List of United States Senators from Massachusetts Article

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Current delegation
since July 16, 2013

Below is a chronological listing of the United States Senators from Massachusetts. According to the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution adopted in 1913, U.S. Senators are popularly elected for a six-year term. Elections are held the first Tuesday after November 1 and terms begin on January 3, about two months after the vote. Before 1914 and the enforcement of the Seventeenth Amendment, the state's U.S. Senators were chosen by the Massachusetts General Court, and before 1935, their terms began March 4. The current senators are Democrats Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey.

Mid-term vacancy appointment processes

Through the 20th century, mid-term vacancies were filled with the Governor's appointee, with the appointment expiring at the next biennial state election. In 2004, the Democratic-controlled state legislature changed the vacancy-filling process, mandating that a special election occur, which removed the Governor's appointment power. This statute was enacted over the veto by the governor, Mitt Romney. The leadership of the Massachusetts legislature at the time was concerned that the Republican governor Mitt Romney would appoint a Republican if Democratic Senator John Kerry were elected President of the United States in the 2004 election. [1] [2] [3] [4] Generally, the law requires a special election within 145 to 160 days from the date of the filing of a Senate resignation. The law contemplates resignations that become effective some period of time after the filing of the resignation, so long as the election occurs after effective date of the resignation. [5]

While terminally ill with brain cancer, Ted Kennedy requested that the Massachusetts legislature change the law to allow an interim appointment. Kennedy died shortly thereafter, and the legislature quickly passed a bill providing for an interim appointment. [6] On September 24, 2009, Governor Patrick signed the bill and appointed Paul G. Kirk, who had previously served as one of Kennedy's congressional aides and as chairman of the Democratic National Committee.

List of Senators

Class 1

Class 1 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for only one Congress in the first elections of 1788/1789, and the seat was contested again for the 2nd, 5th, and every three Congresses (six years) thereafter. The seat in recent years has been contested in 2006, 2012, and 2018, with a special election in 2010. The next election will be in 2024.

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Class 2

Class 2 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for the first two United States Congresses in the first election of 1788/1789, and the seat was next contested again for the 3rd, 6th, and every three Congresses (six years) thereafter. The seat in recent years has been contested in 2002, 2008, and 2014, with a special election taking place in 2013. The next election will be in 2020.

# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
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T
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Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
1 TristramDalton.jpg
Tristram Dalton
Pro-
Admin.
March 4, 1789 –
March 3, 1791
Elected in 1788.

Lost re-election.
1 1st 1 Elected in 1788. March 4, 1789 –
June 1, 1796
Pro-
Admin.
CalebStrongByJohnNorman.jpg
Caleb Strong
1
2 George Cabot.jpg
George Cabot
Pro-
Admin.
March 4, 1791 –
June 9, 1796
Elected in 1790.

Resigned.
2 2nd
3rd 2 Re-elected in 1793.

Resigned.
Federalist 4th Federalist
Vacant June 9, 1796 –
June 11, 1796
Vacant Vacant June 1, 1796 –
June 11, 1796
Vacant
3 Goodhue.jpg
Benjamin Goodhue
Federalist June 11, 1796 –
November 8, 1800
Elected to finish Cabot's term. Elected to finish Strong's term.

Retired to run for the U.S. House of Representatives.
June 11, 1796 –
March 3, 1799
Federalist TheodoreSedgwick.jpg
Theodore Sedgwick
2
Also elected to full term in 1796.

Resigned.
3 5th
6th 3 Elected June 14, 1798. [7]

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of War.
March 4, 1799 –
May 30, 1800
Federalist Samuel Dexter.jpg
Samuel Dexter
3
Vacant May 31, 1800 –
June 5, 1800
Vacant
Elected to finish Dexter's term. [8]

Resigned.
June 6, 1800 –
March 2, 1803
Federalist DFoster.jpg
Dwight Foster
4
Vacant November 8, 1800 –
November 14, 1800
Vacant
4 Jonathan Mason, Senator from Massachusetts, by American school of the 19th century.jpg
Jonathan Mason
Federalist November 14, 1800 –
March 3, 1803
Elected to finish Goodhue's term.
7th
Vacant March 2, 1803 –
March 3, 1803
Vacant
5 John Quincy Adams cropped.jpg
John Quincy Adams
Federalist March 4, 1803 –
June 8, 1808
Elected February 7, 1803. [9]

Resigned, having broken with the Federalist Party and lost re-election to the next term.
4 8th Elected to finish Foster's term. March 4, 1803 –
March 3, 1811
Federalist Timothy-Pickering.jpg
Timothy Pickering
5
9th 4 Re-elected February 6, 1805. [10]

Lost re-election.
10th
6 JamesLloyd.jpg
James Lloyd
Federalist June 9, 1808 –
May 1, 1813
Elected to finish Adams's term, having already been elected to the next term.
Elected June 2, 1808. [11]

Resigned.
5 11th
12th 5 The State Senate deadlocked in the 1810 election. March 4, 1811 –
June 28, 1811
Vacant
Elected June 6, 1811 to finish the vacant term.

Unknown if retired or lost re-election.
June 29, 1811 –
March 3, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
JosephBradleyVarnum.jpg
Joseph Bradley Varnum
6
13th
Vacant May 1, 1813 –
May 5, 1813
Vacant
7 ChristopherGore.jpg
Christopher Gore
Federalist May 5, 1813 –
May 30, 1816
Appointed to finish Lloyd's term.
Elected to full term in 1815.

Resigned, unhappy with the politics of Washington and suffering from poor health.
6 14th
Vacant May 31, 1816 –
June 11, 1816
Vacant
8 Eli P. Ashmun Federalist June 12, 1816 –
May 10, 1818
Elected to finish Gore's term.

Resigned.
15th 6 Elected June 12, 1816.

Resigned to run for Mayor of Boston.
March 4, 1817 –
May 30, 1822
Federalist Harrisongrayotis.jpg
Harrison Gray Otis
7
Vacant May 11, 1818 –
June 4, 1818
Vacant
9 PrentissMellen.jpg
Prentiss Mellen
Federalist June 5, 1818 –
May 15, 1820
Elected to finish Ashmun's term.

Resigned to become Chief Justice of Maine.
16th
Vacant May 16, 1820 –
June 12, 1820
Vacant
10 ElijahMills.jpg
Elijah H. Mills
Federalist June 12, 1820 –
March 3, 1827
Elected to finish Mellen's term.
Re-elected in 1820.

Lost re-election in 1826.
7 17th
Vacant May 30, 1822 –
June 5, 1822
Vacant
Elected to finish Otis's term. June 5, 1822 –
May 23, 1826
Federalist JamesLloyd.jpg
James Lloyd
8
Adams-Clay
Federalist
18th 7 Re-elected in 1822.

Resigned.
Adams-Clay
Federalist
Anti-
Jacksonian
19th Anti-
Jacksonian
Vacant May 23, 1826 –
May 31, 1826
Vacant
Elected to finish Lloyd's term. May 31, 1826 –
March 3, 1835
Anti-
Jacksonian
Nathaniel Silsbee.png
Nathaniel Silsbee
9
Vacant March 4, 1827 –
June 8, 1827
Vacant 8 20th Adams
11 Francis Alexander - Daniel Webster - Google Art Project.jpg
Daniel Webster
Adams June 8, 1827 –
February 22, 1841
Elected late in 1827.
21st 8 Re-elected in 1828.

Retired.
Anti-
Jacksonian
Anti-
Jacksonian
22nd
Re-elected in 1833. 9 23rd
24th 9 Elected in 1835.

Resigned to become Governor of Massachusetts.
March 4, 1835 –
January 5, 1841
Anti-
Jacksonian
John Davis daguerreotype by Mathew Brady 1849.jpg
John Davis
10
Whig 25th Whig
Re-elected in 1839.

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State.
10 26th
Vacant January 5, 1841 –
January 13, 1841
Vacant
Elected to finish Davis's term. January 13, 1841 –
March 16, 1845
Whig IsaacBates.jpg
Isaac C. Bates
11
12 RufusChoate Southworth Hawes-crop.png
Rufus Choate
Whig February 23, 1841 –
March 3, 1845
Elected to finish Webster's term.

Retired.
27th 10 Elected to full term in 1841.

Died.
28th
13 DanielWebster.jpg
Daniel Webster
Whig March 4, 1845 –
July 22, 1850
Elected in 1845.

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State again.
11 29th
Vacant March 16, 1845 –
March 24, 1845
Vacant
Elected to finish Bates's term. March 24, 1845 –
March 3, 1853
Whig John Davis (Massachusetts Governor).jpg
John Davis
12
30th 11 Re-elected in 1847.

Retired.
31st
Vacant July 23, 1850 –
July 30, 1850
Vacant
14 RobertCharlesWinthrop.jpg
Robert Charles Winthrop
Whig July 30, 1850 –
February 1, 1851
Appointed to continue Webster's term.

Lost election to finish Webster's term.
15 RRantoul.jpg
Robert Rantoul Jr.
Democratic February 1, 1851 –
March 3, 1851
Elected to finish Webster's term.

Retired.
Vacant March 4, 1851 –
April 24, 1851
In 1851, Democrats gained control of the Massachusetts General Court in coalition with the Free Soilers. However, the legislature deadlocked on who should succeed Daniel Webster. Democrats refused to vote for Charles Sumner (the Free Soilers' choice). Sumner was eventually elected late. 12 32nd
16 Charles Sumner - Brady-Handy.jpg
Charles Sumner
Free Soil April 24, 1851 –
March 11, 1874
33rd 12 Elected in 1853.

Resigned.
March 4, 1853 –
June 1, 1854
Whig Edward Everett.jpg
Edward Everett
13
Vacant June 1, 1854 –
June 3, 1854
Vacant
Appointed to continue Everett's term.

Successor was elected.
June 3, 1854 –
January 31, 1855
Whig JuliusRockwell.jpg
Julius Rockwell
14
Elected to finish Everett's term. January 31, 1855 –
March 3, 1873
Free Soil Henry Wilson, US Vice President, photo portrait seated.jpg
Henry Wilson
15
34th Republican
Republican Re-elected in 1857. 13 35th
36th 13 Re-elected in 1859.
37th
Re-elected in 1863. 14 38th
39th 14 Re-elected in 1865.
40th
Re-elected in 1869.

Died.
15 41st
42nd 15 Re-elected in 1871.

Resigned to become the Vice President of the United States.
Liberal Republican 43rd Vacant March 3, 1873 –
March 17, 1873
Vacant
Elected to finish Wilson's term.

Lost renomination.
March 17, 1873 –
March 3, 1877
Republican George Boutwell, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg
George S. Boutwell
16
Vacant March 12, 1874 –
April 16, 1874
Vacant
17 William B. Washburn - Brady-Handy.jpg
William B. Washburn
Republican April 17, 1874 –
March 3, 1875
Elected to finish Sumner's term.

Retired.
18 HLDawes.jpg
Henry L. Dawes
Republican March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1893
Elected in 1875. 16 44th
45th 16 Elected in 1877. March 4, 1877 –
September 30, 1904
Republican George Frisbie Hoar - Brady-Handy.jpg
George Frisbie Hoar
17
46th
Re-elected in 1881. 17 47th
48th 17 Re-elected in 1883.
49th
Re-elected in 1887.

Retired.
18 50th
51st 18 Re-elected in 1889.
52nd
19 HenryCabotLodgeSr.jpg
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican March 4, 1893 –
November 9, 1924
Elected in 1893. 19 53rd
54th 19 Re-elected in 1895.
55th
Re-elected in 1899. 20 56th
57th 20 Re-elected in 1901.

Died.
58th
Vacant September 30, 1904 –
October 12, 1904
Vacant
Appointed to continue Hoar's term.

Elected January 18, 1905 to finish Hoar's term. [12]
October 12, 1904 –
March 3, 1913
Republican Winthrop Murray Crane.jpg
Winthrop M. Crane
18
Re-elected January 18, 1905. [12] 21 59th
60th 21 Re-elected in 1907.

Retired.
61st
Re-elected in January 1911. 22 62nd
63rd 22 Elected January 14, 1913.

Lost re-election.
March 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1919
Republican John Wingate Weeks, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
John W. Weeks
19
64th
Re-elected in 1916. 23 65th
66th 23 Elected in 1918.

Lost re-election.
March 4, 1919 –
March 3, 1925
Democratic David Ignatius Walsh.jpg
David I. Walsh
20
67th
Re-elected in 1922.

Died.
24 68th
Vacant November 9, 1924 –
November 13, 1924
Vacant
20 William Butler.jpg
William M. Butler
Republican November 13, 1924 –
December 6, 1926
Appointed to continue Lodge's term.

Lost election to finish Lodge's term.
69th 24 Elected in 1924.

Retired.
March 4, 1925 –
March 3, 1931
Republican Frederick Huntington Gillett.png
Frederick H. Gillett
21
21 David Ignatius Walsh.jpg
David I. Walsh
Democratic December 6, 1926 –
January 3, 1947
Elected to finish Lodge's term.
70th
Re-elected in 1928. 25 71st
72nd 25 Elected in 1930.

Retired.
March 4, 1931 –
January 3, 1937
Democratic MarcusACoolidge.jpg
Marcus A. Coolidge
22
73rd
Re-elected in 1934. 26 74th
75th 26 Elected in 1936. January 3, 1937 –
February 3, 1944
Republican Henry Cabot Lodge II.jpg
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
23
76th
Re-elected in 1940.

Lost re-election.
27 77th
78th 27 Re-elected in 1942.

Resigned to return to active duty in the U.S. Army.
Vacant February 4, 1944 –
February 7, 1944
Vacant
Appointed to continue Lodge's term.

Did not run for election to finish the term.
February 8, 1944 –
December 19, 1944
Republican CharlesSinclairWeeks.jpg
Sinclair Weeks
24
Elected November 7, 1944 to finish Lodge's term.

Didn't take seat until January 4, 1945, as he wanted to remain Governor of Massachusetts. However, he was duly elected and qualified as senator.
December 19, 1944 –
January 3, 1967
Republican Leverett Saltonstall cph.3b10555.jpg
Leverett Saltonstall
25
79th
22 HenryCabotLodgeJr.jpg
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
Republican January 3, 1947 –
January 3, 1953
Elected in 1946.

Lost re-election.
28 80th
81st 28 Re-elected in 1948.
82nd
23 John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy Democratic January 3, 1953 –
December 22, 1960
Elected in 1952. 29 83rd
84th 29 Re-elected in 1954.
85th
Re-elected in 1958.

Resigned to become the President of the United States.
30 86th
Vacant December 22, 1960 –
December 27, 1960
Vacant
24 SmithBen(D-MA).jpg
Benjamin Smith
Democratic December 27, 1960 –
November 7, 1962
Appointed to continue John Kennedy's term.

Did not run for election to finish the term.
87th 30 Re-elected in 1960.

Retired.
25 Ted Kennedy, official photo portrait crop.jpg
Ted Kennedy
Democratic November 7, 1962 –
August 25, 2009
Elected to finish his brother's term.
88th
Re-elected in 1964. 31 89th
90th 31 Elected in 1966. January 3, 1967 –
January 3, 1979
Republican Edward brooke senator.jpg
Edward Brooke
26
91st
Re-elected in 1970. 32 92nd
93rd 32 Re-elected in 1972.

Lost re-election.
94th
Re-elected in 1976. 33 95th
96th 33 Elected in 1978.

Retired, then resigned early to give successor preferential seniority.
January 3, 1979 –
January 2, 1985
Democratic Senator Paul Tsongas.jpg
Paul Tsongas
27
97th
Re-elected in 1982. 34 98th
Appointed early to finish Tsongas's term, having already been elected to the next term. January 2, 1985 –
February 1, 2013
Democratic John F. Kerry.jpg
John Kerry
28
99th 34 Elected in 1984.
100th
Re-elected in 1988. 35 101st
102nd 35 Re-elected in 1990.
103rd
Re-elected in 1994. 36 104th
105th 36 Re-elected in 1996.
106th
Re-elected in 2000. 37 107th
108th 37 Re-elected in 2002.
109th
Re-elected in 2006.

Died.
38 110th
111th 38 Re-elected in 2008.

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State.
Vacant August 25, 2009 –
September 24, 2009
Vacant
26 Paul Kirk Official Photo.jpg
Paul G. Kirk
Democratic September 24, 2009 –
February 4, 2010
Appointed to continue Ted Kennedy's term.

Did not run for election to finish the term. [13]
27 Sbrownofficial.jpg
Scott Brown
Republican February 4, 2010 –
January 3, 2013
Elected to finish Ted Kennedy's term.

Lost re-election.
112th
28 Elizabeth Warren--Official 113th Congressional Portrait--.jpg
Elizabeth Warren
Democratic January 3, 2013 –
Present
Elected in 2012. 39 113th
Appointed to continue Kerry's term.

Did not run for election to finish the term. [14]
February 1, 2013 –
July 16, 2013
Democratic Mo Cowan, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Mo Cowan
29
Elected to finish Kerry's term. July 16, 2013 –
Present
Democratic Edward Markey, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg
Ed Markey
30
114th 39 Re-elected in 2014.
115th
Re-elected in 2018. 40 116th
117th 40 To be determined in the 2020 election.
118th
To be determined in the 2024 election. 41 119th
# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
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Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
Class 1 Class 2

Living former Senators

As of February 2018, there are four living former U.S. Senators from Massachusetts. The most recent senator to die was Edward Brooke who died on January 3, 2015. The most recently serving senator to die was Ted Kennedy (1962–2009), who died in office on August 25, 2009.

Senator Class Term of office Date of birth (and age)
John Kerry 2 January 2, 1985 – February 1, 2013 (1943-12-11) December 11, 1943 (age 75)
Paul G. Kirk 1 September 24, 2009 – February 4, 2010 (1938-01-18) January 18, 1938 (age 80)
Scott Brown 1 February 4, 2010 – January 3, 2013 (1959-09-12) September 12, 1959 (age 59)
Mo Cowan 2 February 1, 2013 – July 16, 2013 (1969-04-04) April 4, 1969 (age 49)

See also

References

  1. ^ Belluck, Pam (June 25, 2004). "Massachusetts Politicians Fight Over a Kerry Victory". New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  2. ^ Zezima, Katie (July 2, 2004). "National Briefing: Massachusetts: Senate Approves Interim-Appointment Bill". New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  3. ^ Greenberger, Scott S. (July 31, 2004). "Romney veto overridden: Governor can no longer fill vacancies in the US Senate". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  4. ^ Anderson, Rob (July 16, 2004). "Devil in the Details: After Kerry, The Deluge". The American Prospect. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  5. ^ "Chapter 236 of the Acts of 2004". Acts of 2004 (Session Laws). The General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. July 30, 2004. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  6. ^ Viser, Matt (September 23, 2009). "Legislature gives final approval to bill to fill Kennedy seat". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 23, 2009.
  7. ^ "Massachusetts 1798 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Connecticut Gazette (New London, CT). June 20, 1798.
  8. ^ "Massachusetts 1800 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018., citing Hampshire Gazette (Northhampton). June 11, 1800. The Kentucky Gazette (Lexington, KY). July 3, 1800.
  9. ^ "Massachusetts 1803 U.S. Senate, Ballot 4". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Columbian Centinel. Massachusetts Federalist (Boston, MA). February 5, 1803. The Independent Chronicle (Boston, MA). February 7, 1803. Columbian Centinel. Massachusetts Federalist (Boston, MA). February 9, 1803. Hampshire Gazette (Northampton, MA). February 9, 1803. Boston Gazette (Boston, MA). February 10, 1803. Republican Star or Eastern Shore General Advertiser (Easton, MD). March 1, 1803. Frederick-Town Herald (Fredericktown, MD). March 5, 1803.
  10. ^ "Massachusetts 1805 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing The Providence Phoenix (Providence, RI). February 9, 1805.
  11. ^ "Massachusetts 1808 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 3, 2018., citing The Pittsfield Sun (Pittsfield, MA). June 11, 1808.
  12. ^ a b The World Almanac and Encyclopedia 1906. New York: The Press Publishing Co. New York World. 1905. p. 108.
  13. ^ "Paul Kirk officially appointed state's interim senator". September 25, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
  14. ^ Battenfeld, Joe; Chabot, Hillary; Cassidy, Chris (January 30, 2013). "Gov names adviser Mo Cowan to interim Senate post". Boston Herald. Retrieved January 30, 2013.