List of Governors of Arizona Article

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Governor of Arizona
Arizona-StateSeal.svg
= Current Arizona Governor Doug Ducey
Incumbent
Doug Ducey

since January 5, 2015
StyleThe Honorable
Status
ResidenceNo official residence
Term lengthFour years, can succeed self once; eligible again after 4-year respite [1]
Constituting instrument Arizona Constitution, article V [2]
Inaugural holder George W. P. Hunt
FormationFebruary 14, 1912
DeputyNone
Salary$95,000 (2013) [3]
Website www.azgovernor.gov

The Governor of Arizona is the head of government and head of state of the U.S. state of Arizona. [4] In his role as head of government, the governor is the head of the executive branch of the Arizona state government and is charged with enforcing state laws. [4] The governor has the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Arizona State Legislature [5]; to convene the legislature [4]; and to grant pardons [6], except in cases of impeachment. The governor is also the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. [7]

Twenty-two people have served as governor over 26 distinct terms. All of the repeat governors were in the state's earliest years, when George W. P. Hunt and Thomas Edward Campbell alternated as governor for 17 years and, after a two-year gap, Hunt served another term. One governor, Evan Mecham, was successfully impeached, and one, Fife Symington III, resigned upon being convicted of a felony. The longest-serving governor was Hunt, who was elected seven times and served just under fourteen years. The longest single stint was that of Bruce Babbitt, who was elected to two four-year terms after succeeding to the office following the death of his predecessor, Wesley Bolin, serving nearly nine years total. Bolin had the shortest tenure, dying less than five months after succeeding as governor. Four governors were actually born in Arizona: Campbell, Sidney Preston Osborn, Rose Mofford, and Babbitt. Arizona has had four female governors, the most in the United States, and is also the only state where female governors have served consecutively. [8] Because of a string of deaths in office, resignations, and an impeachment, Arizona has not had a governor whose term began and ended because of "normal" election circumstances since Jack Williams was in office, from 1967 to 1975.

The current Governor is Republican Doug Ducey, who took office on January 5, 2015.

Governors

Confederate Arizona

Lewis Owings, Governor of the provisional Arizona Territory and 1st Governor of Confederate Arizona
Lieutenant Colonel John R. Baylor, 2nd Governor of Confederate Arizona

In Tucson between April 2 and April 5, 1860, a convention of settlers from the southern half of the New Mexico Territory drafted a constitution for a provisional Arizona Territory, three years before the United States would create such a territory. This proposed territory consisted of the part of New Mexico Territory south of 33° 40' N. On April 2, [9] they elected a governor, Lewis Owings. The provisional territory was to exist until such time as an official territory was created, but that proposal was rejected by the U.S. Congress at the time. [10]

On March 16, 1861, soon before the American Civil War broke out, a convention in Mesilla voted that the provisional territory should secede from the Union and join the Confederate States of America. [11] Lewis Owings remained as territorial governor.

The Confederacy took ownership of the territory on August 1, 1861, when forces led by Lieutenant Colonel John R. Baylor won decisive control of the territory, and Baylor proclaimed himself governor. [12] The territory was organized on February 14, 1862. [13] On March 20, 1862, Baylor issued an order to kill all the adult Apache and take their children into slavery. [12] When Confederate President Jefferson Davis learned of this order, he strongly disapproved and demanded an explanation. Baylor wrote a letter December 29, 1862, to justify his decision, and after this was received, Davis relieved Baylor of his post and commission, calling his letter an "avowal of an infamous crime." [14] By that time, the government of Confederate Arizona was in exile in San Antonio, Texas, as the territory had been effectively lost to Union forces in July 1862; [15] no new governor was appointed.

Governors of the Territory of Arizona

Arizona Territory was formed on February 24, 1863 from New Mexico Territory, remaining a territory for 49 years. [16]

Governors of the Territory of Arizona
No. Governor Term in office [a] Appointing President
John Addison Gurley.jpg John A. Gurley [b] Abraham Lincoln
1 John Noble Goodwin.jpg John Noble Goodwin December 29, 1863 [17] [18]

March 4, 1865 [c]
2 Richard Cunningham McCormick - Brady-Handy.jpg Richard Cunningham McCormick July 9, 1866 [19]

March 4, 1869 [c]
Andrew Johnson
3 Anson P. K. Safford.jpg Anson P. K. Safford July 9, 1869 [20]

April 5, 1877
Ulysses S. Grant
4 John Philo Hoyt.jpg John Philo Hoyt May 30, 1877 [21]

June 12, 1878
Rutherford B. Hayes
5 JCFrémont.jpg John C. Frémont October 6, 1878 [22] [d]

October 11, 1881 [23] [e]
6 Frederick Augustus Tritle.png Frederick Augustus Tritle March 8, 1882 [23] [24]

October 7, 1885 [25] [f]
Chester A. Arthur
7 C. Meyer Zulick (Arizona Governor).jpg C. Meyer Zulick November 2, 1885 [26]

March 28, 1889
Grover Cleveland
8 Lewis Wolfley (Arizona Governor).jpg Lewis Wolfley April 8, 1889 [27]

August 20, 1890 [28] [g]
Benjamin Harrison
9 John Nichol Irwin - oval.jpg John N. Irwin January 21, 1891 [30]

April 20, 1892 [31] [h]
10 N. O. Murphy.jpg Oakes Murphy May 11, 1892 [33] [34]

April 5, 1893
11 LC hughes.jpg L. C. Hughes April 12, 1893 [35]

April 1, 1896 [36] [i]
Grover Cleveland
12 BJFranklin.jpg Benjamin Joseph Franklin April 18, 1896 [38]

July 29, 1897 [39]
13 MyronMcCord.png Myron H. McCord July 29, 1897 [40] [41]

August 1, 1898 [42] [j]
William McKinley
14 N. O. Murphy.jpg Oakes Murphy August 1, 1898 [44] [45]

June 30, 1902 [46] [k]
15 Alexander Brodie.jpg Alexander Oswald Brodie July 1, 1902 [48] [49]

February 14, 1905 [50] [l]
Theodore Roosevelt
16 Joseph Henry Kibbey-left profile.jpg Joseph Henry Kibbey March 7, 1905 [50] [51]

May 1, 1909
17 Governor R E Sloan.jpg Richard Elihu Sloan May 1, 1909 [52] [53]

February 14, 1912
William Howard Taft

Governors of the State of Arizona

The state of Arizona was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1912, the last of the contiguous states to be admitted.

The state constitution of 1912 called for the election of a governor every two years. [54] The term was increased to four years by a 1968 amendment. [55] [56] The constitution originally included no term limit, [57] but an amendment passed in 1992 allows governors to succeed themselves only once; [54] before this, four governors were elected more than twice in a row. Gubernatorial terms begin on the first Monday in the January following the election. [54] Governors who have served the two term limit can run again after four years out of office.

Arizona is one of seven states which does not have a lieutenant governor; instead, in the event of a vacancy in the office of governor, the Secretary of State, if elected, succeeds to the office. If the secretary of state was appointed, rather than elected, or is otherwise ineligible to hold the office of governor, the first elected and eligible person in the line of succession assumes the office. The state constitution specifies the line of succession to be the Secretary of State, Attorney General, State Treasurer and Superintendent of Public Instruction, in that order. [58] If the governor is out of the state or impeached, the next elected officer in the line of succession becomes acting governor until the governor returns or is cleared. [58] To date, the line of succession has gone beyond the secretary of state only once, when Bruce Babbitt, as attorney general, became governor upon the death of Wesley Bolin; the secretary of state at the time, Rose Mofford, was an appointee to replace Bolin, [59] who himself had succeeded to the office due to the resignation of his predecessor, Raúl Héctor Castro. Mofford would later succeed Evan Mecham as acting governor when he was impeached by the House of Representatives, and as governor when he was convicted by the Senate.

Governors of the State of Arizona [m]
No. [n] Governor Term in office Party Election
1 George WP Hunt.jpg   George W. P. Hunt February 14, 1912 [61]

January 1, 1917
(lost election) [o]
Democratic 1911
1914
2 Thomas E Campbell 2.jpg Thomas Edward Campbell January 1, 1917

December 25, 1917
(removed from office)
Republican 1916 [o]
1 George WP Hunt.jpg George W. P. Hunt December 25, 1917

January 6, 1919
(not candidate for election)
Democratic
2 Thomas E Campbell 2.jpg Thomas Edward Campbell January 6, 1919

January 1, 1923
(lost election) [66]
Republican 1918
1920
1 George WP Hunt.jpg George W. P. Hunt January 1, 1923

January 7, 1929
(lost election) [67]
Democratic 1922
1924
1926
3 John Calhoun Phillips (Arizona Governor).jpg John Calhoun Phillips January 7, 1929

January 5, 1931
(lost election)
Republican 1928
1 George WP Hunt.jpg George W. P. Hunt January 5, 1931

January 2, 1933
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1930
4 Benjamin Baker Moeur (Arizona Governor).jpg Benjamin Baker Moeur January 2, 1933

January 4, 1937
(lost election)
Democratic 1932
1934
5 Rawghlie Clement Stanford.jpg Rawghlie Clement Stanford January 4, 1937

January 2, 1939
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1936
6 Robert Taylor Jones.jpg Robert Taylor Jones January 2, 1939

January 6, 1941
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1938
7 Sidney Preston Osborn.jpg Sidney Preston Osborn January 6, 1941

May 25, 1948
(died in office)
Democratic 1940
1942
1944
1946
8 Dan E. Garvey (Arizona Governor).jpg Dan Edward Garvey May 25, 1948

January 1, 1951
(not candidate for election)
Democratic Succeeded from
Secretary of State
1948
9 John Howard Pyle (Arizona governor).jpg John Howard Pyle January 1, 1951

January 3, 1955
(lost election)
Republican 1950
1952
10 Mcfarland ernest.jpg Ernest McFarland January 3, 1955

January 5, 1959
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1954
1956
11 Paul Fannin.jpg Paul Fannin January 5, 1959

January 4, 1965
(not candidate for election)
Republican 1958
1960
1962
12 Samuel Pearson Goddard Jr. January 4, 1965

January 2, 1967
(lost election) [68]
Democratic 1964
13 Jack Williams (Arizona politician) (cropped).jpg Jack Williams January 2, 1967

January 6, 1975
(not candidate for election)
Republican 1966
1968
1970 [p]
14 Raul Hector Castro swearing in as Ambassador to Argentina.jpg Raúl Héctor Castro January 6, 1975

October 20, 1977
(resigned) [q]
Democratic 1974
15 Wesley Bolin October 20, 1977

March 4, 1978
(died in office)
Democratic Succeeded from
Secretary of State
16 Bruce Babbitt 2007.jpg Bruce Babbitt March 4, 1978

January 5, 1987 [r]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic Succeeded from
Attorney General
[s]
1978
1982
17 Evan Mecham January 5, 1987 [r]

April 4, 1988
(impeached and removed) [t]
Republican 1986
18 Rose Mofford 2012.jpg Rose Mofford April 4, 1988

March 6, 1991 [u]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic Succeeded from
Secretary of State
19 Fife Symington by Gage Skidmore.jpg Fife Symington March 6, 1991 [u]

September 5, 1997
(resigned) [v]
Republican 1990–1991 [u]
1994
20 Jane Dee Hull 2001 cropped.jpg Jane Dee Hull September 5, 1997

January 6, 2003
(term limited)
Republican Succeeded from
Secretary of State
1998
21 Portrait Napolitano hires crop.JPG Janet Napolitano January 6, 2003

January 21, 2009
(resigned) [w]
Democratic 2002
2006
22 Jan Brewer by Gage Skidmore 5.jpg Jan Brewer January 21, 2009

January 5, 2015
(term limited) [77]
Republican Succeeded from
Secretary of State
2010
23 Doug Ducey by Gage Skidmore 10.jpg Doug Ducey January 5, 2015

present [x]
Republican 2014
2018

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The range given is from the date the governor took the oath of office in Arizona, to the date the governor left office. Due to the distance from Washington, D.C., to Arizona, many governors were appointed and confirmed months before being able to exercise power in the territory.
  2. ^ Gurley died on August 19, 1863, prior to taking office as governor.
  3. ^ a b Resigned to take an elected seat as delegate to the United States House of Representatives.
  4. ^ It is unknown when Frémont took the oath of office; Goff states that he and his family arrived in Prescott on the afternoon of October 6, 1878.
  5. ^ Resigned; Frémont spent little time in the territory; and the Secretary of the Territory asked him to resume his duties or resign, and he chose resignation. [23]
  6. ^ Resigned after Grover Cleveland was elected, so that the Democrat could appoint a Democrat as governor. [25]
  7. ^ Resigned due to a disagreement with the federal government on arid land policy. [29]
  8. ^ Resigned to handle family business out of state. [32]
  9. ^ Hughes had abolished many territorial offices, and unhappy officials successfully petitioned President Cleveland to remove him. [37]
  10. ^ Resigned to serve in the Spanish–American War. [43]
  11. ^ Asked by President Theodore Roosevelt to resign for opposing the Newlands Reclamation Act. [47]
  12. ^ Resigned to accept appointment as assistant chief of the records and pension bureau at the United States Department of War. [50]
  13. ^ Data is sourced from the National Governors Association, unless supplemental references are required.
  14. ^ The governor's website labeled Doug Ducey as the 23rd governor; [60] based on this, each governor is numbered only once, regardless of how many distinct terms they served. Repeat terms are listed with the governor's original number in italics.
  15. ^ a b Initial results showed that Campbell had won by 30 votes, but Hunt challenged the results, claiming that several precincts had experienced fraudulent voting. [62] The Arizona Supreme Court named Campbell governor on January 27, 1917, and forced Hunt to surrender his office. [63] Hunt continued fighting in court, and on December 22, 1917, was declared the winner of the election by 43 votes. [64] Campbell vacated the office three days later. [65]
  16. ^ First term under a constitutional amendment which lengthened terms to four years. [55]
  17. ^ Castro resigned to take post as United States Ambassador to Argentina. [69]
  18. ^ a b While the constitutional date for when Mecham succeeded Babbitt is January 5, 1987, sources are split between saying the inauguration happened on January 5 [70] or January 6. [71]
  19. ^ The secretary of state at the time of Bolin's death had been appointed, [59] not elected, and thus not in the line of succession according to the Arizona constitution. [58] Therefore, state attorney general, Babbitt became governor. [72]
  20. ^ Mecham was impeached and removed from office on charges of obstruction of justice and misuse of government funds, [71] though he was later acquitted. [73]
  21. ^ a b c Arizona adopted runoff voting after Evan Mecham won with only 43% of the vote in 1986. The 1990 election was very close, and a runoff was held on February 26, 1991, which Symington won, and he was inaugurated on March 6, 1991. [76]
  22. ^ Symington resigned after being convicted of bank fraud; the conviction was later overturned and he was pardoned by President Bill Clinton. [74] [75]
  23. ^ Napolitano resigned to be United States Secretary of Homeland Security. [8]
  24. ^ Ducey's second term begins on January 7, 2019, and expires on January 2, 2023.

References

General
  • "Arizona: Past Governors Bios". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  • Goff, John S. (1978). Arizona Territorial Officials Volume II: The Governors 1863–1912. Black Mountain Press. OCLC  5100411.
  • McClintock, James H. (1916). Arizona, Prehistoric, Aboriginal, Pioneer, Modern: The Nation's Youngest Commonwealth Within a Land of Ancient Culture. The S.J. Clarke Publishing Co. OCLC  5398889. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  • Wagoner, Jay J. (1970). Arizona Territory 1863–1912: A Political History. University of Arizona Press. ISBN  0-8165-0176-9.
Constitution
Specific
  1. ^ "Arizona Constitution, article V, section 1 (version 1), part A". Arizona State Legislature. State of Arizona. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  2. ^ "Arizona Constitution, article V". Arizona State Legislature. State of Arizona. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  3. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c "Const. Arizona, article V, section 4". Arizona State Legislature. State of Arizona. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Const. Arizona, article V, section 7". Arizona State Legislature. State of Arizona. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  6. ^ "Const. Arizona, article V, section 5". Arizona State Legislature. State of Arizona. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Const. Arizona, article V, section 3". Arizona State Legislature. State of Arizona. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Janet Napolitano". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  9. ^ Robinson, William Morrison (1941). Justice in Grey: A History of the Judicial System of the Confederate States of America. Harvard University Press. p. 310. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  10. ^ McClintock pp. 142–143
  11. ^ Colton, Ray Charles (1985). The Civil War in the Western Territories. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN  0-8061-1902-0. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  12. ^ a b Colton, Ray Charles (1985). The Civil War in the Western Territories. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN  0-8061-1902-0. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  13. ^ Cowles, Calvin Duvall (1900). The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. United States Government Printing Office. p. 930. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  14. ^ Wellman, Paul Iselin (1987). Death in the Desert: The Fifty Years' War for the Great Southwest. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 83–85. ISBN  0-8032-9722-X. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  15. ^ Heidler, David Stephen; Jeanne t. Heidler; David J. Coles (2002). Encyclopedia Of The American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 1412. ISBN  0-393-04758-X. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  16. ^ Wagoner p. 20
  17. ^ McGinnis, Ralph Y.; Calvin N. Smith (1994). Abraham Lincoln and the Western Territories. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 91. ISBN  0-8304-1247-6.
  18. ^ Goff pp. 26–27
  19. ^ Nicolson, John (1974). The Arizona of Joseph Pratt Allyn. University of Arizona Press. p. 39. ISBN  0-8165-0386-9. Retrieved October 11, 2008. McCormick was appointed April 10 and took the oath of office July 9, 1866.
  20. ^ Goff p. 55
  21. ^ Goff p. 66
  22. ^ Goff pp. 76–77
  23. ^ a b c Walker, Dale L. (1997). Rough Rider: Buckey O'Neill of Arizona. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN  0-8032-9796-3. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  24. ^ Goff p. 88
  25. ^ a b Wagoner p. 221
  26. ^ Goff pp. 98–99
  27. ^ Goff p. 112
  28. ^ Walker, Dale L. (1997). Rough Rider: Buckey O'Neill of Arizona. University of Nebraska Press. p. 81. ISBN  0-8032-9796-3. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  29. ^ Wagoner p. 276
  30. ^ Goff pp. 118–119
  31. ^ "Arizona". Appletons' Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events. New. series, Volume 17 (1892 ed.). 1893. p. 16. Retrieved October 10, 2008.
  32. ^ Goff p. 127
  33. ^ A Biographical Congressional Directory, 1774 to 1903. United States Government Printing Office. 1903. p. 711. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  34. ^ Goff p. 129
  35. ^ Goff p. 146
  36. ^ Lincoln Library, Carl Sandburg Collections (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library) (1897). "Arizona". Appletons' Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events. 3rd. series, Volume 1 (1896 ed.). p. 26. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  37. ^ Johnson, Rossiter; John Howard Brown (1904). The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans. The Biographical Society. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  38. ^ Goff pp. 154–155
  39. ^ "Franklin, Benjamin Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  40. ^ McClintock p. 345
  41. ^ Goff p. 167
  42. ^ Wagoner p. 345
  43. ^ Roth, Mitchel P.; James Stuart Olson (2001). Historical Dictionary of Law Enforcement. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 207. ISBN  0-313-30560-9. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  44. ^ McClintock p. 346
  45. ^ Goff p. 132
  46. ^ "Resignation of Arizona's Governor". The New York Times. April 30, 1902. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  47. ^ Goff p. 136
  48. ^ Goff p. 178
  49. ^ Herner, Charles (1970). The Arizona Rough Riders. University of Arizona Press. p. 221. ISBN  0-8165-0206-4. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  50. ^ a b c McClintock p. 354
  51. ^ Goff p. 189
  52. ^ McClintock p. 359
  53. ^ Goff p. 199
  54. ^ a b c AZ Const. art 5, § 1
  55. ^ a b Ralph E. Hughes v. Douglas K. Martin Archived 2008-10-14 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF), (Arizona Supreme Court 2002-08-20). “Nelson involved two allegedly conflicting amendments both approved by voters in the 1968 election, to Article 5 of the Arizona Constitution. ... The other amendment, proposition 104, extended the term of offices of the executive department, including the office of state auditor, from two years to four years.”
  56. ^ Berman, David R. (1998). Arizona Politics & Government: The Quest for Autonomy, Democracy, and Development. University of Nebraska Press. p. 112. ISBN  0-8032-6146-2. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  57. ^ AZ Const. art. 5, old § 1
  58. ^ a b c "Const. Arizona, article V, section 6". Arizona State Legislature. State of Arizona. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  59. ^ a b "Rose Mofford". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  60. ^ "Meet Governor Ducey". State of Arizona. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  61. ^ Sexton, Connie Cone (May 15, 2015). "Keeping track: Republic chronicles decades of state's rich history". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  62. ^ "Gov. Hunt Refuses to Yield Office". New York Times. January 2, 1917. p. 4.
  63. ^ "Gov. Hunt Put Out of Office by Court". New York Times. January 28, 1917. p. 14.
  64. ^ "Court Declares Hunt Governor of Arizona". New York Times. December 23, 1917. p. 5.
  65. ^ "George Wylie Hunt". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  66. ^ "Thomas E. Campbell, Governor of Arizona". University of Arizona. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  67. ^ "G.W.P. Hunt Papers". Arizona State University. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  68. ^ "Sam Goddard, 86, an Arizona Governor, Dies". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 3, 2006. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  69. ^ "Raul H. Castro". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  70. ^ "Arizona's embattled Gov. Evan Mecham". United Press International. January 10, 1988. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  71. ^ a b "Evan Mecham". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  72. ^ "Bruce Edward Babbitt". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  73. ^ Sullivan, Patricia (February 23, 2008). "Evan Mecham, 83; Was Removed as Arizona Governor". Washington Post. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  74. ^ "J. Fife Symington". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  75. ^ Todd S., Purdum (1997-09-04). "Arizona Governor Convicted Of Fraud and Will Step Down". The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  76. ^ Mullaney, Marie Marmo (1994). Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1988–1994. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 29–30. ISBN  0-313-28312-5. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  77. ^ "Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer won't seek another term in office". AZ Central. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.

External links