List of Governors of Ohio Article

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Governor of the State of Ohio
Seal of the Governor of Ohio.svg
Seal of the Governor of Ohio
Flag of the Governor of Ohio.svg
Standard of the Governor of Ohio
Governor John Kasich.jpg
Incumbent
John Kasich

since January 10, 2011
Style The Honorable
Residence Ohio Governor's Mansion Resides in his private home in Westerville, Ohio.
Term lengthFour years, two consecutive with four-year pause thereafter
Inaugural holder Edward Tiffin
FormationMarch 3, 1803
Deputy Lieutenant Governor of Ohio
Salary$148,886 (2015) [1]
Website governor.ohio.gov

The Governor of the State of Ohio is the head of the executive branch of the Government of Ohio [2] and the commander-in-chief of the U.S. state's military forces. [3] The officeholder has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Ohio General Assembly, [4] the power to convene the legislature [5] and the power to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment. [6]

There have been 63 governors of Ohio, serving 69 distinct terms. The longest term was held by Jim Rhodes, who was elected four times and served just under sixteen years in two non-consecutive periods of two terms each (1963–1971 and 1975–1983). The shortest terms were held by John William Brown and Nancy Hollister, who each served for only 11 days after the governors preceding them resigned in order to begin the terms to which they had been elected in the United States Senate; the shortest-serving elected governor was John M. Pattison, who died in office five months into his term. The current governor is Republican John Kasich, who took office on January 10, 2011.

Qualifications

To become governor of Ohio, a candidate must be a qualified elector in the state. This means that any candidate for governor must be at least 18 years old at the time of his/her election, a resident of Ohio for at least 30 days before the election, and a U.S. citizen. Convicted felons and those deemed by the courts as incompetent to vote are not eligible.

Powers

The governor is the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws; the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Ohio State Legislature; the power to convene the legislature; and the power to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.

Other duties and privileges of the office include:

  • Executing all laws and requiring written information on any office from the head of that office
  • Making an annual address to the General Assembly, with recommendation for legislation
  • Convening extraordinary sessions of the legislature with limited purposes
  • Adjourning the legislature when the two chambers cannot agree to do so themselves, not to include the privilege of adjourning the legislature past the sine die set for the regular session
  • Keeping and using "The Great Seal of the State of Ohio"
  • Signing and sealing all commissions granted in the name of the state of Ohio
  • Nominating, in the event of a vacancy in the Lieutenant Governor's office, a new officer, subject to a confirmatory vote of both chambers of the legislature
  • Making vacancy appointments for all "key state officers" (the Auditor, the Treasurer, the Secretary of State, and the Attorney General. Such appointments are for the remainder of the term when the next general election is less than 40 days away and until the next general election otherwise
  • Accepting a report from the head of each executive department at least once a year, not later than five days before the regular session of the legislature convenes, and including the substance of those reports in her annual address to the legislature
  • Making all appointments not otherwise provided for, with the advice and consent of the Senate, unless the Senate refuses to act, in which case the Governor's appointee takes offices by default

Succession

Should the office of governor become vacant due to death, resignation, or conviction of impeachment, the lieutenant governor assumes the title of governor. Should the office of lieutenant governor also become vacant, the president of the senate becomes the acting governor. [7] If the vacancy of both offices took place during the first twenty months of the term, a special election is to be held on the next even-numbered year to elect new officers to serve out the current term. [8] Prior to 1851, the speaker of the senate acted as governor for the term. [9] Since 1978, the governor and lieutenant governor have been elected on the same ticket; prior to then, they could be (and often were) members of different parties. [10]

Governors

Governors of Northwest Territory

Initially after the American Revolution, parts of the area now known as Ohio were claimed by New York, Virginia, and Connecticut; however, New York ceded its claim in 1782, Virginia in 1784, and Connecticut in 1786, though it maintained its Western Reserve in the area until 1800. [11] On July 13, 1787, the Northwest Territory was formed. As territories were split from it, one of them eventually came to represent the area of present-day Ohio. [12]

Throughout its 15-year history, Northwest Territory had only one governor, Arthur St. Clair. He was removed from office by President Thomas Jefferson on November 22, 1802, and no successor was named; Charles Willing Byrd, as Secretary of the Territory, acted as governor until statehood. [13]

Governors of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio
No. Governor Term in office Appointed by
1 ArthurStClairOfficialPortrait.jpg Arthur St. Clair October 5, 1787

November 22, 1802 [14]
Continental Congress [a]
2 Charles Willing Byrd November 22, 1802

March 3, 1803
[b]

Governors of the State of Ohio

Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. Since then, it has had 62 governors, six of whom served non-consecutive terms.

The first constitution of 1803 allowed governors to serve for two three-year terms, limited to six of any eight years, commencing on the first Monday in the December following an election. [15] The current constitution of 1851 removed the term limit, and shifted the start of the term to the second Monday in January following an election. [10] In 1908, Ohio switched from holding elections in odd-numbered years to even-numbered years, with the preceding governor (from the 1905 election) serving an extra year. [16] A 1957 amendment [10] lengthened the term to four years and allowed governors to only succeed themselves once, having to wait four years after their second term in a row before being allowed to run again. [17] An Ohio Supreme Court ruling in 1973 clarified this to mean governors could theoretically serve unlimited terms, as long as they waited four years after every second term. [10]

Governors of the State of Ohio
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor [c] [d]
1 Portrait of Senator Edward Tiffin of Ohio.jpg   Edward Tiffin March 3, 1803

March 4, 1807
Democratic-
Republican
1803 Office did not exist
1805
[e]
2 Thomas Kirker.png Thomas Kirker March 4, 1807

December 12, 1808
Democratic-
Republican
3 Samuel H. Huntington 002.png Samuel H. Huntington December 12, 1808

December 8, 1810
Democratic-
Republican
1808
[f]
4 Return J. Meigs, Jr.jpg Return J. Meigs Jr. December 8, 1810

March 24, 1814
Democratic-
Republican
1810
1812
[g]
5 Othniel Looker 002.png Othniel Looker March 24, 1814

December 8, 1814
Democratic-
Republican
6 Thomas Worthington (governor) 002.png Thomas Worthington December 8, 1814

December 14, 1818
Democratic-
Republican
1814
1816
7 Ethan Brown.jpg Ethan Allen Brown December 14, 1818

January 4, 1822
Democratic-
Republican
1818
1820
[h]
8 Allen Trimble 002.png Allen Trimble January 4, 1822

December 28, 1822
Democratic-
Republican
9 Jeremiah Morrow.jpg Jeremiah Morrow December 28, 1822

December 19, 1826
Democratic-
Republican
1822
1824
10 Allen Trimble.png Allen Trimble December 19, 1826

December 18, 1830
National
Republican
1826
1828
11 Duncan McArthur 002.png Duncan McArthur December 18, 1830

December 7, 1832
National
Republican
1830
12 Robert lucas.jpg Robert Lucas December 7, 1832

December 12, 1836
Democratic 1832
1834
13 Joseph Vance.jpg Joseph Vance December 12, 1836

December 13, 1838
Whig 1836
14 WShannon.jpg Wilson Shannon December 13, 1838

December 16, 1840
Democratic 1838
15 Thomas Corwin.png Thomas Corwin December 16, 1840

December 14, 1842
Whig 1840
16 Wilson Shannon (History of Ohio).png Wilson Shannon December 14, 1842

April 15, 1844
Democratic 1842
[i]
17 Thomas W. Bartley.png Thomas W. Bartley April 15, 1844

December 3, 1844
Democratic
18 Mordecai Bartley 002.png Mordecai Bartley December 3, 1844

December 12, 1846
Whig 1844
19 William Bebb.png William Bebb December 12, 1846

January 22, 1849
Whig 1846
[j]
20 Seabury Ford 002.png Seabury Ford January 22, 1849

December 12, 1850
Whig 1848
[j]
21 Reuben Wood 002.png Reuben Wood December 12, 1850

July 13, 1853
Democratic 1850
[k]
1851
[l]
  William Medill
22 William Medill 002.png William Medill July 13, 1853

January 14, 1856
Democratic Vacant
1853 James Myers
23 Salmon-chase.jpg Salmon P. Chase January 14, 1856

January 9, 1860
Republican 1855 Thomas H. Ford
1857 Martin Welker
24 William Dennison, Jr.jpg William Dennison Jr. January 9, 1860

January 13, 1862
Republican 1859 Robert C. Kirk
25 Governor David Tod.jpg David Tod January 13, 1862

January 11, 1864
Republican 1861 Benjamin Stanton
26 JohnBrough.jpg John Brough January 11, 1864

August 29, 1865
Unionist 1863
[m]
Charles Anderson [n]
27 CharlesAnderson1814.jpg Charles Anderson August 29, 1865

January 8, 1866
Republican Vacant
28 Jacob Dolson Cox.png Jacob Dolson Cox January 8, 1866

January 13, 1868
Republican 1865 Andrew McBurney
29 Rutherford B Hayes - head and shoulders.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes January 13, 1868

January 8, 1872
Republican 1867 John C. Lee
1869
30 Edward Follansbee Noyes by Henry Howe.png Edward Follansbee Noyes January 8, 1872

January 12, 1874
Republican 1871 Jacob Mueller
31 WilliamAllen.jpg William Allen January 12, 1874

January 10, 1876
Democratic 1873 Alphonso Hart [n]
32 Appleton's Hayes Rutherford.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes January 10, 1876

March 2, 1877
Republican 1875
[o]
Thomas L. Young
33 TLYoung.jpg Thomas L. Young March 2, 1877

January 14, 1878
Republican H. W. Curtiss
(acting)
34 Richard M. Bishop - Brady-Handy.jpg Richard M. Bishop January 14, 1878

January 12, 1880
Democratic 1877 Jabez W. Fitch
35 Charles Foster, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1865-1880.jpg Charles Foster January 12, 1880

January 14, 1884
Republican 1879 Andrew Hickenlooper
1881 Rees G. Richards
36 George Hoadly from goss 1912.png George Hoadly January 14, 1884

January 11, 1886
Democratic 1883 John G. Warwick
37 Joseph Benson Foraker.jpg Joseph B. Foraker January 11, 1886

January 13, 1890
Republican 1885 Robert P. Kennedy
(resigned March 3, 1887)
Silas A. Conrad
1887 William C. Lyon
38 James E. Campbell 002.png James E. Campbell January 13, 1890

January 11, 1892
Democratic 1889 Elbert L. Lampson [n]
(replaced January 31, 1890)
William V. Marquis
39 William mckinley.jpg William McKinley January 11, 1892

January 13, 1896
Republican 1891 Andrew L. Harris
1893
40 Asa S. Bushnell (Governor) 1896 2.jpg Asa S. Bushnell January 13, 1896

January 8, 1900
Republican 1895 Asa W. Jones
1897
41 George K Nash with signature.png George K. Nash January 8, 1900

January 11, 1904
Republican 1899 John A. Caldwell
1901 Carl L. Nippert
(resigned May 1, 1902)
Harry L. Gordon
42 MTHerrick.jpg Myron T. Herrick January 11, 1904

January 8, 1906
Republican 1903 Warren G. Harding
43 John M. Pattison 002.png John M. Pattison January 8, 1906

June 18, 1906
Democratic 1905
[p] [q]
Andrew L. Harris [n]
44 Andrew Lintner Harris - oval.jpg Andrew L. Harris June 18, 1906

January 11, 1909
Republican Vacant
45 JudsonHarmonLOC.jpg Judson Harmon January 11, 1909

January 13, 1913
Democratic 1908 Francis W. Treadway [n]
1910 Atlee Pomerene
(resigned March 4, 1911)
Hugh L. Nichols
46 James M. Cox 1920.jpg James M. Cox January 13, 1913

January 11, 1915
Democratic 1912 W. A. Greenlund
47 Frank Bartlett Willis.jpg Frank B. Willis January 11, 1915

January 8, 1917
Republican 1914 John H. Arnold
48 James M. Cox 1920.jpg James M. Cox January 8, 1917

January 10, 1921
Democratic 1916 Earl D. Bloom
1918 Clarence J. Brown [n]
49 HarryLDavis.jpg Harry L. Davis January 10, 1921

January 8, 1923
Republican 1920
50 Alvin Victor Donahey.jpg A. Victor Donahey January 8, 1923

January 14, 1929
Democratic 1922 Earl D. Bloom
1924 Charles H. Lewis [n]
1926 Earl D. Bloom
(resigned April 1928)
William G. Pickrel
(term ended November 1928)
George C. Braden [n]
51 Myers Y. Cooper.png Myers Y. Cooper January 14, 1929

January 12, 1931
Republican 1928 John T. Brown
52 George White (Ohio).png George White January 12, 1931

January 14, 1935
Democratic 1930 William G. Pickrel
1932 Charles W. Sawyer
53 MartinDavey.jpg Martin L. Davey January 14, 1935

January 9, 1939
Democratic 1934 Harold G. Mosier
1936 Paul P. Yoder
54 John William Bricker (Gov., Sen. OH).jpg John W. Bricker January 9, 1939

January 8, 1945
Republican 1938 Paul M. Herbert
1940
1942
55 L000122.jpg Frank Lausche January 8, 1945

January 13, 1947
Democratic 1944 George D. Nye
56 Thomas J. Herbert (1921).png Thomas J. Herbert January 13, 1947

January 10, 1949
Republican 1946 Paul M. Herbert
57 L000122.jpg Frank Lausche January 10, 1949

January 3, 1957
Democratic 1948 George D. Nye
1950
1952 John William Brown [n]
1954
[r]
58 John William Brown January 3, 1957

January 14, 1957
Republican Vacant
59 C. William O'Neill January 14, 1957

January 12, 1959
Republican 1956 Paul M. Herbert
60 Governor DiSalle.png Michael DiSalle January 12, 1959

January 14, 1963
Democratic 1958
[s]
John W. Donahey
61
Jim Rhodes in Bettsville, Ohio October 15, 1981.jpg
Jim Rhodes January 14, 1963

January 11, 1971
Republican 1962 John William Brown
1966
62 John J. Gilligan crop.tif John J. Gilligan January 11, 1971

January 13, 1975
Democratic 1970
63
Jim Rhodes in Bettsville, Ohio October 15, 1981.jpg
Jim Rhodes January 13, 1975

January 10, 1983
Republican 1974 Dick Celeste [t]
1978 George Voinovich
(resigned November 1979)
Vacant
64 Richard Celeste 2008 (cropped).jpg Dick Celeste January 10, 1983

January 14, 1991
Democratic 1982 Myrl Shoemaker
(died July 30, 1985)
Vacant
1986 Paul Leonard
65 George Voinovich official portrait.jpg George Voinovich January 14, 1991

December 31, 1998
Republican 1990 Mike DeWine
(resigned November 12, 1994)
Vacant
1994
[u]
Nancy Hollister
66 Nancy Hollister December 31, 1998

January 11, 1999
Republican Vacant
67 Hyland software thirdfrontiersummit 2002 Taft Hyland close cropped (cropped).jpg Bob Taft January 11, 1999

January 8, 2007
Republican 1998 Maureen O'Connor
(resigned December 31, 2002)
Vacant
2002 Jennette Bradley
(resigned January 5, 2005)
Bruce Johnson
(resigned December 8, 2006)
Vacant
68 Ted Strickland photo.jpg Ted Strickland January 8, 2007

January 10, 2011
Democratic 2006 Lee Fisher
69 Governor John Kasich.jpg John Kasich January 10, 2011

Present
Republican 2010 Mary Taylor
2014
[v]
70 RMD-Official-Headshot.jpg Mike DeWine Governor-elect
takes office
January 14, 2019
Republican 2018
[w]
Jon A. Husted

Notes

  1. ^ St. Clair was appointed governor by the Continental Congress; being governor of the first territory of the United States, he predated presidential appointments. [10]
  2. ^ Assumed position of acting governor when St. Clair was removed.
  3. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in the 1851 Constitution, first being filled in 1852.
  4. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  5. ^ Tiffin resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; as speaker of the senate, Kirker acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  6. ^ The 1807 election was won by Return J. Meigs Jr., but he was declared ineligible for office for failing the residency requirements; a new election was called for 1808, which Huntington won.
  7. ^ Meigs resigned to be U.S. Postmaster General; as speaker of the senate, Looker acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  8. ^ Brown resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; as speaker of the senate, Trimble acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  9. ^ Shannon resigned to be Minister to Mexico; as speaker of the senate, Bartley acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  10. ^ a b Bebb's term officially ended in December 1848. However, due to the large number of close elections that year, the general assembly was delayed in qualifying governor-elect Seabury Ford, and Bebb remained in office for an extra few weeks.
  11. ^ This term was shortened to one year due to the 1851 constitution moving the election schedule.
  12. ^ Wood resigned to be consul in Valparaíso, Chile; as lieutenant governor, Medill succeeded him.
  13. ^ Brough died in office; as lieutenant governor, Anderson succeeded him.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Represented the Republican Party.
  15. ^ Hayes resigned to be President of the United States; as lieutenant governor, Young succeeded him.
  16. ^ This term was lengthened to three years due to a 1905 amendment to the constitution moving the election schedule.
  17. ^ Pattison died in office; as lieutenant governor, Harris succeeded him.
  18. ^ Lausche resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; as lieutenant governor, Brown succeeded him.
  19. ^ First term under a 1957 amendment to the constitution, lengthening terms to four years.
  20. ^ Represented the Democratic Party.
  21. ^ DeWine resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; as lieutenant governor, Hollister succeeded him.
  22. ^ Governor Kasich's second term expires on January 14, 2019.
  23. ^ Governor-elect DeWine's first term begins on January 14, 2019, and expires January 9, 2023.

Other high offices held

This is a table of other governorships, congressional and other federal offices, and ranking diplomatic positions in foreign countries held by Ohio governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented Ohio.

* Denotes those offices for which the governor resigned the governorship.
† Denotes those offices from which the governor resigned to take the governorship.
Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held Source
House Senate
Arthur St. Clair 1789–1802 President of the United States in Congress Assembled [18]
Edward Tiffin 1803–1807 S* Commissioner of the General Land Office, Surveyor General of the Northwest Territory [19]
Return J. Meigs, Jr. 1810–1814 S† District Judge for Michigan Territory, U.S. Postmaster General [20]
Thomas Worthington 1814–1818 S† [21]
Ethan Allen Brown 1818–1822 S* Commissioner of the General Land Office, Minister to Brazil [22]
Jeremiah Morrow 1822–1826 H S [23]
Duncan McArthur 1830–1832 H [24]
Robert Lucas 1832–1836 Governor of Iowa Territory [25]
Joseph Vance 1836–1838 H [26]
Wilson Shannon 1838–1840
1842–1844
H Minister to Mexico*, Governor of Kansas Territory [27]
Thomas Corwin 1840–1842 H S Minister to Mexico, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury [28]
Mordecai Bartley 1844–1846 H [29]
William Medill 1853–1856 H First Comptroller of the United States Treasury, Commissioner of Indian Affairs [30]
Salmon P. Chase 1856–1860 S U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Chief Justice of the United States [31]
William Dennison 1860–1862 U.S. Postmaster General, President of the D. C. Board of Commissioners [32]
David Tod 1862–1864 Minister to Brazil [33]
Jacob Dolson Cox 1866–1868 H U.S. Secretary of the Interior [34]
Rutherford B. Hayes 1868–1872
1876–1877
H President of the United States* [35]
Edward F. Noyes 1872–1874 Minister to France [36]
William Allen 1874–1876 H S [37]
Thomas L. Young 1877–1878 H [38]
Charles Foster 1880–1884 H U.S. Secretary of the Treasury [39]
Joseph B. Foraker 1886–1890 S [40]
James E. Campbell 1890–1892 H [41]
William McKinley 1892–1896 H President of the United States [42]
Myron T. Herrick 1904–1906 Ambassador to France [36]
John M. Pattison 1906 H [43]
Judson Harmon 1909–1913 U.S. Attorney General [44]
James M. Cox 1913–1915
1917–1921
H† [45]
Frank B. Willis 1915–1917 H† S [46]
A. Victor Donahey 1923–1929 S [47]
George White 1931–1935 H [48]
Martin L. Davey 1935–1939 H [49]
John W. Bricker 1939–1945 S [50]
Frank J. Lausche 1945–1947
1949–1957
S* [51]
John J. Gilligan 1971–1975 H [52]
Dick Celeste 1983–1991 Ambassador to India [53]
George Voinovich 1991–1998 S* [54]
Ted Strickland 2007–2011 H [55]
John Kasich 2011– H [56]

Living former Governors of Ohio

As of January 2018, there are four living former Governors of Ohio, the oldest being Dick Celeste (served 1983–1991, born 1937). The most recent death of a former Governor of Ohio was that of George Voinovich (served 1991–1998, born 1936) on June 12, 2016, aged 79. Voinovich is also the most recently serving Governor of Ohio to die.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)
Dick Celeste 1983–1991 (1937-11-11) November 11, 1937 (age 81)
Nancy Hollister 1998–1999 (1949-05-22) May 22, 1949 (age 69)
Bob Taft 1999–2007 (1942-01-08) January 8, 1942 (age 76)
Ted Strickland 2007–2011 (1941-08-04) August 4, 1941 (age 77)

See also

Notes

References

General
  • "Former Governors' Bios: Ohio". National Governors Association. National Governors Association. 2013. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  • "Governors of the State of Ohio: 1788 - present". Joh Husted, Ohio Secretary of State. State of Ohio. 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  • "The Governors of Ohio, 1803–1971". Ohio Historical Society. May 30, 2008. Archived from the original on August 27, 1999.
  • "Lieutenant Governors of the State of Ohio: 1852 - present". Ohio Secretary of State. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "Governors' Salaries, 2015" (PDF). The Council of State Governments. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  2. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 5.
  3. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 10.
  4. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 16.
  5. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 8.
  6. ^ Ohio Constitution article III § 11.
  7. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 15
  8. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 17
  9. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 12
  10. ^ a b c d e Steinglass, Steven H.; Scarselli, Gino J. (2004). The Ohio State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN  0-313-26765-0. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  11. ^ "Ownership of the Northwest". Heritage Pursuit. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  12. ^ "Evolution of Territories and States from the Old "Northwest Territory"". John Lindquist. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  13. ^ Smith, William Henry, ed. (1882). The Life and Public Services of Arthur St. Clair. 1. Robert Clarke and Company. p. 246.
  14. ^ "History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County". Heritage Pursuit. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  15. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 3
  16. ^ Article XVII (adopted November, 1905) of Constitution, section 2: "And the General Assembly shall have power to so extend existing terms of office as to effect the purpose of section 1 of this article." and section 3 : "Every elective officer holding office when this amendment is adopted shall continue to hold such office for the full term for which he was elected and until his successor shall be elected and qualified as provided by law." source: Sandles, A P; Doty, E W (eds.). The biographical annals of Ohio 1906-1907-1908 : A handbook of the Government and Institutions of the State of Ohio. State of Ohio. p. 123.
  17. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 2
  18. ^ "St. Clair, Arthur". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  19. ^ "Tiffin, Edward". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  20. ^ "Meigs, Return Jonathan, Jr". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  21. ^ "Worthington, Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
  22. ^ "Brown, Ethan Allen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  23. ^ "Morrow, Jeremiah". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  24. ^ "McArthur, Duncan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  25. ^ "Robert Lucas". Ohio History Central. Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
  26. ^ "Vance, Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  27. ^ "Shannon, Wilson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  28. ^ "Corwin, Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  29. ^ "Bartley, Mordecai". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  30. ^ "Medill, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  31. ^ "Chase, Salmon Portland". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  32. ^ "William Dennison Jr". Ohio Historical Society. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
  33. ^ "Chiefs of Mission for Brazil". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
  34. ^ "Cox, Jacob Dolson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  35. ^ "Hayes, Rutherford Birchard". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  36. ^ a b "Chiefs of Mission for France". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
  37. ^ "Allen, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  38. ^ "Young, Thomas Lowry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  39. ^ "Foster, Charles". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  40. ^ "Foraker, Joseph Benson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  41. ^ "Campbell, James". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  42. ^ "McKinley, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  43. ^ "Pattison, John M." Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  44. ^ "Judson Harmon". Office of the Attorney General. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
  45. ^ "Cox, James Middleton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
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