Hate group Information
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (February 2011) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Part of a series on|
A hate group is a social group that advocates and practices hatred, hostility, or violence towards members of a race, ethnicity, nation, religion, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation or any other designated sector of society. According to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), a hate group's "primary purpose is to promote animosity, hostility, and malice against persons belonging to a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national origin which differs from that of the members of the organization." 
In the US, The FBI does not publish a list of hate groups, and it also says that "[I]nvestigations are only conducted when a threat or advocacy of force is made; when the group has the apparent ability to carry out the proclaimed act; and when the act would constitute a potential violation of federal law". The FBI maintains statistics on hate crimes. 
Two private American non-profit organizations that monitor intolerance and hate groups are the Anti-Defamation League (ADL)  and the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC).  They maintain lists of what they deem to be hate groups, supremacist groups and anti-Semitic, anti-government or extremist groups that have committed hate crimes. The SPLC's definition of a "hate group" includes any group with beliefs or practices that attack or malign an entire class of people—particularly when the characteristics being maligned are immutable.  However, at least for the SPLC, inclusion of a group in the list "does not imply a group advocates or engages in violence or other criminal activity."  According to USA Today, their list ranges from "white supremacists to black nationalists, neo-Nazis to neo-Confederates." 
According to the SPLC, from 2000 to 2008, hate group activity saw a 50 percent increase in the US, with a total of 926 active groups.  In 2019, the organization's report showed a total of 1,020 hate groups, the highest number in 20 years, and a 7% increase from 2017 to 2018. The previous high was 1,018 in 2011, and the recent low point was 2014, when the list included 784 groups. A rise in white nationalist groups from 100 in 2017 to 148 in 2018 was the most significant increase in the 2019 report. 
Since 2010 the term alt-right, short for "alternative right," has come into usage.   This broad term includes a range of people who reject mainstream conservatism in favor of forms of conservatism that may embrace implicit or explicit racism or white supremacy. The alt-right is described as being "a weird mix of old-school neo-Nazis, conspiracy theorists, anti-globalists, and young right-wing internet trolls—all united in the belief that white male identity is under attack by multicultural, " politically correct" forces." 
Four categories associated with hate groups' propensity for violence are: organizational capacity, organizational constituency, strategic connectivity, and structural arrangement.  The larger an extremist group is and the longer it has existed, the more prone the group is to engage in violence. Regionally, hate groups based in the West and Northeast are more likely to engage in violence than those based in the South. If a group has a charismatic leader, it is more likely to be violent. Groups that share a conflict-based relationship with another group are more likely to engage in extreme violence. The amount of ideological literature a group publishes is linked to significant decreases in a group's violent behavior, with more literature linked to lower levels of violence.
Violent hate groups tend to commit "downward crimes," which involve the persecution of a minority group by a more powerful majority.  By contrast, acts of terrorism are typically "upward crimes," with a low-power minority perpetrator targeting a more prominent majority group.
The California Association for Human Relations Organizations (CAHRO) asserts that hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and White Aryan Resistance (WAR) preach violence against racial, religious, sexual and other minorities in the United States.  Joseph E. Agne argues that hate-motivated violence is a result of the successes of the civil rights movement, and he asserts that the KKK has resurfaced and that new hate groups have formed.  Agne argues that it is a mistake to underestimate the strength of the hate-violence movement, its apologists and its silent partners. 
In the US, crimes that "manifest evidence of prejudice based on race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity, including the crimes of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault; burglary; larceny-theft; motor vehicle theft; arson; simple assault; intimidation; and destruction, damage or vandalism of property", directed at the government, an individual, a business, or institution, involving hate groups and hate crimes, may be investigated as acts of domestic terrorism.    
Counter-terrorism expert Ehud Sprinzak argues that verbal violence is "the use of extreme language against an individual or a group that either implies a direct threat that physical force will be used against them, or is seen as an indirect call for others to use it." Sprinzak argues that verbal violence is often a substitute for real violence, and that the verbalization of hate has the potential to incite people who are incapable of distinguishing between real and verbal violence to engage in actual violence. 
People tend to judge the offensiveness of hate speech on a gradient depending on how public the speech is and what group it targets.  Although people's opinions of hate speech are complex, they typically consider public speech targeting ethnic minorities to be the most offensive.
Historian Daniel Goldhagen, discussing antisemitic hate groups, argues that we should view verbal violence as "an assault in its own right, having been intended to produce profound damage—emotional, psychological, and social—to the dignity and honor of the Jews. The wounds that people suffer by ... such vituperation ... can be as bad as ... [a] beating." 
In the mid-1990s, the popularity of the Internet brought new international exposure to many organizations, including groups with beliefs such as white supremacy, neo-Nazism, homophobia, Holocaust denial and Islamophobia. Several white supremacist groups have founded websites dedicated to attacking their perceived enemies. In 1996, the Simon Wiesenthal Center of Los Angeles asked Internet access providers to adopt a code of ethics that would prevent extremists from publishing their ideas online. In 1996, the European Commission formed the Consultative Commission on Racism and Xenophobia (CRAX), a pan-European group which was tasked to "investigate and, using legal means, stamp out the current wave of racism on the Internet." 
The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) has designated several Christian groups as hate groups, including the American Family Association, the Family Research Council, Abiding Truth Ministries, American Vision, the Chalcedon Foundation, the Dove World Outreach Center, the Traditional Values Coalition and Westboro Baptist Church. Some conservatives have criticized the SPLC for its inclusion of certain Christian groups, such as the Family Research Council, on its list.    
The SPLC classes the Nation of Islam (NOI) as a hate group under the black separatist category.   The NOI preaches that a black scientist named Yakub created the white race, a "race of devils", on the Greek island of Patmos. The NOI, unlike traditional Muslim groups, does not accept white members and it is not regarded as a legitimate branch of Islam by mainstream Muslims.[ citation needed]
The white supremacist Creativity Movement (formerly the World Church of the Creator), led by Matthew F. Hale, is associated with violence and bigotry. Aryan Nations is another religiously-based white supremacist hate group.[ citation needed]
Westboro Baptist Church is considered a hate group[ by whom?] because of its provocative stance against homosexuality and the United States, and it has been condemned by many mainstream gay rights opponents as well as by gay rights supporters. 
Traditionally, hate groups recruited members and spread extremist messages by word of mouth, or through the distribution of flyers and pamphlets. In contrast, the Internet allows hate group members from all over the world to engage in real-time conversations.  The Internet has been a boon for hate groups in terms of promotion, recruitment and expansion of their base to include younger audiences.  An Internet hate group does not have to be part of a traditional faction such as the Ku Klux Klan. 
While many hate sites are explicitly antagonistic or violent, others may appear patriotic or benign, and this façade may contribute to the appeal of the groups.  Hate group websites work towards the following goals: to educate group members and the public, to encourage participation, to claim a divine calling and privilege, and to accuse out-groups (e.g. the government or the media). Groups that work effectively towards these goals via an online presence tend to strengthen their sense of identity, decrease the threat levels from out-groups, and recruit more new members.
The Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC), in its 2009 iReport, identified more than 10,000 problematic hate and terrorist websites and other Internet postings. The report includes hate websites, social networks, blogs, newsgroups, YouTube and other video sites. The findings illustrate that as the Internet continues to grow, extremists find new ways to seek validation of their hateful agendas and recruit members.
Creators of hate pages and groups on Facebook choose their target, set up their page or group, and then recruit members.  Anyone can create a Facebook group and invite followers to post comments, add pictures and participate in discussion boards. A Facebook page is similar, with the exception that one must " like" the page in order to become a member. Because of the ease of creating and joining such groups, many so-called hate groups exist only in cyberspace.  United Patriots Front, an internet-based Australian far-right anti-immigration and neo-nazi organisation formed in 2015  has been described as a hate group. 
Hateful intergroup conflict may be motivated by " in-group love," a desire to positively contribute to the group to which one belongs, or " out-group hate," a desire to injure a foreign group.  Both individuals and groups are more motivated by "in-group love" than "out-group hate," even though both motivations might advance a group's status. This preference is especially salient when a group is not situated in a competitive position against another. This partiality towards cooperative behavior suggests that intergroup conflict might decline if group members devoted more energy to positive in-group improvements than to out-group competition.  Groups formed around a set of moral codes are more likely than non-morality-based groups to exhibit "out-group hate" as a response to their especially strong sense of "in-group love." 
One type of intergroup threat theory, realistic group conflict theory, addresses competition between groups by positing that when two groups are competing for limited resources, one group's potential success is at odds with the other's interests, which leads to negative out-group attitudes.  If groups have the same goal, their interactions will be positive, but opposing goals will worsen intergroup relations. Intergroup conflict may increase in-group unity, leading to a larger disparity and more conflict between groups.
Symbolic threat theory proposes that intergroup bias and conflict result from conflicting ideals, not from perceived competition or opposing goals.  Biases based on symbolic threat tend to be stronger predictors of practical behavior towards out-groups than biases based on realistic threat. 
Realistic group conflict theory and symbolic threat theory are, in some cases, compatible. Integrated-threat theory recognizes that conflict can arise from a combination of intergroup dynamics and classifies threats into four types: realistic threat, symbolic threat, intergroup anxiety, and negative stereotypes.  Intergroup threat theories provide a framework for intergroup biases and aggression.  Intergroup anxiety refers to a felt uneasiness around members of other groups, which is predictive of biased attitudes and behaviors.  Negative stereotypes are also correlated with these behaviors, causing threat based on negative expectations about an out-group. 
According to the 7-stage hate model, a hate group, if unimpeded, passes through seven successive stages.   In the first four stages, hate groups vocalize their beliefs and in the last three stages, they act on their beliefs. Factors that contribute to a group's likelihood to act include the vulnerability of its members as well as its reliance on symbols and mythologies. This model points to a transition period that exists between verbal violence and acting out that violence, separating hardcore haters from rhetorical haters. Thus, hate speech is seen as a prerequisite of hate crimes, and as a condition of their possibility.
Hate group intervention is most possible if a group has not yet passed from the speech to the action stage, and interventions on immature hate groups are more effective than those that are firmly established.  Intervention and rehabilitation is most effective when the one investigating a hate group can identify and deconstruct personal insecurities of group members, which in turn contribute to the weakness of the group. Perhaps most critical to combating group hate is to prevent the recruitment of new members by supporting those who are most susceptible, especially children and youth, in developing a positive self-esteem and a humanized understanding of out-groups. 
- Anti-Defamation League
- List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center as hate groups
- "Hate Crime Data Collection Guidelines", Uniform Crime Reporting: Summary Reporting System: National Incident-Based Reporting System, U.S. Department of Justice: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Revised October 1999.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- "ADL: Fighting Anti-Semitism, Bigotry and Extremism". Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- "SPLCenter.org...forwarding to index.jsp". Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- Hate Map – SPLC
- "Hate Map". Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- Woodyard, Chris (February 20, 2019) "Hate group count hits 20-year high amid rise in white supremacy, report says" USA Today
- Katel, Peter (2009-05-08). "Hate Groups". 19 (18). CQ Researcher. pp. 421–48. See "The Year in Hate" Southern Poverty Law Center, February 2009.
- Lombroso, Daniel &, Applebaum, Yoni (21 November 2016). "'Hail Trump!': White Nationalists Salute the President Elect". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Goldstein, Joseph (November 20, 2016). "Alt-Right Exults in Donald Trump's Election With a Salute: 'Heil Victory'". New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
- Staff (1 October 2016). "The Rise of the alt-right". The Week. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Chermak, S.; Freilich, J.; Suttmoeller, M. (2013). "The organizational dynamics of far-right hate groups in the United States: comparing violent to nonviolent organizations". Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 36 (3): 193–218. doi: 10.1080/1057610X.2013.755912.
- Deloughery, K.; King, R.D.; Asal, V. (2012). "Close cousins or distant relatives?: the relationship between terrorism and hate crime". Crime and Delinquency. 58 (5): 663–88. doi: 10.1177/0011128712452956.
- "Freedom From FearR: Ending California's Hate Violence Epidemic". Cahro.org. CAHRO – California Association of Human Relations Organizations. 1992-01-07. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- "The Church's Response to Hate-Group Violence". Gbgm-umc.org. Archived from the original on 2012-02-24. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- "The Church's Response to Hate-Group Violence". Archived from the original on 2012-02-24. Retrieved 2004-11-28.
- The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program – Data Quality Guidelines for Statistics Appendix III – A Brief History of the Hate Crime Program
- Federal Bureau of Investigation – Civil Rights "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2016-07-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link)
- Hate Crime Statistics, 2006 Hate Crime Overview – The FBI's Role Archived 2015-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
- 1999 Developing Hate Crime Questions for the National Crime Victim Survey (NCVS) p. 1 "Sections & Interest Groups" (PDF). Archived from the original on May 12, 2003. Retrieved 2008-01-04.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown ( link)
- Sprinzak, Ehud, Brother against Brother: Violence and Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination (New York: The Free Press, 1999)
- Cowan, G.; Hodge, C. (1996). "Judgments of hate speech: the effects of target group, publicness, and behavioral responses of the target". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 26 (4): 355–71. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1996.tb01854.x.
- Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah, Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans the Holocaust (Knopf, 1996), p. 124.
- Newsbytes News Network (31 January 1996)
- Sessions, David (16 August 2014). "Is the Family Research Council Really a Hate Group?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- Waddington, Lynda (23 November 2010). "Groups that Helped Oust Iowa Judges Earn 'Hate Group' Designation; SPLC Adds American Family Association, Family Research Council to List". Iowa Independent. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- Thompson, Krissah (24 November 2010). "'Hate group' designation angers same-sex marriage opponents". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- Sprigg, Peter.
"The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) and Its So-Called 'Hate Groups'".
The Family Research Council. Retrieved 6 August 2014. External link in
- Jessup, Michael "The Sword of Truth in the Sea of Lies: The Theology of Hate", in Priest, Robert J. and Alvaro L. Nieves, eds., This Side of Heaven (Oxford University Press US, 2006) ISBN 0-19-531056-X, pp. 165–66
- SPLC - Active U.S. Hate Groups in 2008: Black Separatist Archived 2008-03-14 at the Wayback Machine
- The year in hate 2005, Southern Poverty Law Center.
- Meddaugh and Kay (2009)
- Schafer and Navarro (2002); Williamson and Pierson (2003)
- Moody, M., "New Media-Same Stereotypes: An Analysis of Social Media Depictions of President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama", 'The Journal of New Media & Culture (2012).[ permanent dead link]
- McNamee, L.G.; Peterson, B.L.; Pena, J. (2010). "A call to educate, participate, invoke, and indict: understanding the communication of online hate groups". Communication Monographs. 77 (2): 257–80. doi: 10.1080/03637751003758227.
- Perry and Olsson (2009)
- Bachelard, Michael; McMahon, Luke (17 October 2015). "New Aussie 'patriots' leader Blair Cottrell wanted Hitler in the classroom".
- McPherson, Tahlia (20 September 2015). "Hostility to hit Albury".
- Halevy, N.; Weisel, O.; Bornstein, G. (2012). ""In-group love" and "out-group hate" in repeated interaction between groups". Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 25 (2): 188–95. doi: 10.1002/bdm.726.
- Halevy, N.; Bornstein, G.; Sagiv, L. (2008). ""In-group love" and "out-group hate" as motives for individual participation in intergroup conflict". Psychological Science. 19 (4): 405–11. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02100.x. PMID 18399895.
- Parker, M.T.; Janoff-Bulman, R. (2013). "Lessons from morality-based social identity: the power of outgroup "hate," not just ingroup "love"". Social Justice Research. 26: 81–96. doi: 10.1007/s11211-012-0175-6.
- Stephan, W.G.; Stephan, C.W. (2000). "An integrated theory of prejudice". Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination: The Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology: 23–45.
- Riek, B.M.; Mania, E.W.; Gaertner, S.L. (2006). "Intergroup threat and outgroup attitudes: a meta-analytic review". Personality and Social Psychology Review. 10 (4): 336–53. doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr1004_4. PMID 17201592.
- Sherif, M., & Sherif, C.W. (1969). Social psychology. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 221–66.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( link)
- McConahay, J.B. "Self-interest versus racial attitudes as correlates of anti-busing attitudes in Louisville: Is it the buses or the blacks?". Journal of Politics. 441: 692–720.
- Kinder, D.R.; Sears, D.O. (1981). "Prejudice and politics: Symbolic racism versus racial threats to the good life". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 40 (3): 414–31. doi: 10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.114.
- Ho, C.; Jackson, J.W. (2001). "Attitudes toward Asian Americans: Theory and measurement". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 31 (8): 1553–81. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2001.tb02742.x.
- Eagley, A.H.; Mladinic, A. (1989). "Gender stereotypes and attitudes toward women and men". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 15 (4): 543–58. doi: 10.1177/0146167289154008.
- "2003 FBI Law Enforcement bulletin". 2003. Archived from the original on 2013-08-18.
- Schafer, J.R. (2006). "The seven-stage hate model: the psychopathology of hate groups". Cultic Studies Review. 5: 73–86.
- Sternberg, R.J. (2005). The Psychology of Hate. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. pp. 61–63.
- Denning, Dorothy E. and Peter J. Denning. Internet Besieged: Countering Cyberspace Scofflaws. New York: ACM Press (1998)
- Dudley, J. Wayne, '"Hate" Organizations of the 1940s: The Columbians, Inc.', Phylon, Vol. 42, No. 3 (3rd Qtr., 1981), pp. 262–274 ( JSTOR)
- Jessup, Michael The Sword of Truth in the Sea of Lies: The Theology of Hate, Google Print, p.165-p.166, in Robert J. Priest, Alvaro L. Nieves (ed.), This Side of Heaven, Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-531056-X
- Perry, Barbara (May 2000). ""Button-Down Terror": The Metamorphosis of the Hate Movement". Sociological Focus. 33 (2): 113–131. doi: 10.1080/00380237.2000.10571161. JSTOR 20832071.
- Schafer, John R. MA & Navarro, Joe, MA . (March 2003). "The seven-stage hate model: The psychopathology of hate groups". FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( link)
- Hate Groups at Curlie
- Poisoning the Web: Hatred Online, Internet Bigotry, Extremism and Violence - The Anti-defamation League
- Online Hate - The Media Awareness Network
- Deconstructing Hate Sites
- Survivor bashing - bias motivated hate crimes
- Hate Communities in Cyber Space; Manjeet Chaturvedi, Ishan, Ishita
- "When Hate went Online" at the Wayback Machine (archived September 27, 2007)
- Active U.S. Hate Groups – a map at The Southern Poverty Law Center