Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge Article

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Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. West over Bayou Heron showing pilings from old logging road bridge in center of photo. Grand Bay, Mississippi.jpg
West over Bayou Heron showing pilings from old logging road bridge in center of photo. Grand Bay, Mississippi
Map showing the location of Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge
Map showing the location of Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge
Map of the United States
Location Mobile County, Alabama, Jackson County, Mississippi, United States
Nearest city Grand Bay, Alabama
Coordinates 30°24′57″N 88°25′11″W / 30.41583°N 88.41972°W / 30.41583; -88.41972 [1]
GRAND BAY NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Latitude and Longitude:

30°24′57″N 88°25′11″W / 30.41583°N 88.41972°W / 30.41583; -88.41972 [1]
Area32,000 acres (130 km2)
Established1992
Governing body U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Website Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge

Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1992 under the Emergency Wetlands Resources Act of 1986 to protect one of the largest expanses of undisturbed pine savanna habitats in the Gulf Coastal Plain region. The refuge is located near Grand Bay, Alabama in Mobile County, Alabama and Jackson County, Mississippi, and when complete will encompass over 32,000 acres (130 km2). The refuge is part of the National Wildlife Refuge system. The Refuge Complex Manager also administers the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge and Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge. Access to refuge lands (especially interior portions) is limited, but is available mostly on the Mississippi side and by boat.

Habitat

East over Bayou Cumbest looking east showing maritime pine islands on Crooked Bayou

The habitat is varied and includes wet pine savannah, maritime forest, tidal flats, nontidal wetlands, salt pans, salt marshes, bays and bayous. [2]

Research

Research projects include studying the ecological effects of rising sea levels, the ecology of vertebrates in tidal marshes, the ecology of the reserves habitats, monitoring the effects of mercury pollution, coastal plant ecology and mapping, and monitoring environmental conditions on a long-term basis. [3]

Flora and fauna

The varied parts of the refuge provide suitable habitat for many migrant and resident species of bird. These include the scarlet tanager, the black-throated green warbler, the black-and-white warbler, the eastern towhee, the gray catbird, the painted bunting and the secretive white-eyed vireo. [4]

Nine species of carnivorous plants including pitcher plants, butterworts and sundews are present in the reserve. These plants have modifications which enable them to catch insects which provides the nitrogen they need that is deficient in their swampy habitat. [4]

References

  1. ^ "Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  2. ^ "Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge". OhRanger.com. Retrieved 2015-08-06.
  3. ^ "Research overview". Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Retrieved 2015-08-06.
  4. ^ a b "Grand Bay: Wildlife and Habitat". U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2015-08-06.

 This article incorporates  public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.