He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Ellsworth in 1887. He served as judge of the municipal court of Ellsworth 1896-1908. He served as member of the state house of representatives in 1909, 1911, and 1913, serving as speaker in 1913.
Peters was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-third Congress, by special election, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of United States Representative Forrest Goodwin, and reelected to the four succeeding Congresses (September 9, 1913 – January 2, 1922).
He served as judge for the United States District Court for the District of Maine from 1922 to 1947. He was also a delegate at large to the Republican National Convention in 1916. Later he served as vice president of the board of trustees of Bowdoin College.
He died in Ellsworth, Maine on August 22, 1953 and was interred in Woodbine Cemetery.
- United States Congress. "John A. Peters (id: P000253)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from Maine's 3rd congressional district
September 9, 1913 – January 2, 1922
John E. Nelson
| Judge of the
United States District Court for the District of Maine
John David Clifford, Jr.