List of Governors of Alabama Article

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Governor of Alabama
Seal of the Governor of Alabama.svg
Seal of the Governor
Flag of the Governor of Alabama.svg
Standard of the Governor
Portrait-Governor-Kay-Ivey.jpg
Incumbent
Kay Ivey

since April 10, 2017
Style
Status
Residence Alabama Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
PrecursorGovernor of Alabama Territory
Inaugural holder William Wyatt Bibb
FormationDecember 14, 1819
(198 years ago)
 (1819-12-14)
Deputy Lieutenant Governor of Alabama
Salary$119,950 (2013) [1]
Website http://www.governor.state.al.us

The Governor of Alabama is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Alabama. The governor is the head of the executive branch of Alabama's state government and is charged with enforcing state laws.

There have officially been 54 governors of the state of Alabama; this official numbering skips acting and military governors. [2] The first governor, William Wyatt Bibb, served as the only governor of the Alabama Territory. Five people have served as acting governor, bringing the total number of people serving as governor to 59, spread over 63 distinct terms. Four governors have served multiple non-consecutive terms: Bibb Graves, Jim Folsom, and Fob James each served two, and George Wallace served three non-consecutive periods. Officially, these non-consecutive terms are numbered only with the number of their first term. William D. Jelks also served non-consecutive terms, but his first term was in an acting capacity.

The longest-serving governor was George Wallace, who served 16 years over four terms. The shortest term for a non-acting governor was that of Hugh McVay, who served four and a half months after replacing the resigning Clement Comer Clay. Lurleen Wallace, wife of George Wallace, was the first woman to serve as governor of Alabama, and the third woman to serve as governor of any state. The current governor is Republican Kay Ivey, who took office on April 10, 2017 following Governor Robert J. Bentley's court-mandated resignation following a guilty plea-deal amidst a corruption scandal. She is the second female governor of Alabama.

Governors

Governor of the Territory of Alabama

Alabama Territory was formed on March 3, 1817, from Mississippi Territory. It had only one governor appointed by the President of the United States before it became a state; he became the first state governor.

Governor of the Territory of Alabama
Governor Term in office Appointed by
William Wyatt Bibb.jpg William Wyatt Bibb March 6, 1817 [a]

November 9, 1819 [b]
James Monroe

Governors of the State of Alabama

Seal for use by the Governor-Elect
Governor's Flag 1868–1939

Alabama was admitted to the Union on December 14, 1819. It seceded from the Union on January 11, 1861, and was a founding member of the Confederate States of America on February 4, 1861. Following the end of the American Civil War, Alabama during Reconstruction was part of the Third Military District, which exerted some control over governor appointments and elections. Alabama was readmitted to the Union on July 14, 1868.

The first Alabama Constitution, ratified in 1819, provided that a governor be elected every two years, limited to serve no more than four out of every six years. [4] This limit remained in place until the constitution of 1868, which simply allowed governors to serve terms of two years. [5] The current constitution of 1901 increased terms to four years, [6] but prohibited governors from succeeding themselves. [7] Amendment 282 to the constitution, passed in 1968, allowed governors to succeed themselves once; a governor serving two consecutive terms can run again after waiting out the next term. [8] The constitution had no set date for the commencement of a governor's term until 1901, when it was set at the first Monday after the second Tuesday in the January following an election. [7] However, the Alabama Supreme Court ruled in 1911 that a governor's term ends at midnight at the end of Monday, and the next governor's term begins the next day, regardless of if they were sworn in on Monday. [9]

The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1868, [10] abolished in 1875, [11] and recreated in 1901. [12] According to the current constitution, should the governor be out of the state for more than 20 days, the lieutenant governor becomes acting governor, and if the office of governor becomes vacant the lieutenant governor ascends to the governorship. [13] Earlier constitutions said the powers of the governor devolved upon the successor, rather than them necessarily becoming governor, [14] but the official listing includes these as full governors. [2] The governor and lieutenant governor are not elected on the same ticket.

Alabama was a strongly Democratic state before the Civil War, electing only candidates from the Democratic-Republican and Democratic parties. It had two Republican governors following Reconstruction, but after the Democratic Party re-established control, 112 years passed before voters chose another Republican.

Governors of the State of Alabama [c]
No. [d] Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor [e] [f]
1 William Wyatt Bibb.jpg   William Wyatt Bibb November 9, 1819 [b]

July 10, 1820 [g]
(died in office)
Democratic-
Republican
1819 Office did not exist
2 Governor Thomas Bibb.jpg Thomas Bibb July 10, 1820 [g]

November 9, 1821 [2]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
3 Pickensisrael.jpg Israel Pickens November 9, 1821 [2]

November 25, 1825
(term limited)
Democratic-
Republican
1821
1823
4 John murphy.jpg John Murphy November 25, 1825

November 25, 1829
(term limited)
Jackson
Democrat
1825
1827
5 Gabrielmoore.jpg Gabriel Moore November 25, 1829

March 3, 1831
(resigned) [h]
Jackson
Democrat
1829
6 Samuel B. Moore March 3, 1831

November 26, 1831
(lost election) [17]
Democratic Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
7 JohnGayle.jpg John Gayle November 26, 1831

November 21, 1835
(term limited)
Democratic 1831
1833
8 Clement Comer Clay.jpg Clement Comer Clay November 21, 1835

July 17, 1837 [i]
(resigned) [j]
Democratic 1835
9 Hugh McVay.jpg Hugh McVay July 17, 1837 [i]

November 21, 1837 [k]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
10 Arthur bagby.jpg Arthur P. Bagby November 21, 1837 [k]

November 22, 1841
(term limited)
Democratic 1837
1839
11 Hon. Benjamin Fitzpatrick, Ala - NARA - 528657.jpg Benjamin Fitzpatrick November 22, 1841

December 10, 1845
(term limited)
Democratic 1841
1843
12 Gov. Joshua L. Martin.jpg Joshua L. Martin December 10, 1845

December 16, 1847
(not candidate for election)
Independent [l] 1845
13 Governor Reuben Chapman.jpg Reuben Chapman December 16, 1847

December 17, 1849
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1847
14 Governor Henry Watkins Collier.jpg Henry W. Collier December 17, 1849

December 20, 1853
(term limited)
Democratic 1849
1851
15 John A. Winston.jpg John A. Winston December 20, 1853

December 1, 1857
(term limited)
Democratic 1853
1855
16 Andrew B. Moore.jpg Andrew B. Moore December 1, 1857

December 2, 1861
(term limited)
Democratic 1857
1859
17 John Gill Shorter.jpg John Gill Shorter December 2, 1861

December 1, 1863
(lost election) [24]
Democratic 1861
18 Thomas Hill Watts 1860s.jpg Thomas H. Watts December 1, 1863

May 1, 1865 [25]
(arrested and removed) [m]
Whig [n] 1863
Vacant May 1, 1865

June 21, 1865
Office vacated
after civil war
19 Lewis E. Parsons - Brady-Handy.jpg Lewis E. Parsons June 21, 1865 [29]

December 13, 1865
(provisional term ended) [29]
[o] Provisional
governor
appointed by
President
[p]
20 Robert patton.jpg Robert M. Patton December 13, 1865

July 14, 1868 [q]
(not candidate for election)
Pre-War Whig [r] 1865
WSwayne.jpg Wager Swayne March 2, 1867 [s]

January 11, 1868 [t]

(removed) [33]
Military
occupation [u]
21 William Hugh Smith.jpg William Hugh Smith July 14, 1868 [q]

November 26, 1870 [v]
(lost election) [34]
Republican 1868
  Andrew J. Applegate
(took office August 13, 1868)
(died August 21, 1870)
[35]
Vacant
22 Robert B. Lindsay.jpg Robert B. Lindsay November 26, 1870

November 17, 1872
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1870 [v] Edward H. Moren
23 David P. Lewis.jpg David P. Lewis November 17, 1872

November 24, 1874
(lost election) [37]
Republican 1872 Alexander McKinstry
24 George S. Houston - Brady-Handy.jpg George S. Houston November 24, 1874

November 28, 1878
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1874 Robert F. Ligon
1876 Office did not exist
25 Rufus W. Cobb.jpg Rufus W. Cobb November 28, 1878

December 1, 1882
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1878
1880
26 Edward A. O'Neal.jpg Edward A. O'Neal December 1, 1882

December 1, 1886
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1882
1884
27 GOVTHOMASSEAY.JPG Thomas Seay December 1, 1886

December 1, 1890
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1886
1888
28 Thomas Goode Jones.jpg Thomas G. Jones December 1, 1890

December 1, 1894
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1890
1892
29 Governor William Calvin Oates.jpg William C. Oates December 1, 1894

December 1, 1896
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1894
30 Joseph F Johnston-photo portrait.jpg Joseph F. Johnston December 1, 1896

December 1, 1900
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1896
1898
William D. Jelks.jpg William D. Jelks December 1, 1900

December 26, 1900

(acting)
Democratic 1900 [w]
31 William J. Samford.jpg William J. Samford December 1, 1900

June 11, 1901
(died in office)
Democratic
32 William D. Jelks.jpg William D. Jelks June 11, 1901

January 14, 1907
(term limited)
Democratic Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
1902 [x] [y] Russell McWhortor Cunningham
(acted as governor
April 25, 1904–March 5, 1905)
[39]
33 Braxton Bragg Comer.jpg B. B. Comer January 14, 1907 [z]

January 16, 1911
(term limited)
Democratic 1906 Henry B. Gray
34 Emmet O'Neal cropped.jpg Emmet O'Neal January 17, 1911 [z]

January 18, 1915 [z]
(term limited)
Democratic 1910 Walter D. Seed Sr.
35 Governor Charles Henderson.jpg Charles Henderson January 19, 1915 [z]

January 20, 1919
(term limited)
Democratic 1914 Thomas Kilby
36 Thomas Kilby.jpg Thomas Kilby January 21, 1919 [z]

January 15, 1923
(term limited)
Democratic 1918 Nathan Lee Miller
37 Governor William W. Brandon.jpg William W. Brandon January 16, 1923 [z]

January 17, 1927
(term limited)
Democratic 1922
[aa]
Charles S. McDowell
(acted as governor
July 10, 1924–July 11, 1924)
38 Bibb Graves.jpg Bibb Graves January 18, 1927 [z]

January 19, 1931
(term limited)
Democratic 1926 William C. Davis
39 Benjamin Meek Miller (Alabama Governor).jpg Benjamin M. Miller January 20, 1931 [z]

January 14, 1935
(term limited)
Democratic 1930 Hugh Davis Merrill
38 Bibb Graves.jpg Bibb Graves January 15, 1935 [z]

January 16, 1939
(term limited)
Democratic 1934 Thomas E. Knight
(died May 17, 1937) [41]
Vacant
40 Frank M. Dixon 1942 Auburn-3 (cropped).jpg Frank M. Dixon January 17, 1939 [z]

January 18, 1943
(term limited)
Democratic 1938 Albert A. Carmichael
41 Chauncey Sparks.jpg Chauncey Sparks January 19, 1943 [z]

January 20, 1947
(term limited)
Democratic 1942 Leven H. Ellis
42 Jim Folsom.jpg Jim Folsom January 21, 1947 [z]

January 15, 1951
(term limited)
Democratic 1946 James C. Inzer
43 Gordon Persons.jpg Gordon Persons January 16, 1951 [z]

January 17, 1955
(term limited)
Democratic 1950 James Allen
42 Jim Folsom.jpg Jim Folsom January 18, 1955 [z]

January 19, 1959
(term limited)
Democratic 1954 William G. Hardwick
44 John Malcolm Patterson.jpg John Malcolm Patterson January 20, 1959 [z]

January 14, 1963
(term limited)
Democratic 1958 Albert Boutwell
45 George C Wallace.jpg George Wallace January 15, 1963 [z]

January 16, 1967
(term limited)
Democratic 1962 James Allen
46 Lurleen Wallace.jpg Lurleen Wallace January 17, 1967 [z]

May 7, 1968
(died in office)
Democratic 1966
[ab]
Albert Brewer
(acted as governor
July 25, 1967)
47 Governor Albert Brewer 1970.jpg Albert Brewer May 7, 1968

January 18, 1971
(not candidate for election)
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
45 George C Wallace.jpg George Wallace January 19, 1971 [z]

January 15, 1979
(term limited)
Democratic 1970
[ac]
Jere Beasley
(acted as governor
June 5, 1972–July 7, 1972)
1974
48 Reagan Contact Sheet C1331 (cropped2) (cropped).jpg Fob James January 16, 1979 [z]

January 17, 1983
(lost election) [43]
Democratic 1978 George McMillan
45 George C Wallace.jpg George Wallace January 18, 1983 [z]

January 19, 1987
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1982 Bill Baxley
49 HGuyHunt.JPG H. Guy Hunt January 20, 1987 [z]

April 22, 1993
(resigned) [ad]
Republican 1986 Jim Folsom Jr. [ae]
1990
50 Jim Folsom Jr..jpg Jim Folsom Jr. April 22, 1993

January 16, 1995
(lost election) [45]
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
48 Reagan Contact Sheet C1331 (cropped2) (cropped).jpg Fob James January 17, 1995 [z]

January 18, 1999
(lost election) [46]
Republican 1994 Don Siegelman [ae]
51 Don Siegelman at Netroots Nation 2008 (cropped).jpg Don Siegelman January 19, 1999 [z]

January 20, 2003
(lost election) [46]
Democratic 1998 Steve Windom [af]
52 Governor Bob Riley (cropped).jpg Bob Riley January 21, 2003 [z]

January 17, 2011
(term limited)
Republican 2002 Lucy Baxley [ae]
2006 Jim Folsom Jr. [ae]
53 Robert Bentley.jpg Robert J. Bentley January 18, 2011 [z]

April 10, 2017 [47]
(resigned) [ag]
Republican 2010 Kay Ivey
2014
54 Portrait-Governor-Kay-Ivey.jpg Kay Ivey April 10, 2017 [47]

present [ah]
Republican Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
2018 Will Ainsworth
(takes office January 15, 2019)

Notes

  1. ^ Records are scarce as to when Bibb was actually appointed. The territory was formed on March 3, 1817, but he was appointed by President James Monroe, who did not take office until the next day. Other resources indicate that other major appointments for the territory were made on March 6, 1817. [3]
  2. ^ a b Bibb was inaugurated on November 9, even though Alabama did not formally become a state until December 14. [2]
  3. ^ Data is sourced from the Alabama Department of Archives and History and National Governors Association, unless the sources disagree or supplemental references are required.
  4. ^ Repeat governors are officially numbered only once; [2] subsequent terms are marked with their original number italicized.
  5. ^ The office of Lieutenant Governor was created in the 1868 constitution, [10] abolished in the 1875 Constitution, [11] and recreated in the 1901 Constitution. [12]
  6. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  7. ^ a b Sources are evenly split on if William Wyatt Bibb died on July 9 or 10; the Alabama Department of Archives and History says July 10. However, multiple sources state that Thomas Bibb did not take office until either July 15 [15] or July 25. [2] It is unknown if this was the formal inauguration, or if a vacancy existed in the office; it is assumed that succession was automatic, as per the constitution, and that Thomas Bibb's term began on July 10.
  8. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate. [16]
  9. ^ a b Sources disagree on the exact date; with the Alabama Department of Archives and History and National Governors Association mentioning both July 16 and July 17, though July 17 is used more prominently. Further confusing matters, the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress says that Clay's term in the United States Senate began on June 19. [18]
  10. ^ Clay resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate. [19]
  11. ^ a b Sources are evenly split on when Bagby succeeded McVay, with some saying November 21, 22, or 30. [20] [21] However, contemporary news places the inauguration on November 21. [22]
  12. ^ Martin was a Democrat who opposed party leaders and ran as an independent. [23]
  13. ^ Watts was arrested by Union forces soon after the American Civil War ended; he was released a few weeks later. [26] [25]
  14. ^ Sources disagree on Watts' party; the Alabama Department of Archives and History says Democratic, [2] but most others say Whig. [26] [27] [28]
  15. ^ Parsons was appointed and therefore did not run for office under a party; he was a member of the Democratic Party. [30]
  16. ^ Parsons was appointed provisional governor by the Union occupation. [30]
  17. ^ a b Some sources say Patton left office on July 24, after Smith was sworn in on July 14; [31] [2] it is unknown what would cause this discrepancy.
  18. ^ Patton later switched to the Republican Party, but ran as a Whig. [31]
  19. ^ The date given for Swayne is the date of the first Reconstruction Act, which placed Alabama into the Third Military District; all references only say "March 1867" [31] and "when the Reconstruction Acts were passed". [32]
  20. ^ In December 1867, President Andrew Johnson ordered the removal of Major General Swayne, and he was replaced on January 11, 1868, by Major General Julius Hayden. [33]
  21. ^ The United States Congress stripped Robert M. Patton of most of his authority in March 1867, after which time the state was effectively under the control of Major General Wager Swayne. [31]
  22. ^ a b Robert B. Lindsay was sworn into office on November 26, 1870, but William Hugh Smith refused to leave his seat for two weeks, claiming Lindsay was fraudulently elected; he finally left office on December 8, 1870, when a court so ordered. [36]
  23. ^ At the start of Samford's term, he was out of state seeking medical treatment; as president of the senate, Jelks acted as governor in his absence. Samford later died in office, and Jelks succeeded him. [38]
  24. ^ First term under the 1901 constitution, which lengthened terms to four years. [6]
  25. ^ Jelks was out of state for medical treatment for nearly a year; as lieutenant governor, Cunningham acted as governor in his absence. [39]
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y The constitutional start date for 1911 was January 16. However, the Alabama Supreme Court ruled in the case of Oberhaus v. State ex rel. McNamara that, regardless of when the swearing in took place, Comer's term did not end until the end of Monday, and O'Neal's term did not begin until the first minute of the next day. [9] This precedent appears to have quietly continued, as contemporary news coverage of Robert J. Bentley's inauguration noted he would not officially take office until midnight. [40] Therefore, governors since 1911 that served to the end of their term are noted as leaving office on Monday, and their successor taking office on Tuesday. It is assumed this did not apply ex post facto to terms between when the constitutional date was established in 1901, and the court ruling in 1911.
  27. ^ Brandon was out of state for 21 days as a delegate to the 1924 Democratic National Convention; as lieutenant governor, McDowell acted as governor for two days. [2]
  28. ^ Wallace was out of state for 20 days for medical treatment; as lieutenant governor, Brewer became acting governor on July 25, 1967; Wallace returned to the state later that day. [2] [42]
  29. ^ Wallace was out of state for 52 days for medical treatment following an assassination attempt while campaigning for President of the United States; as lieutenant governor, Beasley acted as governor for 32 days. [2]
  30. ^ Hunt was forced to resign upon being convicted of illegally using campaign and inaugural funds to pay personal debts; he was later pardoned by the state parole board. [44]
  31. ^ a b c d Represented the Democratic Party.
  32. ^ Represented the Republican Party.
  33. ^ Bentley resigned from office as part of a plea deal involving campaign violations. [48]
  34. ^ Ivey's first full term begins on January 15, 2019, and expires on January 16, 2023.

References

General
  • "Alabama Governors". Alabama Department of Archives & History. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
  • "Alabama: Past Governors Bios". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Alabama Governors". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
  3. ^ Shearer, Benjamin. The Uniting States – The Story of Statehood for the Fifty United States, Volume 1: Alabama to Kentucky. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 41. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
  4. ^ 1819 Const. art. IV, § 4
  5. ^ 1868 Const. art. V, § 2
  6. ^ a b AL Const. art. V, § 114
  7. ^ a b AL Const. art. V, § 116
  8. ^ AL Const. amendment 282
  9. ^ a b Oberhaus v. State ex rel. McNamara, [ https://books.google.com/books?id=pVotAQAAMAAJ pp. 483–499
  10. ^ a b 1868 Const. art. V, § 1
  11. ^ a b 1875 Const. art. V, § 1
  12. ^ a b AL Const. art. V, § 112
  13. ^ AL Const. art. V, § 127
  14. ^ 1819 Const. art. IV, § 18; 1861 Const. art. IV, § 18; 1865 Const. art V, § 19; 1868 Const. art. V, § 15; 1875 Const. art. V § 15
  15. ^ "Thomas Bibb". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  16. ^ "Gabriel Moore". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  17. ^ "Samuel B. Moore". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  18. ^ United States Congress. "CLAY, Clement Comer (id: C000481)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  19. ^ "Clement Comer Clay". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  20. ^ Webb, Samuel; Armbrester, Margaret (2014). Alabama Governors: A Political History of the State. University of Alabama Press. p. 47. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  21. ^ Du Bose, Jose Campbell (1915). Alabama History. B. F. Johnson Publishing Company. p. 357. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  22. ^ "Inauguration". Voice of Sumter. Livingston, Alabama. November 28, 1837. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  23. ^ "Joshua Lanier Martin". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  24. ^ "John Gill Shorter". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  25. ^ a b "Thomas Hill Watts". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  26. ^ a b "Thomas Hill Watts". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  27. ^ Thornton, J. Mills (2014). Politics and Power in a Slave Society: Alabama, 1800–1860. LSU Press. pp. 440&ndash, 441. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  28. ^ Alexander, Thomas (August 1961). "Persistent Whiggery in the Confederate South, 1860-1877". The Journal of Southern History. 27 (3): 305&ndash, 329. JSTOR  2205211.
  29. ^ a b "Lewis Eliphalet Parsons". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  30. ^ a b "Lewis Eliphalet Parsons". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  31. ^ a b c d "Robert Miller Patton". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  32. ^ "Robert Miller Patton". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  33. ^ a b "Wager T. Swayne". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  34. ^ "William Hugh Smith". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  35. ^ "Andrew J. Applegate". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  36. ^ White, James Terry (1900). The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. James T. White & Company. p. 435. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  37. ^ "David Peter Lewis". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  38. ^ "William Dorsey Jelks". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  39. ^ a b "Russell Cunningham". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  40. ^ White, David (January 17, 2011). "Robert Bentley ready to take office as next Alabama governor". The Birmingham News. Retrieved December 10, 2018. Bentley under state law won't officially be governor until just after the stroke of midnight Tuesday morning.
  41. ^ "Thomas E. Knight, Jr". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  42. ^ Owen, Thomas McAdory (1979). Alabama Official and Statistical Register. Alabama Department of Archives & History. p. 17. Retrieved September 28, 2008.
  43. ^ "Forrest Hood James". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  44. ^ Nossiter, Adam (12 June 1997). "Ex-Gov. Hunt of Alabama Cleared by Pardon Board". The New York Times. p. 18. Retrieved September 28, 2008.
  45. ^ "James Elisha Folsom, Jr". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  46. ^ a b "Don Siegelman (1999-2003)". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  47. ^ a b "Robert J. Bentley". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  48. ^ Blinder, Alan (10 April 2017). "Robert Bentley, Alabama Governor, Resigns Amid Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2017.

External links