
Eurasian jay 1.085×10^9
Eurasian Jay on balcony.jpg
[39]
Alexandrine parakeet 1.096×10^9
Alexandrine Parakeet at Lochmara Lodge.jpg
[39]
Tanimbar corella 1.161×10^9
A Goffin's Cockatoo on a perch.jpg
[39]
Emu 1.335×10^9
Emu chick 1.jpg
[39]
Three-striped night monkey 1.468×10^9 [42]
Rook 1.509×10^9
Rook Corvus frugilegus.jpg
[39]
Grey parrot 1.566×10^9
Congo African Grey Parrot -head detail.jpg
[39]
Capybara 1.6×10^9
Capybara male.jpg
[36]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 2.122×10^9
Cacatua galerita portrait.jpg
[39]
Raccoon 2.148×10^9
Racoon (3813039203).jpg
[43]
Kea 2.149×10^9
Kea on car.jpg
[39]
Raven 2.171×10^9 Brain only
Raven (Corvus corax) (8).jpg
[39]
Domestic pig 2.22×10^9
Sow and five piglets.jpg
[46]
Dog 2.253×10^9
Domestic Dog.jpg
[43]
Springbok 2.72×10^9
Springbok.JPG
[46]
Blesbok 3.06×10^9
Blesbok - Damaliscus pygargus albifrons.jpg
[46]
Blue-and-yellow macaw 3.136×10^9 Brain only
Ara ararauna Luc Viatour.jpg
[39]
Common squirrel monkey 3.246×10^9
Common.squirrel.monkey.arp.jpg
[42]
Crab-eating macaque 3.44×10^9
Crab eating macaque face.jpg
[41]
Tufted capuchin 3.691×10^9
Sapajus apella apella (French Guyana) 4.jpg
[42]
Bonnet macaque 3.78×10^9
Bonnet Macaque Kodaikanal.jpg
[41]
Striped hyena 3.885×10^9
Striped Hyena 5.jpg
[43]
Lion 4.667×10^9
Lion waiting in Namibia.jpg
[43]
Greater kudu 4.91×10^9
Male greater kudu.jpg
[46]
Rhesus macaque 6.376×10^9
Macaca mulatta in Guiyang.jpg
[42]
Brown bear 9.586×10^9
Kamchatka Brown Bear near Dvuhyurtochnoe on 2015-07-23.jpg
[43]
Giraffe 1.075×10^10
Giraffe.jpg
[46]
Yellow baboon 1.095×10^10
Yellow Baboon - Mikumi National Park.jpg
[41]
Chimpanzee 2.8×10^10
Lightmatter chimp.jpg
[47]
Orangutan 3.26×10^10
Orang Utan, Semenggok Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.JPG
[48]
Gorilla 3.34×10^10
Male gorilla in SF zoo.jpg
[48]
Human 8.6×10^10 ~1.5×10^14 Neurons for average adult
Akha cropped hires.JPG
[49] [50] [51]
African elephant 2.57×10^11
African Bush Elephant.jpg
[52] [53]

List of animal species by forebrain (cerebrum or pallium) neuron number

The question of what physical characteristic of an animal makes an animal intelligent has varied over the centuries. One early speculation was brain size (or weight, which provides the same ordering.) A second proposal was brain-to-body-mass ratio, and a third was encephalization quotient, sometimes referred to as EQ. The current best predictor is number of neurons in the forebrain, based on Herculano-Houzel's improved neuron counts. [1] It accounts most accurately for variations in dependence on the cerebellum. The elephant depends on its exceptionally large cerebellum, while birds make do with a much smaller one.

Differing methods have been used to count neurons and these may differ in degree of reliability. These are the optical fractionator, an application of stereology and the isotropic fractionator, a recent methodological innovation. Most numbers in the list are the result of studies using the newer isotropic fractionator. [1] [33] [35] [36] [37] [39] [40] [41] [42] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [52] [54] A variation of the optical fractionator was responsible for the previous total human brain neuron count of 100,000,000,000 neurons, which has been revised down to 86,000,000,000 by the use of the isotropic fractionator. This is in part why it may be considered to be less reliable. Finally, some numbers are the result of estimations based on correlations observed between number of cortical neurons and brain mass within closely related taxa.

Common name Average number of forebrain neurons [a] Instraspecific variation [b] Method [c] Binomial nomenclature Image Source
Naked mole-rat 6,000,000 ± 1,065,587 [35] Isotropic fractionator H. glaber
Naked Mole rat baby.jpg
[33]
Ansell's mole-rat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Fukomys anselli
Graumull IMG 4042.jpg
[38]
Smoky shrew 10,000,000 ± 352,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Sorex fumeus
SmokyShrew23.jpg
[35]
Mashona mole-rat 12,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Fukomys darlingi [38]
Northern short-tailed shrew 12,000,000 ± 1,569,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Blarina brevicauda
Blarina brevicauda.jpg
[35]
House mouse 14,000,000 ± 2,242,257 [35] Isotropic fractionator Mus musculus
Mouse.jpg
[35]
Hairy-tailed mole 16,000,000 ± 2,611,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Parascalops breweri
The quadrupeds of North America (Plate LXXIV) (7748318398).jpg
[35]
Star-nosed mole 17,000,000 ± 3,105,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Condylura cristata
Condylura.jpg
[35]
Golden hamster 17,000,000 ± 3,619,934 [35] Isotropic fractionator Mesocricetus auratus
Peach the pet hamster.jpg
[35]
Damaraland mole-rat 21,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Fukomys damarensis
Damaraland mole-rat.jpg
[38]
Hottentot golden mole 22,000,000 ± 2,154,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Amblysomus hottentotus
Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen (Plate 39) (8557402518).jpg
[35]
Gray mouse lemur 22,310,000 Isotropic fractionator Microcebus murinus
Gray Mouse Lemur 1 edit.JPG
[41]
Mechow's mole-rat 23,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Fukomys mechowii
Cryptomys mechowi Plzen zoo 02.2011.jpg
[38]
Hedgehog 24,000,000^ Estimated Subfamily Erinaceinae, various species
Igel01.jpg
[56]
Silvery mole-rat 25,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Heliophobius argenteocinereus
Silvery mole-rat.png
[38]
Cape mole-rat 26,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Georychus capensis
Georychus capensis - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02826.JPG
[38]
Guyenne spiny rat 26,000,000 ± 2,155,723 [35] Isotropic fractionator Proechimys cayennensis [35]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 26,000,000 ± 4,020,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Elephantulus myurus
Eastern Rock Elephant Shrew.jpg
[35]
Eastern mole 27,000,000 ± 5,113,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Scalopus aquaticus
ScalopusAquaticus.jpg
[35]
Opossum 27,000,000^ Estimated Didelphis virginiana
Opossum 2.jpg
[56]
Brown Rat 31,000,000 + 3,034,654 [35] Isotropic fractionator Rattus norvegicus
Rat diabetic.jpg
[35]
Four-toed elephant shrew 34,000,000 ± 5,840,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Petrodromus tetradactylus
Petrodromus tetradactylus tordayi - Royal Museum for Central Africa - DSC06793.JPG
[35]
Ferret 38,950,000 Isotropic fractionator Mustela putorius furo
Black footed ferret cropped.jpg
[43]
Cape dune mole-rat 43,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Bathyergus suillus
Georychus capensis - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02826.JPG
[38]
Guinea pig 43,510,000 ± 3,169,924 [35] Isotropic fractionator Cavia porcellus
Cavia porcellus.jpg
[33]
Eurasian blackcap 52,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Sylvia atricapilla
Sylvia atricapilla -Lullington Heath, East Sussex, England -male-8.jpg
[39]
Prairie dog 53,770,000 ± 6,044,322 [35] Isotropic fractionator Cynomys sp.
Prairie Dog Washington Zoo.JPG
[33]
Zebra finch 55,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Taeniopygia guttata
Taeniopygia guttata - profile - dundee wildlife park.jpg
[39]
Common treeshrew 60,000,000 ± 26,510,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Tupaia glis
Stavenn Tupaia glis 00.jpg
[35]
Red junglefowl 61,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Gallus gallus
Gallus gallus.jpg
[39]
Goldcrest 64,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Regulus regulus
Goldcrest 1.jpg
[39]
European rabbit 71,450,000 Isotropic fractionator O. cuniculus
Oryctolagus cuniculus Tasmania 2.jpg
[33]
Rock dove 72,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Columba livia
Rock Pigeon Columba livia.jpg
[39]
Eastern gray squirrel 77,330,000 ± 2,634,444 [35] Isotropic fractionator S. carolinensis
Eastern Grey Squirrel in St James's Park, London - Nov 2006 edit.jpg
[33]
Great tit 83,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Parus major
Great tit side-on.jpg
[39]
Western tree hyrax 99,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Dendrohyrax dorsalis
Beecroft'sTreeHyrax.JPG
[35]
Green-rumped parrotlet 103,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Forpus passerinus
Forpus passerinus-Venezuela-8a.jpg
[39]
Black-rumped agouti 113,000,000 ± 2,576,768 [35] Isotropic fractionator Dasyprocta prymnolopha
Dasyprocta punctata (Mexico).jpg
[1]
Banded mongoose 115,770,000 Isotropic fractionator Mungos mungo
Mungos mungo qtl1.jpg
[43]
Common blackbird 136,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Turdus merula
Common Blackbird.jpg
[39]
Budgerigar 149,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Melopsittacus undulatus
Budgie001.jpg
[39]
Rock hyrax 198,000,000 ± 29,082,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Procavia capensis
Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis) (7042223567).jpg
[35]
Northern greater galago 226,000,000 ± 87,570,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Otolemur garnettii
Garnett's Galago (Greater Bushbaby).jpg
[35]
Common starling 226,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Sturnus vulgaris
Sturnus vulgaris -California-8.jpg
[39]
Common marmoset 245,000,000 ± 81,180,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Callithrix jacchus
Marmoset copy.jpg
[35]
Cat 249,830,000 Isotropic fractionator Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus
Cat mouth closed.jpg
[43]
Brown bear 250,970,000 Isotropic fractionator Ursus arctos
Brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) running.jpg
[43]
Cockatiel 258,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Nymphicus hollandicus
Nymphicus hollandicus -perching on wires -Australia-6a.jpg
[39]
Capybara 306,500,000 ± 62,726,120 [35] Isotropic fractionator Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
Capybaras in riga zoo.jpg
[33]
Tarsius 310,000,000 Estimated Genus Tarsius, unknown species
Tarsius tarsier Tandurusa zoo.JPG
[57]
Eastern rosella 333,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Platycercus eximius
Platycercus eximius diemenensis.jpg
[39]
Goeldi's marmoset 357,130,000 Isotropic fractionator Callimico goeldii
MP-Callimico goeldii.jpg
[41]
Western grey kangaroo 370,170,000 Isotropic fractionator Macropus fuliginosus
Western Grey Kangaroo SMC 2006.JPG
[58]
Monk parakeet 396,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Myiopsitta monachus
Myiopsitta monachus monachus 3.JPG
[39]
Springbok 396,900,000 Isotropic fractionator Antidorcas marsupialis
Springbok.JPG
[46]
Azure-winged magpie 400,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Cyanopica cyanus
Cyanopica cyanus Yokohama 6.jpg
[39]
Common hill myna 410,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Gracula religiosa
Gracula religiosa robusta-01.JPG
[39]
Domesticated pig 425,000,000* Optical fractionator Sus scrofa domesticus
Sow with piglet.jpg
[59]
Barn owl 437,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Tyto alba
Tyto alba 1 Luc Viatour.jpg
[39]
Emu 439,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Dromaius novaehollandiae
Dromaius novaehollandiae - 02.jpg
[39]
Three-striped night monkey 442,000,000 ± 111,310,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Aotus trivirgatus
Stavenn Aotus trivirgatus 00.jpg
[1]
Eurasian magpie 443,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pica pica
Pica pica - 01.jpg
[39]
Raccoon 453,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Procyon lotor
Raccoon (4152678243).jpg
[54]
Western jackdaw 492,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Coloeus monedula
CROP. Corvus monedula, naakka, Naantalin hautausmaa, Naantali, 8.11.2011..jpg
[39]
Striped hyena 495,280,000 Isotropic fractionator Hyaena hyaena
Streifenhyaene Hyaena hyaena Zoo Augsburg-09.jpg
[43]
Eurasian jay 529,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Garrulus glandarius
Garrulus glandarius 1 Luc Viatour.jpg
[39]
Dog 527,910,000 Isotropic fractionator Canis lupus familiaris
YellowLabradorLooking new.jpg
[43]
Lion 545,240,000 Isotropic fractionator Panthera leo
Lions Family Portrait Masai Mara.jpg
[43]
Blesbok 570,670,000 Isotropic fractionator Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi
Blesbok at NC zoo.jpg
[46]
Alexandrine parakeet 575,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Psittacula eupatria
Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria), Jurong Bird Park, Singapore - 20090613.jpg
[39]
Tanimbar corella 599,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Cacatua goffiniana
Cacatua goffiniana -captive-8a-3c.jpg
[39]
Gracile capuchin monkey 650,000,000^ Estimated Genus Cebus, unknown species
Capuchin Costa Rica.jpg
[60]
Greater kudu 762,570,000 Isotropic fractionator Tragelaphus strepsiceros
Male greater kudu.jpg
[46]
Crab-eating macaque 800,960,000 Isotropic fractionator Macaca fascicularis
Macaca-fascicularis flk18447014.jpg
[41]
Rook 820,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Corvus frugilegus
Corvus Frugilegus Berlin-2.jpg
[39]
Grey parrot 850,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Psittacus erithacus
Psittacus erithacus qtl1.jpg
[39]
Tufted capuchin 1,140,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Sapajus apella
Sapajus apella apella (French Guyana) 4.jpg
[35] [1]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 1,135,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Cacatua galerita
Cacatua galerita portrait.jpg
[39]
Harp seal 1,168,000,000^

6,100,000,000*

Estimated (isotropic fractionator)

Optical fractionator

Pagophilus groenlandicus
Harp seal.jpg
[61] [62]
Horse 1,200,000,000* Optical fractionator Equus ferus caballus
Nokota Horses cropped.jpg
[63]
Raven 1,204,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Corvus corax
Corvus corax jouveniles.jpeg
[39]
Kea 1,281,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Nestor notabilis
Kea.jpg
[39]
Common squirrel monkey 1,340,000,000 ± 20,000,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Saimiri sciureus
Saimiri sciureus-1 Luc Viatour.jpg
[35]
Bonnet macaque 1,660,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Macaca radiata
Bonnet Macaque Macaca radiata Threat display by Dr. Raju Kasambe DSCN5340 (5).jpg
[41]
Rhesus macaque 1,710,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Macaca mulatta
Macaca mulatta in Guiyang.jpg
[35]
Giraffe 1,731,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Giraffa camelopardalis
Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis.jpg
[46]
Blue and yellow macaw 1,900,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Ara ararauna
Schläfrige Gelbbrustaras (sleepy Blue-and-yellow Macaws) Weltvogelpark Walsrode 2010.jpg
[39]
Pygmy sperm whale 2,020,000,000* Optical fractionator Kogia breviceps
Pygmy sperm whale.jpg
[64]
Harbor porpoise 2,234,000,000^

14,900,000,000*

Estimated (isotropic fractionator)

Optical fractionator

Phocoena phocoena
[61] [62]
Leopard seal 2,386,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Hydrurga leptonyx
Leopard seal 2.jpg
[61]
Guenon 2,500,000,000^ Estimated Genus Cercopithecus, unknown species
[57]
Pigtail Macaque 2,531,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Macaca nemestrina
(Macaca.nemestrina-1-PragueZOO.jpg
[61]
Gelada baboon 2,568,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Theropithecus gelada
Gelada (Theropithecus gelada gelada) juvenile male.jpg
[61]
Red-and-green macaw 2,646,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Ara chloropterus
Red-and-green Macaw 02.jpg
[61]
Beluga 2,683,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Delphinapterus leucas
Baby Beluga Whale.jpg
[61]
Yellow baboon 2,880,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Papio cynocephalus
Papio cynocephalus.jpg
[41]
Hyacinth macaw 2,944,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus
Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) feeding on palm nuts ... - Flickr - berniedup.jpg
[61]
Hamadryas baboon 2,990,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Papio hamadryas
Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) female.jpg
[61]
Mandrill 3,102,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Mandrillus sphinx
Mandrill portrait (2), Berlin Zoo.jpg
[61]
Walrus 3,929,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Odobenus rosmarus
Noaa-walrus30.jpg
[61]
Southern elephant seal 3,994,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Mirounga leonina
Southern Elephant Seal poses seductively on the beach (5797919211).jpg
[61]
African elephant 5,600,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Loxodonta africana
[52]
Pygmy chimpanzee or bonobo 6,246,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Pan paniscus
BonoboFishing02 cropped.jpeg
[61]
Short-beaked common dolphin 6,700,000,000* Optical fractionator Delphinus delphis
Short-beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) (14825276609).jpg
[61] [64]
Asian elephant 6,775,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Elephas maximus
Asian Elephant in Thailand.jpg
[61]
Risso's dolphin 7,150,000,000^ Estimated (optical fractionator) Grampus griseus
Risso's Dolphin.jpg
[61]
Chimpanzee 7,400,000,000* Optical fractionator Pan troglodytes
[65]
Orangutan 7,704,000,000 - 8,900,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Genus Pongo, unknown species
Orang Utan, Semenggok Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.JPG
[61] [48]
Cuvier's beaked whale 9,100,000,000* Optical fractionator Z. cavirostris
Beached Cuvier's Beaked Whale (28740971527).jpg
[64]
Western Gorilla 9,100,000,000 - 10,268,000,000^ Estimated (isotropic fractionator) Gorilla gorilla
[61] [48]
False killer whale 10,500,000,000*

3,855,000,000^

Optical fractionator

Estimated (isotropic fractionator)

Pseudorca crassidens
[61] [34]
Bottlenose dolphin 12,700,000,000* Optical fractionator Tursiops truncatus
Tursiops truncatus 01.jpg
[61] [64]
Common minke whale 12,800,000,000* Optical fractionator Balaenoptera acutorostrata
Balaenoptera acutorostrata Saint-Laurent 06.jpg
[66]
Blue whale 14,617,000,000^ Estimated (optical fractionator) Balaenoptera musculus
Anim1754 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
[61]
Fin whale 15,000,000,000* Optical fractionator Balaenoptera physalus
[61] [67]
Human 16,340,000,000 ± 2,170,000,000 [35] Isotropic fractionator Homo sapiens
Akha cropped hires.JPG
[35] [49] [1] [68]
Short-finned pilot whale 27,242,000,000^ Estimated (optical fractionator) Globicephala macrorhynchus
Short-finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) (8604841637).jpg
[61]
Long-finned pilot whale 37,200,000,000* Optical fractionator Globicephala melas
Pilot whale spyhop.jpg
[69]
Killer whale 43,100,000,000* Optical fractionator Orcinus orca
[61] [64]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ^ = Estimated
    • = Optical fractionator
  2. ^ ± standard deviation
  3. ^ For the estimated (isotropic fractionator) values, the number of cortical neurons calculated from brain mass for different mammalian and bird orders are based on correlation observed between number of cortical neuron and brain mass per order [55]

References

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